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individual applications, 554, 557-558, 562-563

methods used to set, 30, 50-51, 53

RDA compared to, 4, 6, 31, 35

uses, 4, 5, 34-35, 554, 557-558, 561, 562-563, 564, 577

Adolescents, ages 14 through 18 years.

See also Life-stage groups;

Pubertal development;

individual nutrients

age of menarche, 339-340, 573

AIs, 35, 39, 562-563

anemia, 335

basal losses of nutrients, 330, 331, 332, 337

bioavailability of nutrients, 337

blood volume, 331

EARs, 39

evidence considered in setting EAR, 271-272, 330-338, 427

extrapolation of data for, 269, 272, 282, 331, 406, 413, 427, 430-431, 437

goiter, 271-272

growth velocity, 39, 53, 331, 338, 339

hemoglobin concentrations, 305, 330, 331-333, 335, 336, 338

hypervitaminosis A, 144

lactation, 117, 184, 211, 244-245, 250, 251, 407, 413-414, 431-432, 479, 487, 519, 528

median weights, by age, 332

menstrual losses, 332, 334-337, 338

method used to set AIs, 180, 207, 404-405

method used to set EAR, 112, 238

oral contraceptive use, 335, 336, 350, 700, 702

pregnancy, 116, 117, 142, 183, 184, 210-211, 243-244, 276, 277, 348-349, 406-407, 413-414, 430-431, 477, 487, 519, 528

reference weights and heights, 41, 42, 210, 338

serum transferrin, 304

special considerations, 330, 339-340, 358, 573

variability of requirements, 330-331, 337-338

Adrenal glands, 522

Adults, ages 19 through 50 years.

See also Life-stage groups;

Men;

Women;

individual nutrients

AIs, 34-35, 562-563

balance studies, 309-310, 405-406, 428-429

biochemical indicators, 239-240

bone mineral density, 126-128

depletion/repletion studies, 224, 228, 229, 231, 232, 239-240, 430

EARs, 52

energy expenditure, 40

factorial analysis, 240-242, 340

hyperthyroidism, 283

hypothyroidism, 283

peak bone mass, 40

reference weights and heights, 41, 114

supplement use, 246, 278

thyroid iodine accumulation and turnover, 273-274

Adults, ages 51+ years.

See also Life-stage groups;

individual nutrients

AIs, 40

absorption of nutrients, 40, 86, 474, 479

γ-carboxyglutamyl excretion, 167

dietary intakes, 186

EARs, 40

energy expenditure, 40

energy needs, 209

institutionalized, 171

nickel, 523

physical activity, 40

physiological functioning, 40

renal function, 40, 69

silicon, 532

vanadium, 533, 534

vegetarian diets, 479-480

vitamin K, 166, 167, 182, 186

zinc, 451, 474-475, 479, 559, 562

Adverse effects.

See also individual nutrients

absorption of nutrients, 73

aging and, 508

defined, 60, 72, 704

evidence of, 72

form of intake and, 358, 374, 409, 410, 433, 482, 524

gender differences, 482

knowledge gaps, 584

nutrient interactions, 61, 72, 129, 358, 482-483



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