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FOOD AND NUTRITION BOARD, INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE–NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES

DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES: RECOMMENDED INTAKES FOR INDIVIDUALS, VITAMINS

Life Stage Group

Vitamin A (μg/d)a

Vitamin C (mg/d)

Vitamin D (μg/d)b,c

Vitamin E (mg/d) d

Vitamin K (μg/d)

Thiamin (mg/d)

Infants

0–6 mo

400*

40*

5*

4*

2.0*

0.2*

7–12 mo

500*

50*

5*

5*

2.5*

0.3*

Children

1–3 y

300

15

5*

6

30*

0.5

4–8 y

400

25

5*

7

55*

0.6

Males

9–13 y

600

45

5*

11

60*

0.9

14–18 y

900

75

5*

15

75*

1.2

19–30 y

900

90

5*

15

120*

1.2

31–50 y

900

90

5*

15

120*

1.2

51–70 y

900

90

10*

15

120*

1.2

> 70 y

900

90

15*

15

120*

1.2

Females

9–13 y

600

45

5*

11

60*

0.9

14–18 y

700

65

5*

15

75*

1.0

19–30 y

700

75

5*

15

90*

1.1

31–50 y

700

75

5*

15

90*

1.1

51–70 y

700

75

10*

15

90*

1.1

> 70 y

700

75

15*

15

90*

1.1

Pregnancy

≤ 18 y

750

80

5*

15

75*

1.4

19–30 y

770

85

5*

15

90*

1.4

31–50 y

770

85

5*

15

90*

1.4

Lactation

≤ 18 y

1,200

115

5*

19

75*

1.4

19–30 y

1,300

120

5*

19

90*

1.4

31–50 y

1,300

120

5*

19

90*

1.4

NOTE: This table (taken from the DRI reports, see www.nap.edu) presents Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) in bold type and Adequate Intakes (AIs) in ordinary type followed by an asterisk (*). RDAs and AIs may both be used as goals for individual intake. RDAs are set to meet the needs of almost all (97 to 98 percent) individuals in a group. For healthy breastfed infants, the AI is the mean intake. The AI for other life stage and gender groups is believed to cover needs of all individuals in the group, but lack of data or uncertainty in the data prevent being able to specify with confidence the percentage of individuals covered by this intake.

a As retinol activity equivalents (RAEs). 1 RAE = 1 μg retinol, 12 μg β-carotene, 24 μg α-carotene, or 24 μg β-cryptoxanthin. To calculate RAEs from REs of provitamin A carotenoids in foods, divide the REs by 2. For preformed vitamin A in foods or supplements and for provitamin A carotenoids in supplements, 1 RE = 1 RAE.



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Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc FOOD AND NUTRITION BOARD, INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE–NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES: RECOMMENDED INTAKES FOR INDIVIDUALS, VITAMINS Life Stage Group Vitamin A (μg/d)a Vitamin C (mg/d) Vitamin D (μg/d)b,c Vitamin E (mg/d) d Vitamin K (μg/d) Thiamin (mg/d) Infants 0–6 mo 400* 40* 5* 4* 2.0* 0.2* 7–12 mo 500* 50* 5* 5* 2.5* 0.3* Children 1–3 y 300 15 5* 6 30* 0.5 4–8 y 400 25 5* 7 55* 0.6 Males 9–13 y 600 45 5* 11 60* 0.9 14–18 y 900 75 5* 15 75* 1.2 19–30 y 900 90 5* 15 120* 1.2 31–50 y 900 90 5* 15 120* 1.2 51–70 y 900 90 10* 15 120* 1.2 > 70 y 900 90 15* 15 120* 1.2 Females 9–13 y 600 45 5* 11 60* 0.9 14–18 y 700 65 5* 15 75* 1.0 19–30 y 700 75 5* 15 90* 1.1 31–50 y 700 75 5* 15 90* 1.1 51–70 y 700 75 10* 15 90* 1.1 > 70 y 700 75 15* 15 90* 1.1 Pregnancy ≤ 18 y 750 80 5* 15 75* 1.4 19–30 y 770 85 5* 15 90* 1.4 31–50 y 770 85 5* 15 90* 1.4 Lactation ≤ 18 y 1,200 115 5* 19 75* 1.4 19–30 y 1,300 120 5* 19 90* 1.4 31–50 y 1,300 120 5* 19 90* 1.4 NOTE: This table (taken from the DRI reports, see www.nap.edu) presents Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) in bold type and Adequate Intakes (AIs) in ordinary type followed by an asterisk (*). RDAs and AIs may both be used as goals for individual intake. RDAs are set to meet the needs of almost all (97 to 98 percent) individuals in a group. For healthy breastfed infants, the AI is the mean intake. The AI for other life stage and gender groups is believed to cover needs of all individuals in the group, but lack of data or uncertainty in the data prevent being able to specify with confidence the percentage of individuals covered by this intake. a As retinol activity equivalents (RAEs). 1 RAE = 1 μg retinol, 12 μg β-carotene, 24 μg α-carotene, or 24 μg β-cryptoxanthin. To calculate RAEs from REs of provitamin A carotenoids in foods, divide the REs by 2. For preformed vitamin A in foods or supplements and for provitamin A carotenoids in supplements, 1 RE = 1 RAE.

OCR for page 770
Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc Riboflavin (mg/d) Niacin (mg/d)e Vitamin B6 (mg/d) Folate (μg/d)f Vitamin B12 (μg/d) Pantothenic Acid (mg/d) Biotin (μg/d) Choline (mg/d)g 0.3* 2* 0.1* 65* 0.4* 1.7* 5* 125* 0.4* 4* 0.3* 80* 0.5* 1.8* 6* 150* 0.5 6 0.5 150 0.9 2* 8* 200* 0.6 8 0.6 200 1.2 3* 12* 250* 0.9 12 1.0 300 1.8 4* 20* 375* 1.3 16 1.3 400 2.4 5* 25* 550* 1.3 16 1.3 400 2.4 5* 30* 550* 1.3 16 1.3 400 2.4 5* 30* 550* 1.3 16 1.7 400 2.4h 5* 30* 550* 1.3 16 1.7 400 2.4h 5* 30* 550* 0.9 12 1.0 300 1.8 4* 20* 375* 1.0 14 1.2 400i 2.4 5* 25* 400* 1.1 14 1.3 400i 2.4 5* 30* 425* 1.1 14 1.3 400i 2.4 5* 30* 425* 1.1 14 1.5 400 2.4h 5* 30* 425* 1.1 14 1.5 400 2.4h 5* 30* 425* 1.4 18 1.9 600j 2.6 6* 30* 450* 1.4 18 1.9 600j 2.6 6* 30* 450* 1.4 18 1.9 600j 2.6 6* 30* 450* 1.6 17 2.0 500 2.8 7* 35* 550* 1.6 17 2.0 500 2.8 7* 35* 550* 1.6 17 2.0 500 2.8 7* 35* 550* b calciferol. 1 μg calciferol = 40 IU vitamin D. c In the absence of adequate exposure to sunlight. d As α-tocopherol. α-Tocopherol includes RRR-α-tocopherol, the only form of α-tocopherol that occurs naturally in foods, and the 2R-stereoisomeric forms of α-tocopherol (RRR-, RSR-, RRS-, and RSS-α-tocopherol) that occur in fortified foods and supplements. It does not include the 2S-stereoisomeric forms of α-tocopherol (SRR-, SSR-, SRS-, and SSS-α-tocopherol), also found in fortified foods and supplements. e As niacin equivalents (NE). 1 mg of niacin = 60 mg of tryptophan; 0–6 months = preformed niacin (not NE). f As dietary folate equivalents (DFE). 1 DFE = 1 μg food folate = 0.6 μg of folic acid from fortified food or as a supplement consumed with food = 0.5 μg of a supplement taken on an empty stomach. g Although AIs have been set for choline, there are few data to assess whether a dietary supply of choline is needed at all stages of the life cycle, and it may be that the choline requirement can be met by endogenous synthesis at some of these stages.