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I
Iron Intakes and Estimated Percentiles of the Distribution of Iron Requirements from the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII), 1994–1996

TABLE I-1 Iron Content of Foods Consumed by Infants 7 to 12 Months of Age, CSFII (1994–1996)

Foods

Iron Content (mg/ 100 kcal)

Absorption (%)

Amount of Irona

Estimate of Iron Absorbed (mg)

Weighted Mean Absorption (%)b

Human breast milkc

0.04

50

0.18

0.09

0.65

Meat and poultry

1.2

20

0.36

0.07

0.52

Fruits

0.4

5

0.27

0.13

0.10

Vegetables

1.2

5

0.56

0.03

0.20

Cerealsd

8.75

6

12.1

0.73

5.24

Noodles

0.6

5

0.38

0.02

0.14

Total

 

13.85

1.07

6.85

a Based on a total daily energy intake of 845 kcal (Fomon SJ, Anderson TA. 1974. Infant Nutrition, 2nd ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders. Pp. 104–111).

b Calculation based on the proportion of iron in each of the six food groups.

c Assumes an intake of 670 ml/day.

d Refers to iron-fortified infant cereals containing 35 mg iron/100 g of dry cereal.



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Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc I Iron Intakes and Estimated Percentiles of the Distribution of Iron Requirements from the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII), 1994–1996 TABLE I-1 Iron Content of Foods Consumed by Infants 7 to 12 Months of Age, CSFII (1994–1996) Foods Iron Content (mg/ 100 kcal) Absorption (%) Amount of Irona Estimate of Iron Absorbed (mg) Weighted Mean Absorption (%)b Human breast milkc 0.04 50 0.18 0.09 0.65 Meat and poultry 1.2 20 0.36 0.07 0.52 Fruits 0.4 5 0.27 0.13 0.10 Vegetables 1.2 5 0.56 0.03 0.20 Cerealsd 8.75 6 12.1 0.73 5.24 Noodles 0.6 5 0.38 0.02 0.14 Total   13.85 1.07 6.85 a Based on a total daily energy intake of 845 kcal (Fomon SJ, Anderson TA. 1974. Infant Nutrition, 2nd ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders. Pp. 104–111). b Calculation based on the proportion of iron in each of the six food groups. c Assumes an intake of 670 ml/day. d Refers to iron-fortified infant cereals containing 35 mg iron/100 g of dry cereal.

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Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc TABLE I-2 Contribution of Iron from the 14 Food Groups for Children Aged 1 to 3 and 4 to 8 Years, CSFII (1994–1996) Food Group Iron Content (mg/100 kcal)a Amount of Iron (mg), 1–3 yb Amount of Iron (mg), 4–8 yc Meat 1.19 1.57 2.17 Fruits 0.36 0.23 0.25 Vegetables 1.22 1.14 1.87 Cereals 2.65 8.64 11.98 Vegetables plus meat 0.7 0.17 0.18 Grain plus meat 0.78 1.12 1.53 Cheese 0.15 0.04 0.05 Eggs 0.9 0.22 0.19 Ice cream, yogurt, etc. 0.13 0.06 0.01 Fats, candy 0.05 0.03 0.05 Milk 0.08 0.18 0.15 Formula 1.8 0.18 0.00 Juices 0.44 0.34 0.22 Other beverages 0.11 0.07 0.12 Total   14.27 18.77 a Source: Whitney EN, Rolfes SR. 1996. Understanding Nutrition, 7th ed. St. Paul: West Publishing; Pennington JAT. 1998. Bowes and Church’s Food Values of Portions Commonly Used, 17th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott. b The CSFII database provides total food energy (average of 2 days) and the proportion of energy from each of 14 food groups. The iron content of each food was determined from appropriate references (expressed as iron content per 100 kcal), thus the iron content of each food was calculated. The results are based on a total daily energy intake of 1,345 kcal (n = 1,868) as reported in CSFII. c Calculated as shown above. Based on a total daily energy intake of 1,665 kcal (n = 1,711) as reported in CSFII. According to the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, the median intake of iron by infants is 15.5 mg/day; the iron mainly comes from fortified formulas and cereals, with smaller amounts from vegetables, pureed meats and poultry. It is estimated that the absorption of iron from fortified cereals is in the range of 6 percent, from breast milk 50 percent, and from meat, 20 percent.

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Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc TABLE I-3 Estimated Percentiles of the Distribution of Iron Requirements (mg/d) in Young Children and Adolescent and Adult Males, CSFII (1994–1996) Estimated Percentiles of Requirements Young Children, Both Sexesa Male Adolescents and Adults 0.5–1 yb 1–3 yc 4–8 yc 9–13 yc 14–18 yc Adultc 2.5 3.01 1.01 1.33 3.91 5.06 3.98 5 3.63 1.24 1.64 4.23 5.42 4.29 10 4.35 1.54 2.05 4.59 5.85 4.64 20 5.23 1.96 2.63 5.03 6.43 5.09 30 5.87 2.32 3.13 5.36 6.89 5.44 40 6.39 2.66 3.62 5.64 7.29 5.74 50d 6.90 3.01 4.11 5.89 7.69 6.03 60 7.41 3.39 4.65 6.15 8.08 6.32 70 7.93 3.82 5.27 6.43 8.51 6.65 80 8.57 4.39 6.08 6.76 9.03 7.04 90 9.44 5.26 7.31 7.21 9.74 7.69 95 10.15 6.06 8.45 7.58 10.32 8.06 97.5e 10.78 6.81 9.52 7.91 10.83 8.49 a Based on pooled estimates of requirement components (see Table 9-6); presented Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) and Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) based on the higher estimates obtained for males. b Based on 10 percent bioavailability. c Based on 18 percent bioavailability. d Fiftieth percentile = EAR. e Ninety-seven and one-half percentile = RDA.

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Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc TABLE I-4 Estimated Percentiles of the Distribution of Iron Requirements (mg/d) for Female Adolescents and Adults, CSFII (1994–1996) Estimated Percentile of Requirement Group 9–13 y 14–18 y Oral Contraceptive User,a Adolescent Mixed Adolescent Populationb Menstruating Adult Oral Contraceptive User,a Adult Mixed Adult Populationb Post Menopause 2.5 3.24 4.63 4.11 4.49 4.42 3.63 4.18 2.73 5 3.60 5.06 4.49 4.92 4.88 4.00 4.63 3.04 10 4.04 5.61 4.97 5.45 5.45 4.45 5.19 3.43 20 4.59 6.31 5.57 6.14 6.22 5.06 5.94 3.93 30 4.98 6.87 6.05 6.69 6.87 5.52 6.55 4.30 40 5.33 7.39 6.48 7.21 7.46 5.94 7.13 4.64 50c 5.66 7.91 6.89 7.71 8.07 6.35 7.73 4.97 60 6.00 8.43 7.34 8.25 8.76 6.79 8.39 5.30 70 6.36 9.15 7.84 8.92 9.63 7.27 9.21 5.68 80 6.78 10.03 8.47 9.77 10.82 7.91 10.36 6.14 90 7.38 11.54 9.47 11.21 13.05 8.91 12.49 6.80 95 7.88 13.08 10.42 12.74 15.49 9.90 14.85 7.36 97.5d 8.34 14.80 11.44 14.39 18.23 10.94 17.51 7.88 aBased on 60 percent reduction in menstrual blood loss. bMixed population assumes 17 percent oral contraceptive users, 83 percent nonusers, all menstruating. cFiftieth percentile = Estimated Average Requirement. dNinety-seven and one-half percentile = Recommended Dietary Allowance.

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Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc TABLE I-5 Probabilities of Inadequate Iron Intakesa and Associated Ranges of Usual Intake for Infants and Children 1 through 8 Years, CSFII (1994–1996) Probability of Inadequacy Associated Range of Usual Intakes (mg/d) Infants 8–12 mo Children 1–3 y Children 4–8 y 1.0b < 3.01 < 1.0 < 1.33 0.96 3.02–3.63 1.1–1.24 1.34–1.64 0.93 3.64–4.35 1.25–1.54 1.65–2.05 0.85 4.36–5.23 1.55–1.96 2.07–2.63 0.75 5.24–5.87 1.97–2.32 2.64–3.13 0.65 5.88–6.39 2.33–2.66 3.14–3.62 0.55 6.40–6.90 2.67–3.01 3.63–4.11 0.45 6.91–7.41 3.02–3.39 4.12–4.64 0.35 7.42–7.93 3.40–3.82 4.65–5.27 0.25 7.94–8.57 3.83–4.38 5.28–6.08 0.15 8.58–9.44 4.39–5.25 6.09–7.31 0.08 9.45–10.17 5.26–6.06 7.32–8.45 0.04 10.18–10.78 6.07–6.81 8.46–9.52 0b > 10.78 > 6.81 > 9.52 a Probability of inadequate intake = probability that requirement is greater than the usual intake. Derived from Table I-3. b For population assessment purposes, a probability of 1 has been assigned to all usual intakes falling below the two and one-half percentile of requirement and a probability of 0 has been assigned to all usual intakes falling above the ninety-seven and one-half percentile of requirement. This enables the assessment of population risk where precise estimates are impractical and effectively without impact.

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Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc TABLE I-6 Probabilities of Inadequate Iron Intakesa (mg/d) and Associated Ranges of Usual Intake in Adolescent Males and in Girls Using or Not Using Oral Contraceptives (OC), CSFII (1994–1996) Probability of Inadequacy 9–13 y 14–18 y   Female Male Female Male Non-OC Users OC Usersb Mixed Populationc 1.0d < 3.91 < 3.24 < 5.06 < 4.63 < 4.11 < 4.49 0.96 3.91–4.23 3.24–3.60 5.06–5.42 4.64–5.06 4.11–4.49 4.49–4.92 0.93 4.24–4.59 3.61–4.04 5.43–5.85 5.07–5.61 4.50–4.97 4.93–5.45 0.85 4.60–5.03 4.05–4.59 5.86–6.43 5.62–6.31 4.98–5.57 5.46–6.14 0.75 5.04–5.36 4.60–4.98 6.44–6.89 6.32–6.87 5.58–6.05 6.15–6.69 0.65 5.37–5.64 4.99–5.33 6.90–7.29 6.88–7.39 6.06–6.48 6.70–7.21 0.55 5.65–5.89 5.34–5.66 7.80–7.69 7.40–7.91 6.49–6.89 7.22–7.71 0.45 5.90–6.15 5.67–6.00 7.70–8.08 7.92–8.48 6.90–7.34 7.72–8.25 0.35 6.16–6.43 6.01–6.36 8.09–8.51 8.49–9.15 7.35–7.84 8.26–8.92 0.25 6.44–6.76 6.37–6.78 8.52–9.03 9.16–10.03 7.85–8.47 8.93–9.77 0.15 6.77–7.21 6.79–7.38 9.04–9.74 10.04–11.54 8.48–9.47 9.78–11.21 0.08 7.22–7.58 7.39–7.88 9.75–10.32 11.55–13.08 9.48–10.42 11.22–12.74 0.04 7.59–7.91 7.89–8.34 10.33–10.83 13.09–14.80 10.43–11.44 12.75–14.39 0d > 7.91 > 8.34 > 10.83 > 14.80 > 11.44 > 14.39 aProbability of inadequate intake = probability that requirement is greater than the usual intake. May be used in simple computer programs to evaluate adjusted distributions of usual intakes. See Institute of Medicine. 2000. Dietary Reference Intakes: Applications in Dietary Assessment. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, for method of adjusting observed intake distributions. Not to be applied in the assessment of individuals. Derived from Tables I-3 and I-4. bAssumes 60 percent reduction in menstrual iron loss. cMixed population represents 17 percent oral contraceptive users and 83 percent nonoral contraceptive users (Abma JC, Chandra A, Mosher WD, Peterson LS, Piccinino LJ. 1997. Fertility, family planning, and women’s health: New data from the 1995 National Survey of Family Growth. Vital Health Stat 23:1–114). dFor population assessment purposes, a probability of 1 has been assigned to all usual intakes falling below the two and one-half percentile of requirement and a probability of 0 has been assigned to all usual intakes falling above the ninety-seven and one-half percentile of requirement. This enables the assessment of population risk where precise estimates are impractical and effectively without impact.

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Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc TABLE I-7 Probabilities of Inadequate Iron Intakesa (mg/d) and Associated Ranges of Usual Intake in Adult Men and Women Using and Not Using Oral Contraceptives (OC), CSFII (1994–1996) Probability of Inadequacy Adult Men Menstruating Women Postmenopausal Women Non-OC Users OC Usersb Mixed Populationc 1.0d < 3.98 < 4.42 < 3.63 < 4.18 < 2.73 0.96 3.98–4.29 4.42–4.88 3.63–4.00 4.18–4.63 2.73–3.04 0.93 4.30–4.64 4.89–5.45 4.01–4.45 4.64–5.19 3.05–3.43 0.85 4.65–5.09 5.46–6.22 4.46–5.06 5.20–5.94 3.44–3.93 0.75 5.10–5.44 6.23–6.87 5.07–5.52 5.95–6.55 3.94–4.30 0.65 5.45–5.74 6.88–7.46 5.53–5.94 6.56–7.13 4.31–4.64 0.55 5.75–6.03 7.47–8.07 5.95–6.35 7.14–7.73 4.65–4.97 0.45 6.04–6.32 8.08–8.76 6.36–6.79 7.74–8.39 4.98–5.30 0.35 6.33–6.65 8.77–9.63 6.80–7.27 8.40–9.21 5.31–5.68 0.25 6.66–7.04 9.64–10.82 7.28–7.91 9.22–10.36 5.69–6.14 0.15 7.05–7.69 10.83–13.05 7.92–8.91 10.37–12.49 6.15–6.80 0.08 7.70–8.06 13.06–15.49 8.92–9.90 12.50–14.85 6.81–7.36 0.04 8.07–8.49 15.50–18.23 9.91–10.94 14.86–17.51 7.37–7.88 0d > 8.49 > 18.23 > 10.94 > 17.51 > 7.88 aProbability of inadequate intake = probability that requirement is greater than the usual intake. May be used in simple computer programs to evaluate adjusted distributions of usual intakes. See Institute of Medicine. 2000. Dietary Reference Intakes: Applications in Dietary Assessment. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, for method of adjusting observed intake distributions. Not to be applied in the assessment of individuals. Derived from Tables I-3 and I-4. bAssumes 60 percent reduction in menstrual iron loss. cMixed population represents 17 percent oral contraceptive users and 83 percent nonoral contraceptive users (Abma JC, Chandra A, Mosher WD, Peterson LS, Piccinino LJ. 1997. Fertility, family planning, and women’s health: New data from the 1995 National Survey of Family Growth. Vital Health Stat 23:1–114). dFor population assessment purposes, a probability of 1 has been assigned to all usual intakes falling below the two and one-half percentile of requirement and a probability of 0 has been assigned to all usual intakes falling above the ninety-seven and one-half percentile of requirement. This enables the assessment of population risk where precise estimates are impractical and effectively without impact.