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Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc
Ages 7 through 12 Months. With the introduction of complementary foods, it has been estimated that the average consumption of manganese by 6- and 12-month-old infants is 71 and 80 μg/kg, respectively (Gibson and De Wolfe, 1980). Based on reference weights of 7 and 9 kg for these two ages, the total manganese intake would be 500 and 720 μg/day.
Using the reference body weight method described in Chapter 2 to extrapolate from adults, the average intake is 567 μg/day. Based on these two approaches, the AI is set at 600 μg/day for older infants. The AI for older infants is markedly greater than the AI for younger infants because the concentration of manganese is higher in foods than in human milk.
Manganese AI Summary, Ages 0 through 12 Months
AI for Infants
0.003 mg/day (3 μg/day) of manganese
0.6 mg/day of manganese
The manganese concentration in cow milk has been reported to range from 20 to 50 μg/L (Lonnerdal et al., 1981), which is significantly greater than the concentration in human milk (Table 10-2). Manganese is partly present in the fat globule membrane in cow milk (Murthy, 1974). Davidsson and coworkers (1989a) reported that the fractional manganese absorption from human milk (8.2 percent) was higher than from soy formula (0.7 percent) and whey-preponderant cow’s milk formula (3.1 percent).
Children and Adolescents Ages 1 through 18 Years
Method Used to Set the Adequate Intake
Ages 1 through 3 Years. There are insufficient data to set an Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) for manganese for children ages 1 through 3 years. Therefore, median intake data were used to set the AI. Data from the Food and Drug Administration Total Diet Study indicate a median intake of 1.22 mg/day of manganese for children aged 1 through 3 years (Appendix Table E-6).
Ages 4 through 13 Years. There have been a few manganese balance studies with children and all are subject to the caveats previously