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C
Dietary Intake Datafrom the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), 1988–1994

TABLE C-1 Mean and Percentiles for One-Day Intake of α-Carotene (μg/day) from Food, NHANES III (1988–1994)

Sex/Age Categorya

Number of Persons Examined

Mean

Percentile

5th

10th

Both sexes, 2 to 6 mo

793

359

0

0

Both sexes, 7 to 12 mo

827

589

0

1

Both sexes, 1 to 3 y

3,309

221

1

2

Both sexes, 4 to 8 y

3,448

207

1

3

M 9 to 13 y

1,219

343

1

3

M 14 to 18 y

909

239

0

<1

M 19 to 30 y

1,902

425

<1

2

M 31 to 50 y

2,533

457

<1

2

M 51 to 70 y

1,942

582

<1

2

M 71+ y

1,255

535

<1

3

F 9 to 13 y

1,216

307

1

1

F 14 to 18 y

949

203

0

1

F 19 to 30 y

1,901

246

<1

1

F 31 to 50 y

2,939

468

<1

2

F 51 to 70 y

2,065

592

1

3

F 71+ y

1,368

588

1

4

F Pregnant

346

376

1

3

F Lactating

99

417

1

2

All Individuals

28,575

407

<1

2

All Indiv (+P/L)

29,015

406

<1

2



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Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc C Dietary Intake Datafrom the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), 1988–1994 TABLE C-1 Mean and Percentiles for One-Day Intake of α-Carotene (μg/day) from Food, NHANES III (1988–1994) Sex/Age Categorya Number of Persons Examined Mean Percentile 5th 10th Both sexes, 2 to 6 mo 793 359 0 0 Both sexes, 7 to 12 mo 827 589 0 1 Both sexes, 1 to 3 y 3,309 221 1 2 Both sexes, 4 to 8 y 3,448 207 1 3 M 9 to 13 y 1,219 343 1 3 M 14 to 18 y 909 239 0 <1 M 19 to 30 y 1,902 425 <1 2 M 31 to 50 y 2,533 457 <1 2 M 51 to 70 y 1,942 582 <1 2 M 71+ y 1,255 535 <1 3 F 9 to 13 y 1,216 307 1 1 F 14 to 18 y 949 203 0 1 F 19 to 30 y 1,901 246 <1 1 F 31 to 50 y 2,939 468 <1 2 F 51 to 70 y 2,065 592 1 3 F 71+ y 1,368 588 1 4 F Pregnant 346 376 1 3 F Lactating 99 417 1 2 All Individuals 28,575 407 <1 2 All Indiv (+P/L) 29,015 406 <1 2

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Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc 25th 50th 75th 90th 95th 99th 0 3 210 1,107 2,066 3,894 6 91 638 1,596 3,194 5,417 6 17 56 655 1,376 3,443 9 22 58 366 1,190 3,443 8 25 68 291 1,202 5,846 8 29 76 257 1,638 4,476 9 39 128 1,386 2,355 7,207 10 51 191 1,457 2,464 6,620 13 58 308 2,028 3,174 6,053 13 51 262 1,681 3,135 5,758 7 19 60 400 1,719 5,171 4 21 58 295 1,348 2,927 7 29 97 567 1,327 3,718 10 44 208 1,460 2,712 6,960 15 59 354 1,823 3,240 7,427 14 58 488 2,250 3,266 4,966 9 41 166 1,175 1,836 6,735 10 43 111 483 2,132 6,735 9 36 144 1,184 2,416 5,689 9 36 144 1,184 2,389 5,689

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Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc Sex/Age Categorya Number of Persons Examined Mean Percentile 1st 5th NOTE: Data are limited to individuals who provided a complete and reliable 24-hour dietary recall on day 1. Estimates represent the unadjusted distribution of the intake reported per individual (the distribution of the data does not meet the assumptions of the Iowa State University method, i.e., the C-Side program). The mean and percentiles for all distributions were calculated using SAS PROC UNIVARIATE. All sample weights greater than 40,000 were truncated to 40,000 to reduce the influence of extreme intake patterns. Food composition data are from the NDS-R Food and Nutrient Database, Version 30, 1999, Nutrition Coordinating Center, University of Minnesota. Infants and children fed human milk and females who had “blank but applicable” pregnancy and lactating status data or who responded “I don’t know” to questions on pregnancy and lactating status were excluded from all analyses. Females who were both pregnant and lactating were included in both the Pregnant and Lactating categories. The sample sizes for the Pregnant and Lactating categories were very small so their estimates of usual intake distributions are not reliable.

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Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc 10th 25th 50th 75th 90th 95th 99th a M = male, F = female, P/L = pregnant and lactating. SOURCE: ENVIRON International Corporation and Iowa State University Department of Statistics, 2000, Revised.

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Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc TABLE C-2 Mean and Percentiles for Usual Intake of β-Carotene (μg/day) from Food, NHANES III (1988–1994) Sex/Age Categorya Number of Persons Examined Mean Percentile 5th 10th Both sexes, 2 to 6 mo 793 1,159 1 1 Both sexes, 7 to 12 mo 827 1,950 42 79 Both sexes, 1 to 3 y 3,309 1,020 75 110 Both sexes, 4 to 8 y 3,448 1,722 1,037 1,148 Standard error   353 174 202 M 9 to 13 y 1,219 1,694 461 575 Standard error   499 89 124 M 14 to 18 y 909 1,420 492 600 Standard error   190 51 67 M 19 to 30 y 1,902 2,146 726 885 Standard error   164 63 71 M 31 to 50 y 2,533 2,299 736 913 Standard error   139 48 54 M 51 to 70 y 1,942 2,622 826 1,026 Standard error   163 73 82 M 71+ y 1,255 2,733 800 1,009 Standard error   166 64 72 F 9 to 13 y 1,216 1,826 584 720 Standard error   667 141 186 F 14 to 18 y 949 1,183 411 502 Standard error   124 35 44 F 19 to 30 y 1,901 1,595 538 660 Standard error   169 38 50 F 31 to 50 y 2,939 2,144 763 929 Standard error   100 46 49 F 51 to 70 y 2,065 2,665 931 1,141 Standard error   336 64 71 F 71+ y 1,368 2,634 983 1,196 Standard error   133 65 72 Pregnant 346 1,531 654 778 Standard error   217 112 138 Lactating 99 1,568 789 900 Standard error   425 147 176 All Individuals 28,575 1,985 617 774 Standard error   45 23 25 All Indiv (+P/L) 29,015 1,978 615 771 Standard error   44 23 25 NOTE: Data are limited to individuals who provided a complete and reliable 24-hour dietary recall on day 1. The intake distributions for 2–6 months, 7–12 months, and 1–3 using SAS PROC UNIVARIATE. For all other groups, data were adjusted using the Iowa years of age are unadjusted. Means and percentiles for these groups were computed State University method. Mean, standard errors, and percentiles were obtained using C-Side. Standard errors were estimated via jackknife replication. Each standard error has 49 degrees of freedom. Food composition data are from the NDS-R Food and Nutrient Database, Version 30, 1999, Nutrition Coordinating Center, University of Minnesota. Infants and children fed human milk and females who had “blank but applicable” pregnancy and lactating status data or who responded “I don’t know” to questions on pregnancy and lactating status were excluded from all analyses. Females who were both pregnant and lactating were included in both the Pregnant and Lactating categories. The sample sizes for the Pregnant and Lactating categories were very small so their estimates of usual intake distributions are not reliable.

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Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc 25th 50th 75th 90th 95th 99th 6 77 1,274 4,240 6,658 10,365 236 711 2,166 5,684 7,974 13,208 198 411 931 2,279 3,920 8,583 1,362 1,649 2,001 2,386 2,653 3,247 256 332 426 531 606 777 839 1,300 2,069 3,218 4,230 7,173 206 353 612 1,030 1,420 2,630 833 1,201 1,749 2,484 3,082 4,670 101 153 236 358 466 778 1,231 1,793 2,663 3,831 4,759 7,101 88 124 199 321 429 728 1,306 1,942 2,886 4,110 5,068 7,479 69 103 170 288 409 848 1,470 2,199 3,302 4,741 5,861 8,603 100 134 198 297 381 596 1,479 2,261 3,457 5,029 6,262 9,334 91 134 213 335 448 794 1,023 1,519 2,269 3,278 4,099 6,278 296 495 834 1,350 1,810 3,190 700 1,014 1,472 2,062 2,523 3,692 64 96 154 260 370 737 929 1,359 1,989 2,805 3,447 5,083 78 128 214 338 444 739 1,289 1,857 2,678 3,713 4,502 6,414 57 78 129 205 266 428 1,598 2,317 3,339 4,612 5,580 7,943 100 186 400 811 1,230 2,560 1,653 2,351 3,304 4,431 5,250 7,138 91 123 168 224 266 379 1,031 1,388 1,866 2,456 2,902 3,972 178 204 258 368 468 760 1,121 1,435 1,862 2,391 2,798 3,812 239 348 530 800 1,040 1,700 1,110 1,665 2,491 3,580 4,444 6,641 29 40 55 78 100 167 1,106 1,659 2,483 3,567 4,428 6,614 29 39 54 76 97 161 a M = male, F = female, P/L = pregnant and lactating. SOURCE: ENVIRON International Corporation and Iowa State University Department of Statistics, 2000.

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Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc TABLE C-3 Mean and Percentiles for One-Day Intake of β-Cryptoxanthin (μg/day) from Food, NHANES III (1988–1994) Sex/Age Categorya Number of Persons Examined Mean Percentile 5th 10th Both sexes, 2 to 6 mo 793 18 0 0 Both sexes, 7 to 12 mo 827 43 0 1 Both sexes, 1 to 3 y 3,309 83 0 1 Both sexes, 4 to 8 y 3,448 84 0 1 M 9 to 13 y 1,219 101 0 0 M 14 to 18 y 909 121 0 1 M 19 to 30 y 1,902 136 0 1 M 31 to 50 y 2,533 117 0 1 M 51 to 70 y 1,942 122 0 1 M 71+ y 1,255 135 0 1 F 9 to 13 y 1,216 94 0 0 F 14 to 18 y 949 88 0 0 F 19 to 30 y 1,901 98 0 0 F 31 to 50 y 2,939 84 0 1 F 51–70 y 2,065 107 0 1 F 71+ y 1,368 105 0 1 F Pregnant 346 159 1 2 F Lactating 99 172 0 1 All Individuals 28,575 104 0 1 All Indiv (+P/L) 29,015 105 0 1 NOTE: Data are limited to individuals who provided a complete and reliable 24-hour dietary recall on day 1. Estimates represent the unadjusted distribution of the intake reported per individual (the distribution of the data does not meet the assumptions of the Iowa State University method, i.e., the C-Side program). The mean and percentiles for all distributions were calculated using SAS PROC UNIVARIATE. All sample weights greater than 40,000 were truncated to 40,000 to reduce the influence of extreme intake patterns. Food composition data are from the NDS-R Food and Nutrient Database, Version 30, 1999, Nutrition Coordinating Center, University of Minnesota. Infants and children fed human milk and females who had “blank but applicable” pregnancy and lactating status data or who responded “I don’t know” to questions on pregnancy and lactating status were excluded from all analyses. Females who were both pregnant and lactating were included in both the Pregnant and Lactating categories. The sample sizes for the Pregnant and Lactating categories were very small so their estimates of usual intake distributions are not reliable.

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Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc 25th 50th 75th 90th 95th 99th 0 7 23 45 65 177 8 23 51 103 143 258 4 39 113 213 326 544 3 27 120 239 337 596 3 20 139 263 373 662 3 14 167 334 463 1,376 4 19 177 392 556 1,262 5 27 152 326 476 982 4 34 160 312 442 892 4 39 154 278 384 1,336 3 23 147 266 344 787 3 13 92 266 422 836 3 13 118 260 421 1,009 3 18 100 245 357 738 4 41 157 266 383 715 5 52 153 273 345 635 6 46 184 367 813 1,357 16 91 179 474 1,003 1,003 4 24 134 277 410 830 4 24 135 279 413 850 a M = male, F = female, P/L = pregnant and lactating. SOURCE: ENVIRON International Corporation and Iowa State University Department of Statistics, 2000, Revised.

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Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc TABLE C-4 Mean and Percentiles for Usual Intake of Lutein and Zeaxanthin (μg/day) from Food, NHANES III (1988–1994) Sex/Age Categorya Number of Persons Examined Mean Percentile 5th 10th Both sexes, 2 to 6 mo 793 457 0 0 Both sexes, 7 to 12 mo 827 790 60 98 Both sexes, 1 to 3 y 3,309 927 159 217 Both sexes, 4 to 8 y 3,448 1,277 530 616 Standard error   93 24 32 M 9 to 13 y 1,219 1,330 674 770 Standard error   68 30 38 M 14 to 18 y 909 1,418 693 801 Standard error   84 39 45 M 19 to 30 y 1,902 2,032 881 1,040 Standard error   353 71 95 M 31 to 50 y 2,533 2,192 929 1,097 Standard error   151 57 70 M 51 to 70 y 1,942 2,264 880 1,046 Standard error   110 29 36 M 71+ y 1,255 2,088 788 937 Standard error   132 44 52 F 9 to 13 y 1,216 1,280 569 668 Standard error   306 72 70 F 14 to 18 y 949 1,162 448 526 Standard error   102 34 37 F 19 to 30 y 1,901 1,704 532 645 Standard error   243 19 30 F 31 to 50 y 2,939 2,013 690 848 Standard error   102 32 39 F 51 to 70 y 2,065 1,960 691 840 Standard error   96 24 29 F 71+ y 1,368 1,921 675 817 Standard error   108 26 33 Pregnant 346 1,455 649 754 Standard error   132 50 60 Lactating 99 1,850 958 1,098 Standard error   277 144 171 All Individuals 28,575 1,719 583 714 Standard error   49 13 16 All Indiv (+P/L) 29,015 1,712 581 712 Standard error   44 11 14 NOTE: Data are limited to individuals who provided a complete and reliable 24-hour dietary recall on day 1. The intake distributions for 2–6 months, 7–12 months, and 1–3 years of age are unadjusted. Means and percentiles for these groups were computed using SAS PROC UNIVARIATE. For all other groups, data were adjusted using the Iowa State University method. Mean, standard errors, and percentiles were obtained using C-Side. Standard errors were estimated via jackknife replication. Each standard error has 49 degrees of freedom. Food composition data are from the NDS-R Food and Nutrient Database, Version 30, 1999, Nutrition Coordinating Center, University of Minnesota. Infants and children fed human milk and females who had “blank but applicable” pregnancy and lactating status data or who responded “I don’t know” to questions on pregnancy and lactating status were excluded from all analyses. Females who were both pregnant and lactating were included in both the Pregnant and Lactating categories. The sample sizes for the Pregnant and Lactating categories were very small so their estimates of usual intake distributions are not reliable.

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Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc 25th 50th 75th 90th 95th 99th 1 94 353 1,083 2,407 5,703 214 398 832 1,512 2,788 5,673 365 624 1,068 1,823 2,572 7,542 801 1,099 1,537 2,135 2,625 3,965 48 74 119 190 261 471 960 1,228 1,583 2,009 2,328 3,099 52 65 84 113 138 217 1,016 1,317 1,707 2,159 2,487 3,247 57 76 104 144 179 284 1,366 1,839 2,469 3,240 3,834 5,342 126 234 554 880 1,090 1,700 1,443 1,957 2,669 3,560 4,251 5,986 94 130 186 269 339 539 1,405 1,966 2,776 3,825 4,656 6,800 51 83 140 228 308 543 1,261 1,778 2,552 3,590 4,430 6,649 72 107 168 260 342 582 866 1,152 1,544 2,038 2,426 3,408 135 298 430 547 669 1,210 699 993 1,421 1,989 2,452 3,700 57 79 128 210 292 608 906 1,353 2,071 3,111 4,026 6,743 65 142 296 558 819 1,730 1,185 1,712 2,486 3,514 4,346 6,541 55 82 127 199 266 473 1,167 1,684 2,437 3,404 4,161 6,077 43 65 111 226 363 857 1,130 1,634 2,381 3,359 4,133 6,124 50 82 137 228 320 626 973 1,306 1,767 2,335 2,764 3,811 80 113 166 243 311 502 1,373 1,750 2,217 2,730 3,087 3,874 220 278 340 406 457 593 1,004 1,466 2,144 3,021 3,711 5,470 23 36 61 99 133 231 1,001 1,461 2,135 3,007 3,694 5,442 20 32 55 91 123 218 a M = male, F = female, P/L = pregnant and lactating. SOURCE: ENVIRON International Corporation and Iowa State University Department of Statistics, 2000.

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Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc TABLE C-5 Mean and Percentiles for One-Day Intake of Lycopene (μg/day) from Food, NHANES III (1988–1994) Sex/Age Categorya Number of Persons Examined Mean Percentile 5th 10th Both sexes, 2 to 6 mo 793 164 0 0 Both sexes, 7 to 12 mo 827 1,873 0 0 Both sexes, 1 to 3 y 3,309 5,278 0 0 Both sexes, 4 to 8 y 3,448 6,951 0 0 M 9 to 13 y 1,219 10,111 0 0 M 14 to 18 y 909 11,547 0 0 M 19 to 30 y 1,902 12,656 0 0 M 31 to 50 y 2,533 9,882 0 0 M 51 to 70 y 1,942 6,635 0 0 M 71+ y 1,255 6,666 0 0 F 9 to 13 y 1,216 8,262 0 0 F 14 to 18 y 949 7,980 0 0 F 19 to 30 y 1,901 7,438 0 0 F 31 to 50 y 2,939 5,972 0 0 F 51 to 70 y 2,065 5,388 0 0 F 71+ y 1,368 4,332 0 0 F Pregnant 346 8,713 0 0 F Lactating 99 9,513 0 0 All Individuals 28,575 7,753 0 0 All Indiv (+P/L) 29,015 7,774 0 0 NOTE: Data are limited to individuals who provided a complete and reliable 24-hour dietary recall on day 1. Estimates represent the unadjusted distribution of the intake reported per individual (the distribution of the data does not meet the assumptions of the Iowa State University method, i.e., the C-Side program). The mean and percentiles for all distributions were calculated using SAS PROC UNIVARIATE. All sample weights greater than 40,000 were truncated to 40,000 to reduce the influence of extreme intake patterns. Food composition data are from the NDS-R Food and Nutrient Database, Version 30, 1999, Nutrition Coordinating Center, University of Minnesota. Infants and children fed human milk and females who had “blank but applicable” pregnancy and lactating status data or who responded “I don’t know” to questions on pregnancy and lactating status were excluded from all analyses. Females who were both pregnant and lactating were included in both the Pregnant and Lactating categories. The sample sizes for the Pregnant and Lactating categories were very small so their estimates of usual intake distributions are not reliable.

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Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc 10th 25th 50th 75th 90th 95th 99th 0.24c 0.64 0.86 1.34 2.36c 2.44c 2.94c 0.09c 0.33 1.16 2.37 3.32c 4.30c 5.88c 0.69 1.54 2.49 2.50 4.64 5.07 8.30c 0.70 1.82 2.37 2.50 4.80 5.07 7.88c 2.09c 3.70c 4.15c 4.59c 4.86c 4.94c 6.89c 0.57 1.39 2.49 2.50 4.73 5.00 8.09 0.58 1.42 2.49 2.50 4.78 5.00 8.08 c These values are potentially unreliable in a statistical sense based on an insufficient sample size as recommended in statistical reporting standards (Life Sciences Research Office/Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology. 1995. Third Report on Nutrition Monitoring in the United States. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office). SOURCE: ENVIRON International Corporation, 1999. 10th 25th 50th 75th 90th 95th 99th 9.2c 14.5 17.4 21.1 44.9c 66.1c 120.9c 2.0c 3.9 14.4 22.9 31.7c 50.4c 145.9c 6.4 14.0 22.7 24.6 36.4 79.6 159.3c 7.4 14.7 23.9 24.7 37.7 83.7 161.0c 14.3c 21.9c 23.0c 24.1c 24.7c 24.9c 31.5c 6.5 14.5 23.9 24.7 38.3 79.1 160.3 6.5 14.7 23.9 24.7 33.7 78.9 160.2 c These values are potentially unreliable in a statistical sense based on an insufficient sample size as recommended in statistical reporting standards (Life Sciences Research Office/Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology. 1995. Third Report on Nutrition Monitoring in the United States. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office). SOURCE: ENVIRON International Corporation, 1999.

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Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc TABLE C-22 Mean and Percentiles of Usual Intake of Nickel (μg/day) from Supplements, NHANES III (1988–1994) Sex/Age Categorya Number of Persons Examined Mean SEMb Percentile 5th Both sexes, 1 to 8 y 26 5.65c 0.98 0.66c Both sexes, 9 to 18 y 89 3.97 0.50 0.17c M 19+ y 571 4.46 0.13 0.71 F 19+ y 737 4.80 0.13 0.82 Pregnant/Lactating 8 5.55c 0.65 2.09c All Individuals 1,423 4.62 0.10 0.63 All Individuals (+P/L) 1,431 4.63 0.10 0.63 NOTE: Means, standard errors, and percentiles were calculated with WesVar Complex Samples 3.0. Children fed human milk and females who had “blank but applicable” pregnancy and lactating status data or who responded “I don’t know” to questions on pregnancy and lactating status were excluded from all analyses. a M = male, F = female, P/L = pregnant and lactating. b SEM = standard error of the mean. TABLE C-23 Mean and Percentiles of Usual Intake of Silicon (mg/day) from Supplements, NHANES III (1988–1994) Sex/Age Categorya Number of Persons Examined Mean SEMb Percentile 5th Both sexes, 1 to 8 y 20 1.57c 0.21 0.10c Both sexes, 9 to 18 y 85 2.69 0.89 0.07c M 19+ y 560 4.32 0.82 0.29 F 19+ y 727 7.04 0.89 0.26 Pregnant/Lactating 8 68.59c 17.83 0.44c All Individuals 1,392 5.66 0.71 0.24 All Individuals (+P/L) 1,400 5.85 0.72 0.24 NOTE: Means, standard errors, and percentiles were calculated with WesVar Complex Samples 3.0. Children fed human milk and females who had “blank but applicable” pregnancy and lactating status data or who responded “I don’t know” to questions on pregnancy and lactating status were excluded from all analyses. a M = male, F = female, P/L = pregnant and lactating. b SEM = standard error of the mean.

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Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc 10th 25th 50th 75th 90th 95th 99th 1.28c 3.44c 4.30c 5.55c 7.22c 11.62c 14.52c 0.36c 0.82 4.55 4.83 5.00c 9.33c 15.18c 1.32 3.63 4.68 4.86 4.97 6.56 10.14c 1.60 4.53 4.70 4.87 4.98 7.27 15.18c 2.26c 2.79c 3.68c 4.56c 6.02c 8.01c 9.60c 1.41 4.50 4.69 4.87 4.98 7.09 14.62c 1.41 4.50 4.69 4.87 4.98 7.10 14.61c c These values are potentially unreliable in a statistical sense based on an insufficient sample size as recommended in statistical reporting standards (Life Sciences Research Office/Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology. 1995. Third Report on Nutrition Monitoring in the United States. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office). SOURCE: ENVIRON International Corporation, 1999. 10th 25th 50th 75th 90th 95th 99th 0.71c 0.94c 1.24c 1.69c 1.96c 2.01c 2.03c 0.09c 0.29 1.26 1.75 1.96c 2.63c 44.36c 0.54 1.40 1.78 1.91 1.99 8.48 65.22c 0.66 1.75 1.85 1.95 4.35 73.08 78.69c 0.79c 1.83c 31.32c 63.83c 96.31c 128.15c 153.63c 0.58 1.58 1.84 1.94 2.03 32.10 78.19c 0.58 1.61 1.84 1.94 2.48 33.09 78.33c c These values are potentially unreliable in a statistical sense based on an insufficient sample size as recommended in statistical reporting standards (Life Sciences Research Office/Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology. 1995. Third Report on Nutrition Monitoring in the United States. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office). SOURCE: ENVIRON International Corporation, 1999.

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Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc TABLE C-24 Mean and Percentiles of Usual Intake of Vanadium (μg/day) from Supplements, NHANES III (1988–1994) Sex/Age Categorya Number of Persons Examined Mean SEMb Percentile 5th Both sexes, 1 to 8 y 26 6.09c 1.51 0.10c Both sexes, 9 to 18 y 89 6.50 0.94 0.12c M 19+ y 571 8.37 0.26 0.89 F 19+ y 742 8.61 0.19 0.91 Pregnant/Lactating 8 11.01c 1.33 0.55c All Individuals 1,428 8.37 0.18 0.80 All Individuals (+P/L) 1,436 8.38 0.18 0.80 NOTE: Means, standard errors, and percentiles were calculated with WesVar Complex Samples 3.0. Children fed human milk and females who had “blank but applicable” pregnancy and lactating status data or who responded “I don’t know” to questions on pregnancy and lactating status were excluded from all analyses. a M = male, F = female, P/L = pregnant and lactating. b SEM = standard error of the mean.

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Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc 10th 25th 50th 75th 90th 95th 99th 0.52c 0.90c 5.09c 7.57c 9.06c 9.55c 9.95c 0.25c 1.12 6.25 8.79 9.75c 13.36c 20.90c 2.08 6.14 8.85 9.45 9.81 9.93 19.29c 2.12 7.80 9.34 9.69 9.90 9.97 20.03c 1.12c 2.84c 5.71c 8.57c 12.04c 16.02c 19.20c 1.68 5.68 9.31 9.68 9.89 9.97 19.99c 1.69 5.72 9.31 9.68 9.89 9.97 19.98c c These values are potentially unreliable in a statistical sense based on an insufficient sample size as recommended in statistical reporting standards (Life Sciences Research Office/Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology. 1995. Third Report on Nutrition Monitoring in the United States. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office). SOURCE: ENVIRON International Corporation, 1999.

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Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc TABLE C-25 Mean and Percentiles for Usual Intake of Zinc (mg/day) from Food, NHANES III (1988–1994) Sex/Age Categorya Number of Persons Examined Mean Percentile 5th 10th Both sexes, 2 to 6 mo 793 5.51 2.60 3.20 Both sexes, 7 to 12 mo 827 6.11 2.90 3.50 Both sexes, 1 to 3 y 3,309 6.94 3.00 3.60 Both sexes, 4 to 8 y 3,448 8.95 6.40 6.90 Standard error   0.13 0.11 0.11 M 9 to 13 y 1,219 11.83 8.20 8.90 Standard error   0.25 0.19 0.19 M 14 to 18 y 909 15.12 8.30 9.30 Standard error   0.67 0.28 0.32 M 19 to 30 y 1,902 15.40 8.80 9.90 Standard error   0.36 0.25 0.25 M 31 to 50 y 2,533 14.83 8.60 9.60 Standard error   0.26 0.17 0.18 M 51 to 70 y 1,942 13.77 7.60 8.60 Standard error   0.27 0.16 0.17 M 71+ y 1,255 12.17 6.70 7.50 Standard error   0.53 0.20 0.22 F 9 to 13 y 1,216 9.64 6.50 7.10 Standard error   0.32 0.17 0.18 F 14 to 18 y 949 9.26 5.20 5.90 Standard error   0.32 0.19 0.20 F 19 to 30 y 1,901 9.52 5.40 6.10 Standard error   0.22 0.14 0.14 F 31 to 50 y 2,939 9.67 5.70 6.40 Standard error   0.17 0.10 0.10 F 51 to 70 y 2,065 9.19 5.30 5.90 Standard error   0.18 0.11 0.11 F 71+ y 1,368 8.62 5.00 5.50 Standard error   0.19 0.10 0.11 Pregnant 346 11.24 6.90 7.70 Standard error   0.50 0.47 0.47 Lactating 99 14.78 9.30 10.30 Standard error   0.93 0.60 0.61 All Individuals 28,575 11.27 6.10 6.90 Standard error   0.12 0.12 0.12 All Indiv (+P/L) 29,015 11.29 6.20 7.00 Standard error   0.13 0.14 0.14 NOTE: Data are limited to individuals who provided a complete and reliable 24-hour dietary recall on day 1. The intake distributions for 2–6 months, 7–12 months, and 1–3 years of age are unadjusted. Means and percentiles for these groups were computed using SAS PROC UNIVARIATE. For all other groups, data were adjusted using the Iowa State University method. Mean, standard errors, and percentiles were obtained using C-Side. Standard errors were estimated via jackknife replication. Each standard error has 49 degrees of freedom. Infants and children fed human milk and females who had “blank but applicable” pregnancy and lactating status data or who responded “I don’t know” to questions on pregnancy and lactating status were excluded from all analyses. Females who were both pregnant and lactating were included in both the Pregnant and Lactating categories. The sample sizes for the Pregnant and Lactating categories were very small so their estimates of usual intake distributions are not reliable.

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Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc 25th 50th 75th 90th 95th 99th 4.20 5.30 6.60 8.10 8.90 11.60 4.50 5.90 7.30 8.90 10.10 12.90 4.80 6.40 8.40 10.60 12.90 17.80 7.70 8.80 10.00 11.20 12.00 13.60 0.11 0.13 0.14 0.16 0.18 0.23 10.10 11.60 13.30 15.10 16.20 18.50 0.20 0.23 0.30 0.40 0.48 0.68 11.40 14.30 17.90 22.00 24.90 31.40 0.39 0.54 0.86 1.39 1.85 3.13 12.00 14.80 18.10 21.60 23.90 28.90 0.28 0.33 0.44 0.61 0.75 1.12 11.50 14.20 17.40 20.90 23.30 28.60 0.21 0.25 0.31 0.41 0.51 0.78 10.50 13.10 16.30 19.80 22.30 27.80 0.18 0.23 0.35 0.55 0.73 1.21 9.10 11.40 14.40 17.90 20.40 26.30 0.27 0.40 0.66 1.05 1.39 2.30 8.10 9.40 10.90 12.50 13.50 15.50 0.21 0.28 0.39 0.54 0.66 0.95 7.20 8.90 10.90 13.10 14.50 17.50 0.23 0.29 0.40 0.57 0.72 1.08 7.40 9.20 11.20 13.40 14.90 18.10 0.16 0.20 0.26 0.36 0.44 0.67 7.60 9.30 11.30 13.40 14.80 17.90 0.12 0.15 0.21 0.31 0.40 0.62 7.10 8.80 10.80 13.00 14.50 17.80 0.12 0.15 0.23 0.37 0.48 0.80 6.70 8.20 10.10 12.20 13.60 16.70 0.13 0.17 0.24 0.33 0.41 0.63 9.10 10.90 13.00 15.20 16.60 19.60 0.47 0.49 0.55 0.68 0.82 1.19 12.20 14.50 17.10 19.60 21.30 24.60 0.68 0.88 1.19 1.59 1.88 2.56 8.50 10.70 13.40 16.30 18.40 23.00 0.12 0.12 0.13 0.17 0.21 0.33 8.50 10.70 13.40 16.30 18.40 23.00 0.14 0.13 0.14 0.17 0.20 0.33 a M = male, F = female, P/L = pregnant and lactating. SOURCE: ENVIRON International Corporation and Iowa State University Department of Statistics, 2000.

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Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc TABLE C-26 Mean and Percentiles for Usual Intake of Zinc (mg/day) from Food and Supplements, NHANES III (1988–1994) Sex/Age Categorya Number of Persons Examined Mean Percentile 5th 10th Both sexes, 2 to 6 mo 793 5.51 2.60 3.20 Both sexes, 7 to 12 mo 827 6.11 2.90 3.50 Both sexes, 1 to 3 y 3,309 6.94 3.00 3.60 Both sexes, 4 to 8 y 3,448 9.56 6.56 6.94 M 9 to 13 y 1,219 12.34 8.18 8.85 M 14 to 18 y 909 15.83 8.55 9.56 M 19 to 30 y 1,902 16.94 8.81 10.21 M 31 to 50 y 2,533 16.44 8.74 10.02 M 51 to 70 y 1,942 16.29 7.94 9.07 M 71+ y 1,255 15.08 7.08 7.94 F 9 to 13 y 1,216 10.17 6.68 7.35 F 14 to 18 y 949 9.78 5.19 6.18 F 19 to 30 y 1,901 11.23 5.60 6.33 F 31 to 50 y 2,939 12.14 5.98 6.63 F 51 to 70 y 2,065 12.15 5.36 6.22 F 71+ y 1,368 12.08 5.05 5.66 Pregnant 346 19.97 7.09 8.31 Lactating 99 24.67 10.05 10.60 All Individuals 28,575 13.00 6.34 7.23 All Indiv (+P/L) 29,015 13.14 6.35 7.24 NOTE: Data are limited to individuals who provided a complete and reliable 24-hour dietary recall on day 1. The intake distributions for 2–6 months, 7–12 months, and 1–3 years of age are unadjusted; the total nutrient intake is the sum of the unadjusted food intake and the daily supplement intake. For all other groups, individual total nutrient intakes were obtained as the sum of the adjusted individual usual intake from food alone and the daily supplement intake. The mean and percentiles of the estimated usual intake distributions were computed using SAS PROC UNIVARIATE. Infants and children fed human milk and females who had “blank but applicable” pregnancy and lactating status data or who responded “I don’t know” to questions on pregnancy and lactating status were excluded from all analyses. Females who were both pregnant and lactating were included in both the Pregnant and Lactating categories. The sample sizes for the Pregnant and Lactating categories were very small so their estimates of usual intake distributions are not reliable.

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Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc 25th 50th 75th 90th 95th 99th 4.20 5.30 6.60 8.10 8.90 11.60 4.50 5.90 7.30 8.90 10.10 12.90 4.80 6.40 8.40 10.60 12.90 17.80 7.88 8.95 10.22 11.64 14.22 24.36 10.26 11.71 13.34 15.42 17.30 30.35 11.82 14.80 18.33 22.11 26.16 39.03 12.71 15.34 19.52 25.75 29.76 43.00 12.10 14.77 18.87 25.18 30.46 42.60 11.07 13.90 18.10 26.95 31.55 59.70 9.73 12.12 16.93 26.13 30.05 56.85 8.26 9.55 11.01 12.87 14.48 25.52 7.49 8.98 11.11 13.39 15.54 26.26 7.81 9.64 12.09 18.58 24.64 36.90 8.02 10.08 12.67 22.49 25.76 36.73 7.48 9.52 13.04 23.73 26.13 37.26 7.07 8.92 12.41 23.97 26.20 49.72 10.11 13.09 31.35 37.49 39.86 47.97 13.08 20.42 38.59 42.64 46.70 46.70 8.86 11.21 14.55 21.67 26.39 38.29 8.87 11.22 14.61 22.24 26.82 39.37 a M = male, F = female, P/L = pregnant and lactating. SOURCE: ENVIRON International Corporation and Iowa State University Department of Statistics, 2000.

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Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc TABLE C-27 Mean and Percentiles for Drinking Water Intake (mL/day), NHANES III (1988–1994) Sex/Age Categorya Number of Persons Examined Mean SEMb Percentile 5th Both sexes, 2 to 6 mo 784 115 8 0 Both sexes, 7 to 12 mo 809 172 8 0 Both sexes, 1 to 3 y 3,172 382 10 0 Both sexes, 4 to 8 y 3,247 620 24 0 M 9 to 13 y 1,188 1,107 42 64 M 14 to 18 y 891 1,402 59 0 M 19 to 30 y 1,872 1,389 41 0 M 31 to 50 y 2,495 1,294 35 0 M 51 to 70 y 1,872 1,253 41 0 M 71+ y 1,186 1,198 39 0 F 9 to 13 y 1,181 1,008 45 56 F 14 to 18 y 937 1,117 43 0 F 19 to 30 y 1,885 1,163 33 0 F 31 to 50 y 2,906 1,219 30 0 F 51 to 70 y 2,002 1,278 32 0 F 71+ y 1,317 1,147 25 0 Pregnant 341 1,413 79 147 Lactating 98 1,628 147 225c P/L 434 1,462 69 166 All Individuals 27,744 1,144 13 0 All Indiv (+P/L) 28,178 1,149 13 0 NOTE: Means, standard errors, and percentiles were calculated with WesVar Complex Samples 3.0. Children fed human milk and females who had “blank but applicable” pregnancy and lactating status data or who responded “I don’t know” to questions on pregnancy and lactating status were excluded from all analyses. a M = male, F = female, P/L = pregnant and lactating. b SEM = standard error of the mean.

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Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc 10th 25th 50th 75th 90th 95th 99th 0 0 54 131 230 457 876c 0 0 107 205 446 472 902c 0 104 228 467 903 1,135 1,789 98 206 453 848 1,265 1,686 2,638 204 453 877 1,383 2,347 2,726 4,105c 211 608 1,038 1,772 2,648 3,642 5,612c 208 435 939 1,824 2,803 3,729 7,195 101 435 921 1,835 2,760 3,623 6,206 172 454 941 1,703 2,623 3,533 5,440 215 602 942 1,657 2,258 2,819 3,730c 178 351 709 1,320 2,103 2,628 4,371c 62 337 857 1,519 2,537 2,946 4,972c 94 368 889 1,704 2,603 3,128 4,717 95 334 897 1,734 2,645 3,411 4,723 189 468 966 1,768 2,614 3,341 4,625 222 470 945 1,545 2,064 2,634 3,724c 315 661 1,136 1,900 2,621 2,831 5,057c 453c 951 1,301 1,914 3,121c 3,721c 4,717c 353 694 1,251 1,902 2,665 3,562 4,865c 99 343 878 1,610 2,530 3,240 5,261 100 347 884 1,614 2,538 3,244 5,258 c These values are potentially unreliable in a statistical sense based on an insufficient sample size as recommended in statistical reporting standards (Life Sciences Research Office/Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology. 1995. Third Report on Nutrition Monitoring in the United States. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office). SOURCE: ENVIRON International Corporation, 2000.