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UL for Children

1–3 years

0.2 mg/day of soluble nickel salts

4–8 years

0.3 mg/day of soluble nickel salts

9–13 years

0.6 mg/day of soluble nickel salts

UL for Adolescents

14–18 years

1.0 mg/day of soluble nickel salts

UL for Pregnancy

14–18 years

1.0 mg/day of soluble nickel salts

19–50 years

1.0 mg/day of soluble nickel salts

UL for Lactation

14–18 years

1.0 mg/day of soluble nickel salts

19–50 years

1.0 mg/day of soluble nickel salts

Special Considerations

Individuals with preexisting nickel hypersensitivity (from previous dermal exposure) and kidney dysfunction are distinctly susceptible to the adverse effects of excess nickel intake (Gawkrodger et al., 1986). These individuals may not be protected by the UL for nickel intake for the general population.

Intake Assessment

Based on the Food and Drug Administration Total Diet Study (Appendix Table E-7), 0.5 mg/day was the highest intake at the ninety-ninth percentile of nickel from food reported for any life stage and gender group; this was the reported intake for pregnant females. Nickel intake from supplements provided only 9.6 to 15 μg/day at the ninety-ninth percentile for all age and gender groups (Appendix Table C-22).

Risk Characterization

The risk of adverse effects resulting from excess intakes of nickel from food and supplements appears to be very low at the highest intakes noted above. Increased risks are likely to occur from environmental exposures or from the consumption of contaminated water.



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