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Nicotinamide adenine dinuleotide hydride; a coenzyme


National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey; a survey conducted periodically by the National Center for Health Statistics of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention


No-observed-adverse-effect level; highest intake (or experimental dose) of a nutrient at which no adverse effect has been observed


National Research Council


Office of Technology Assessment


Plant form of vitamin K and a major form of this vitamin in the human diet

Provitamin A carotenoids

α-Carotene, β-carotene, and β-cryptoxanthin


Retinoic acid receptor


Recommended Dietary Allowance


Retinol equivalents

Risk assessment

Organized framework for evaluating scientific information, which has as its objective a characterization of the nature and likelihood of harm resulting from excess human exposure to an environmental agent (in this case, a nutrient); it includes the development of both qualitative and quantitative expressions of risk

Risk characterization

Final step in a risk assessment, which summarizes the conclusions from steps 1 through 3 of the risk assessment (hazard identification, dose response, and estimates of exposure) and evaluates the risk; this step also includes a characterization of the degree of scientific confidence that can be placed in the Tolerable Upper Intake Level

Risk management

Process by which risk assessment results are integrated with other information to make decisions about the need for, method of, and extent of risk reduction; in addition, risk management

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