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D
Dietary Intake Datafrom the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII), 1994–1996

TABLE D-1 Mean and Percentiles for Usual Intake of Boron (mg/day) from Food, CSFII (1994–1996)

Sex/Age Categorya

Number of Persons Examined

Mean

Percentile

1st

5th

Both sexes, 0 to 6 mo

195

0.75

0.03

0.06

Standard error

 

0.14

0.01

0.01

Both sexes, 7 to 12 mo

130

0.99

0.12

0.20

Standard error

 

0.12

0.02

0.02

Both sexes, 1 to 3 y

1,834

0.86

0.25

0.35

Standard error

 

0.02

0.01

0.01

Both sexes, 4 to 8 y

1,650

0.80

0.33

0.43

Standard error

 

0.01

0.01

0.01

M 9 to 13 y

552

0.90

0.38

0.49

Standard error

 

0.03

0.02

0.02

M 14 to 18 y

446

1.02

0.34

0.47

Standard error

 

0.04

0.03

0.02

M 19 to 30 y

853

1.15

0.37

0.51

Standard error

 

0.03

0.02

0.02

M 31 to 50 y

1,684

1.33

0.42

0.58

Standard error

 

0.03

0.02

0.02

M 51 to 70 y

1,606

1.34

0.39

0.56

Standard error

 

0.02

0.02

0.02

M 71+ y

674

1.25

0.31

0.46

Standard error

 

0.03

0.02

0.02



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Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc D Dietary Intake Datafrom the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII), 1994–1996 TABLE D-1 Mean and Percentiles for Usual Intake of Boron (mg/day) from Food, CSFII (1994–1996) Sex/Age Categorya Number of Persons Examined Mean Percentile 1st 5th Both sexes, 0 to 6 mo 195 0.75 0.03 0.06 Standard error   0.14 0.01 0.01 Both sexes, 7 to 12 mo 130 0.99 0.12 0.20 Standard error   0.12 0.02 0.02 Both sexes, 1 to 3 y 1,834 0.86 0.25 0.35 Standard error   0.02 0.01 0.01 Both sexes, 4 to 8 y 1,650 0.80 0.33 0.43 Standard error   0.01 0.01 0.01 M 9 to 13 y 552 0.90 0.38 0.49 Standard error   0.03 0.02 0.02 M 14 to 18 y 446 1.02 0.34 0.47 Standard error   0.04 0.03 0.02 M 19 to 30 y 853 1.15 0.37 0.51 Standard error   0.03 0.02 0.02 M 31 to 50 y 1,684 1.33 0.42 0.58 Standard error   0.03 0.02 0.02 M 51 to 70 y 1,606 1.34 0.39 0.56 Standard error   0.02 0.02 0.02 M 71+ y 674 1.25 0.31 0.46 Standard error   0.03 0.02 0.02

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Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc 10th 25th 50th 75th 90th 95th 99th 0.09 0.15 0.29 0.76 1.89 2.95 6.40 0.01 0.01 0.05 0.15 0.44 0.63 1.99 0.27 0.42 0.71 1.21 2.00 2.70 4.77 0.03 0.05 0.09 0.15 0.27 0.41 0.91 0.42 0.57 0.78 1.07 1.41 1.66 2.24 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.04 0.05 0.08 0.49 0.61 0.76 0.95 1.15 1.29 1.58 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.56 0.69 0.86 1.07 1.28 1.43 1.74 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.03 0.05 0.06 0.09 0.55 0.72 0.96 1.25 1.57 1.79 2.28 0.02 0.03 0.03 0.05 0.07 0.09 0.14 0.61 0.80 1.06 1.40 1.79 2.05 2.66 0.02 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.12 0.69 0.91 1.22 1.63 2.09 2.42 3.18 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.09 0.15 0.67 0.89 1.22 1.66 2.16 2.52 3.34 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.03 0.06 0.08 0.13 0.56 0.78 1.11 1.56 2.12 2.53 3.51 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.03 0.07 0.10 0.20

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Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc Sex/Age Categorya Number of Persons Examined Mean Percentile 1st 5th F 9 to 13 y 560 0.83 0.34 0.44 Standard error   0.03 0.02 0.02 F 14 to 18 y 436 0.78 0.26 0.36 Standard error   0.04 0.02 0.02 F 19 to 30 y 760 0.87 0.30 0.40 Standard error   0.03 0.02 0.02 F 31 to 50 y 1,614 1.00 0.31 0.44 Standard error   0.02 0.01 0.01 F 51 to 70 y 1,539 1.11 0.32 0.46 Standard error   0.02 0.01 0.01 F 71+ y 623 0.98 0.27 0.39 Standard error   0.03 0.02 0.02 F Pregnant 70 1.16 0.37 0.52 Standard error   0.09 0.06 0.07 F Lactating 41 1.39 0.38 0.55 Standard error   0.16 0.10 0.12 All Individuals 15,156 1.06 0.28 0.41 Standard error   0.01 0.00 0.00 All Indiv (+P/L) 15,267 1.06 0.28 0.41 Standard error   0.01 0.00 0.00 NOTE: Estimates were obtained using C-SIDE v1.02 (C-SIDE courtesy of Iowa State University Statistical Laboratory, Iowa State University). Standard errors were estimated via jackknife replication. Each standard error has 43 degrees of freedom. a M = male, F = female, P/L = pregnant and lactating. SOURCE: C. Rainey, Nutrition Research Group, and A. Carriquiry, Iowa State University, 1999.

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Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc 10th 25th 50th 75th 90th 95th 99th 0.50 0.62 0.79 0.99 1.21 1.35 1.68 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.03 0.05 0.06 0.09 0.42 0.55 0.73 0.96 1.22 1.40 1.80 0.02 0.02 0.03 0.05 0.07 0.08 0.13 0.48 0.62 0.81 1.06 1.34 1.54 1.97 0.02 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.13 0.52 0.69 0.93 1.23 1.58 1.83 2.39 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.07 0.55 0.73 1.01 1.38 1.81 2.13 2.87 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.05 0.07 0.12 0.47 0.64 0.89 1.21 1.59 1.86 2.47 0.02 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.06 0.09 0.15 0.62 0.81 1.08 1.42 1.79 2.06 2.64 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.11 0.16 0.20 0.33 0.67 0.92 1.27 1.73 2.26 2.64 3.49 0.13 0.14 0.15 0.20 0.31 0.43 0.75 0.50 0.68 0.96 1.32 1.75 2.07 2.79 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.05 0.50 0.68 0.95 1.32 1.75 2.06 2.79 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.05

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Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc TABLE D-2 Mean and Percentiles for Usual Intake of Copper (mg/day) from Food, CSFII (1994–1996) Sex/Age Categorya Number of Persons Examined Mean Percentile 5th 10th Both sexes, 0 to 6 mo 157 0.61 0.40 0.44 Standard error   0.02 0.02 0.02 Both sexes, 7 to 12 mo 112 0.77 0.49 0.55 Standard error   0.05 0.04 0.04 Both sexes, 1 to 3 y 1,791 0.71 0.41 0.47 Standard error   0.01 0.01 0.01 Both sexes, 4 to 8 y 1,650 0.88 0.55 0.61 Standard error   0.01 0.01 0.01 M 9 to 13 y 552 1.17 0.69 0.78 Standard error   0.04 0.02 0.02 M 14 to 18 y 446 1.45 0.81 0.92 Standard error   0.05 0.03 0.03 M 19 to 30 y 854 1.52 0.81 0.92 Standard error   0.03 0.03 0.03 M 31 to 50 y 1,684 1.50 0.84 0.95 Standard error   0.02 0.01 0.02 M 51 to 70 y 1,606 1.44 0.78 0.89 Standard error   0.03 0.02 0.02 M 71+ y 674 1.25 0.67 0.77 Standard error   0.03 0.02 0.02 F 9 to 13 y 560 0.99 0.64 0.71 Standard error   0.02 0.02 0.02 F 14 to 18 y 436 1.07 0.62 0.69 Standard error   0.05 0.04 0.05 F 19 to 30 y 760 1.05 0.60 0.68 Standard error   0.02 0.02 0.02 F 31 to 50 y 1,614 1.06 0.62 0.70 Standard error   0.01 0.01 0.01 F 51 to 70 y 1,539 1.05 0.63 0.70 Standard error   0.02 0.01 0.01 F 71+ y 623 1.00 0.56 0.64 Standard error   0.04 0.02 0.02 F Pregnant 71 1.17 0.76 0.83 Standard error   0.06 0.04 0.04 F Lactating 42 1.35 0.84 0.92 Standard error   0.11 0.09 0.09 All Individuals 15,058 1.17 0.58 0.67 Standard error   0.01 0.01 0.01 All Indiv (+P/L) 15,170 1.17 0.58 0.67 Standard error   0.01 0.01 0.01 NOTE: Data are limited to individuals who provided two 24-hour dietary recalls and were adjusted using the Iowa State University method. Mean, standard errors, and percentiles were obtained using C-Side. Standard errors were estimated via jackknife replication. Each standard error has 43 degrees of freedom. Infants and children fed human milk were excluded from all analyses. One female was pregnant and lactating and was included in both the Pregnant and Lactating categories. The sample sizes for the Pregnant and Lactating categories were very small so their estimates of usual intake distributions are not reliable.

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Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc 25th 50th 75th 90th 95th 99th 0.51 0.60 0.70 0.80 0.88 1.05 0.02 0.02 0.03 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.65 0.75 0.86 0.99 1.10 1.38 0.05 0.04 0.06 0.07 0.11 0.27 0.56 0.68 0.83 0.98 1.09 1.33 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.02 0.04 0.73 0.86 1.01 1.18 1.29 1.56 0.01 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.03 0.05 0.94 1.13 1.35 1.60 1.79 2.24 0.04 0.03 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.13 1.12 1.38 1.69 2.05 2.32 2.95 0.03 0.04 0.06 0.09 0.12 0.19 1.14 1.44 1.81 2.19 2.47 3.14 0.06 0.03 0.08 0.05 0.06 0.12 1.16 1.43 1.77 2.13 2.40 3.05 0.02 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.08 1.08 1.35 1.69 2.08 2.40 3.10 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.06 0.11 0.17 0.95 1.18 1.48 1.80 2.03 2.63 0.04 0.03 0.05 0.07 0.10 0.27 0.82 0.96 1.13 1.31 1.43 1.72 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.06 0.82 1.02 1.27 1.49 1.65 2.09 0.03 0.05 0.06 0.15 0.16 0.18 0.82 1.01 1.24 1.47 1.63 2.00 0.02 0.02 0.03 0.05 0.05 0.09 0.84 1.02 1.24 1.46 1.60 1.91 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.03 0.05 0.83 1.01 1.21 1.44 1.61 1.98 0.01 0.02 0.02 0.03 0.05 0.08 0.75 0.95 1.17 1.42 1.62 2.04 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.09 0.09 0.19 0.96 1.13 1.33 1.54 1.68 1.97 0.05 0.05 0.07 0.08 0.10 0.13 1.08 1.30 1.55 1.83 2.01 2.42 0.09 0.10 0.13 0.17 0.20 0.29 0.85 1.10 1.41 1.76 2.01 2.54 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.85 1.10 1.41 1.76 2.00 2.54 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 a M = male, F = female, P/L = pregnant and lactating. SOURCE: ENVIRON International Corporation and Iowa State University Department of Statistics, 2000.

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Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc TABLE D-3 Mean and Percentiles for Usual Intake of Iron (mg/day) from Food, CSFII (1994–1996) Sex/Age Categorya Number of Persons Examined Mean Percentile 5th 10th Both sexes, 0 to 6 mo 157 14.6 7.6 8.9 Standard error   0.6 0.8 0.8 Both sexes, 7 to 12 mo 112 17.3 9.2 10.6 Standard error   0.7 0.5 0.5 Both sexes, 1 to 3 y 1,791 10.9 5.6 6.5 Standard error   0.2 0.1 0.1 Both sexes, 4 to 8 y 1,650 13.5 7.6 8.6 Standard error   0.2 0.2 0.1 M,9 to 13 y 552 18.2 10.0 11.4 Standard error   0.5 0.4 0.4 M 14 to 18 y 446 20.7 10.6 12.2 Standard error   0.8 0.4 0.4 M 19 to 30 y 854 19.2 10.3 11.9 Standard error   0.6 0.4 0.4 M 31 to 50 y 1,684 19.1 10.2 11.5 Standard error   0.4 0.3 0.2 M 51 to 70 y 1,606 17.5 9.3 10.7 Standard error   0.4 0.2 0.2 M 71+ y 674 16.4 8.5 9.7 Standard error   0.4 0.2 0.2 F 9 to 13 y 560 14.3 8.2 9.2 Standard error   0.4 0.2 0.2 F 14 to 18 y 436 13.5 7.4 8.5 Standard error   0.6 0.4 0.4 F 19 to 30 y 760 13.1 6.9 7.9 Standard error   0.4 0.2 0.3 F 31 to 50 y 1,614 13.1 7.1 8.0 Standard error   0.2 0.1 0.2 F 51 to 70 y 1,539 12.5 7.1 8.0 Standard error   0.2 0.1 0.1 F 71+ y 623 12.4 6.8 7.7 Standard error   0.3 0.2 0.2 F Pregnant 71 14.3 8.0 9.1 Standard error   4.3 4.1 4.3 F Lactating 42 18.6 9.5 10.8 Standard error   2.5 1.0 1.2 All Individuals 15,058 15.3 7.4 8.6 Standard error   0.1 0.1 0.1 All Indiv (+P/L) 15,170 15.3 7.4 8.6 Standard error   0.1 0.1 0.1 NOTE: Data are limited to individuals who provided two 24-hour dietary recalls and were adjusted using the Iowa State University method. Mean, standard errors, and percentiles were obtained using C-Side. Standard errors were estimated via jackknife replication. Each standard error has 43 degrees of freedom. Infants and children fed human milk were excluded from all analyses. One female was pregnant and lactating and was included in both the Pregnant and Lactating categories. The sample sizes for the Pregnant and Lactating categories were very small so their estimates of usual intake distributions are not reliable.

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Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc 25th 50th 75th 90th 95th 99th 11.1 13.9 17.5 21.5 24.2 29.7 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.9 1.0 2.8 13.4 16.8 20.7 24.5 27.0 31.9 0.6 0.6 0.8 1.2 1.4 2.1 8.1 10.3 13.0 16.2 18.5 23.5 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 1.0 10.4 12.8 15.9 19.3 21.7 27.5 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.6 0.9 14.1 17.2 21.0 26.0 29.9 39.3 0.3 0.4 0.6 1.0 1.3 2.2 15.3 19.3 24.5 30.8 35.5 46.5 0.5 0.7 1.1 1.6 2.0 3.1 14.7 18.1 22.5 27.8 31.8 41.0 0.5 0.5 0.9 1.0 1.2 2.1 14.1 17.8 22.5 28.1 32.3 42.7 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.7 1.0 1.8 13.2 16.5 20.6 25.5 29.2 37.6 0.3 0.3 0.5 0.7 0.9 1.4 12.1 15.5 19.6 24.2 27.4 34.5 0.3 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.5 11.1 13.7 16.8 20.0 22.2 27.0 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.8 10.4 12.7 15.7 19.4 22.2 28.8 0.8 0.5 1.1 1.1 1.2 2.2 9.8 12.4 15.7 19.2 21.7 28.0 0.6 0.4 0.9 0.8 1.0 1.7 9.8 12.3 15.5 19.0 21.5 27.5 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.7 9.6 11.9 14.7 17.7 19.9 24.9 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.7 9.5 11.9 14.8 17.9 20.0 24.5 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.6 0.8 11.2 13.9 17.0 20.1 22.2 26.6 4.5 4.6 4.4 4.1 3.9 3.5 13.3 17.1 22.2 28.3 32.8 43.6 1.6 2.2 3.1 4.3 5.3 8.1 11.0 14.3 18.5 23.3 26.7 34.2 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.6 11.0 14.3 18.6 23.3 26.7 34.2 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.6 a M = male, F = female, P/L = pregnant and lactating. SOURCE: ENVIRON International Corporation and Iowa State University Department of Statistics, 2000.

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Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc TABLE D-4 Mean and Percentiles for Usual Intake of Zinc (mg/day) from Food, CSFII (1994–1996) Sex/Age Categorya Number of Persons Examined Mean Percentile 5th 10th Both sexes, 0 to 6 mo 157 6.1 4.0 4.3 Standard error   0.2 0.2 0.2 Both sexes, 7 to 12 mo 112 6.8 4.5 5.0 Standard error   0.2 0.2 0.2 Both sexes, 1 to 3 y 1,791 7.5 4.4 4.9 Standard error   0.1 0.1 0.1 Both sexes, 4 to 8 y 1,650 9.3 5.5 6.1 Standard error   0.1 0.1 0.1 M 9 to 13 y 552 12.6 7.6 8.5 Standard error   0.2 0.2 0.2 M 14 to 18 y 446 15.0 8.4 9.6 Standard error   0.6 0.5 0.7 M 19 to 30 y 854 14.6 8.1 9.2 Standard error   0.3 0.3 0.3 M 31 to 50 y 1,684 14.5 8.1 9.1 Standard error   0.3 0.1 0.2 M 51 to 70 y 1,606 13.0 7.2 8.0 Standard error   0.3 0.1 0.2 M 71+ y 674 11.4 6.3 7.1 Standard error   0.4 0.2 0.2 F 9 to 13 y 560 10.1 6.2 6.9 Standard error   0.2 0.2 0.2 F 14 to 18 y 436 9.9 5.5 6.3 Standard error   0.4 0.3 0.3 F 19 to 30 y 760 9.3 5.2 5.8 Standard error   0.3 0.2 0.2 F 31 to 50 y 1,614 9.5 5.4 6.1 Standard error   0.2 0.1 0.1 F 51 to 70 y 1,539 8.7 5.2 5.8 Standard error   0.1 0.1 0.1 F 71+ y 623 8.2 4.9 5.4 Standard error   0.2 0.2 0.2 F Pregnant 71 10.4 6.1 6.9 Standard error   2.0 1.8 1.9 F Lactating 42 12.2 7.3 8.1 Standard error   1.3 0.7 0.8 All Individuals 15,058 11.0 5.5 6.3 Standard error   0.1 0.1 0.1 All Indiv (+P/L) 15,170 11.0 5.5 6.3 Standard error   0.1 0.1 0.1 NOTE: Data are limited to individuals who provided two 24-hour dietary recalls and were adjusted using the Iowa State University method. Mean, standard errors, and percentiles were obtained using C-Side. Standard errors were estimated via jackknife replication. Each standard error has 43 degrees of freedom. Infants and children fed human milk were excluded from all analyses. One female was pregnant and lactating and was included in both the Pregnant and Lactating categories. The sample sizes for the Pregnant and Lactating categories were very small so their estimates of usual intake distributions are not reliable.

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Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc 25th 50th 75th 90th 95th 99th 5.0 5.9 7.0 8.1 8.8 10.4 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.6 5.7 6.7 7.8 8.9 9.6 11.0 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.7 5.9 7.2 8.8 10.5 11.7 14.6 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.6 7.3 9.0 10.9 12.8 14.1 17.1 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.5 10.2 12.2 14.5 17.2 19.2 23.5 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.9 11.7 14.3 17.5 21.2 24.0 30.3 0.8 0.6 0.6 0.9 1.2 3.2 11.2 14.0 17.3 20.8 23.2 29.1 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 1.0 11.0 13.7 17.1 21.1 23.8 30.7 0.2 0.2 0.4 0.5 0.8 1.3 9.8 12.3 15.3 18.8 21.2 26.9 0.2 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.1 8.7 10.8 13.4 16.3 18.3 23.3 0.2 0.3 0.5 0.8 1.0 1.9 8.1 9.7 11.6 13.7 15.1 18.4 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.9 7.7 9.5 11.7 14.0 15.5 18.7 0.4 0.3 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.5 7.1 8.9 11.0 13.1 14.6 18.1 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.6 0.9 7.3 9.1 11.1 13.4 14.9 18.5 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.6 6.9 8.4 10.2 12.1 13.4 16.4 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.4 0.7 6.5 8.0 9.6 11.4 12.5 15.0 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.5 8.4 10.2 12.2 14.2 15.4 18.0 2.0 2.1 2.0 1.9 1.8 1.6 9.6 11.6 14.2 17.0 18.9 23.2 1.0 1.3 1.6 2.0 2.3 3.0 8.0 10.4 13.3 16.6 18.8 23.9 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.4 8.0 10.4 13.3 16.5 18.8 23.8 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.4 a M = male, F = female, P/L = pregnant and lactating. SOURCE: ENVIRON International Corporation and Iowa State University Department of Statistics, 2000.