Cover Image


View/Hide Left Panel

adults, by age, taking at least one of the micronutrients reviewed in this report.

Food Sources

For some nutrients, two types of information are provided about food sources: identification of the foods that are the major contributors of the nutrients to diets in the United States and the foods that contain the highest amounts of the nutrient. The determination of foods that are major contributors depends on both nutrient content of a food and the total consumption of the food (amount and frequency). Therefore, a food that has a relatively low concentration of the nutrient might still be a large contributor to total intake if that food is consumed in relatively large amounts.


General methods for examining and interpreting the evidence on requirements for nutrients are presented in this chapter, with special attention given to infants, children, and pregnant and lactating women, methodological problems, and dietary intake data. Relevant detail is provided in the nutrient chapters.


AAP (American Academy of Pediatrics). 1997. Breastfeeding and the use of human milk. Pediatrics 100:1035–1039.

Butte NF, Garza C, Smith EO, Nichols BL. 1984. Human milk intake and growth in exclusively breast-fed infants. J Pediatr 104:187–195.

Carmichael S, Abrams B, Selvin S. 1997. The pattern of maternal weight gain in women with good pregnancy outcomes. Am J Public Health 87:1984–1988.

Chandra RK. 1984. Physical growth of exclusively breast-fed infants. Nutr Res 2:275–276.

FAO/WHO/UNA (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations/ World Health Organization/United Nations). 1985. Energy and Protein Requirements Report of a Joint FAO/WHO/UNA Expert Consultation. Technical Report Series, No. 724. Geneva: WHO.

Feinleib M, Rifkind B, Sempos C, Johnson C, Bachorik P, Lippel K, Carroll M, Ingster-Moore L, Murphy R. 1993. Methodological issues in the measurement of cardiovascular risk factors: Within-person variability in selected serum lipid measures—Results from the Third National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHANES III). Can J Cardiol 9:87D–88D.

Health Canada. 1990. Nutrition Recommendations. The Report of the Scientific Review Committee 1990. Ottawa: Canadian Government Publishing Centre.

The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001

Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement