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TABLE 12-7 Effect of Increasing Doses of Zinc (Zn) Intake on Copper (Cu) Status



Zinc Intake (mg/d)

Prasad et al., 1978

1 black man, 26 y w/sickle cell anemia


Greger et al., 1978

14 girls, 12–14 y

7.4 (food)

13.4 (food)

Burke et al., 1981

5 men, 6 women, 56–83 y

7.8 (fortified food)

23.26 (fortified food)

Fischer et al., 1984

26 healthy adult men


50 (as gluconate)

Festa et al., 1985

9 healthy men, 21–27 y

1.8 (food)

4.0 (food)

6.0 (food)

8.0 (food)

18.5 (food)

Samman and Roberts, 1988

Healthy men and women

150 (as sulfate)

Yadrick et al., 1989

18 healthy women, 25–40 y

50 (as gluconate)

Boukaiba et al., 1993c

44 older adults, 73–106 y

Placebo 20

a The authors note it was not possible to separate the effects of sickle cell disease and copper depletion.

b Copper status was assessed by the activities of the copper-metalloenzymes, plasma ferroxidase (ceruloplasmin), and erythrocyte Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase. No significant differences in the plasma copper levels or the ferroxidase activities between the supplemented and control groups could be detected at 2, 4, or 6 weeks. ESOD = erythrocyte copper-zinc superoxide dismutase.

of copper status (such as ceruloplasmin or serum copper concentration) were considered optimal for the dose-response assessment.

Identification of a No-Observed-Adverse-Effect Level (NOAEL) and Lowest-Observed-Adverse-Effect Level (LOAEL). A LOAEL of 60 mg/day is based on the study of Yadrick and coworkers (1989) who evaluated copper status after supplemental intake of 50 mg/day as zinc glu-

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