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FOOD AND NUTRITION BOARD, INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE–NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES

DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES: RECOMMENDED INTAKES FOR INDIVIDUALS, ELEMENTS

Life Stage Group

Calcium (mg/d)

Chromium (μg/d)

Copper (μg/d)

Fluoride (mg/d)

Iodine (μg/d)

Iron (mg/d)

Infants

0–6 mo

210*

0.2*

200*

0.01*

110*

0.27*

7–12 mo

270*

5.5*

220*

0.5*

130*

11

Children

1–3 y

500*

11*

340

0.7*

90

7

4–8 y

800*

15*

440

1*

90

10

Males

9–13 y

1,300*

25*

700

2*

120

8

14–18 y

1,300*

35*

890

3*

150

11

19–30 y

1,000*

35*

900

4*

150

8

31–50 y

1,000*

35*

900

4*

150

8

51–70 y

1,200*

30*

900

4*

150

8

> 70 y

1,200*

30*

900

4*

150

8

Females

9–13 y

1,300*

21*

700

2*

120

8

14–18 y

1,300*

24*

890

3*

150

15

19–30 y

1,000*

25*

900

3*

150

18

31–50 y

1,000*

25*

900

3*

150

18

51–70 y

1,200*

20*

900

3*

150

8

> 70 y

1,200*

20*

900

3*

150

8

Pregnancy

≤ 18 y

1,300*

29*

1,000

3*

220

27

19–30 y

1,000*

30*

1,000

3*

220

27

31–50 y

1,000*

30*

1,000

3*

220

27

Lactation

≤ 18 y

1,300*

44*

1,300

3*

290

10

19–30 y

1,000*

45*

1,300

3*

290

9

31–50 y

1,000*

45*

1,300

3*

290

9

h Because 10 to 30 percent of older people may malabsorb food-bound B12, it is advisable for those older than 50 years to meet their RDA mainly by consuming foods fortified with B12 or a supplement containing B12.

i In view of evidence linking folate intake with neural tube defects in the fetus, it is recommended that all women capable of becoming pregnant consume 400 μg from supplements or fortified foods in addition to intake of food folate from a varied diet.



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Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc FOOD AND NUTRITION BOARD, INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE–NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES: RECOMMENDED INTAKES FOR INDIVIDUALS, ELEMENTS Life Stage Group Calcium (mg/d) Chromium (μg/d) Copper (μg/d) Fluoride (mg/d) Iodine (μg/d) Iron (mg/d) Infants 0–6 mo 210* 0.2* 200* 0.01* 110* 0.27* 7–12 mo 270* 5.5* 220* 0.5* 130* 11 Children 1–3 y 500* 11* 340 0.7* 90 7 4–8 y 800* 15* 440 1* 90 10 Males 9–13 y 1,300* 25* 700 2* 120 8 14–18 y 1,300* 35* 890 3* 150 11 19–30 y 1,000* 35* 900 4* 150 8 31–50 y 1,000* 35* 900 4* 150 8 51–70 y 1,200* 30* 900 4* 150 8 > 70 y 1,200* 30* 900 4* 150 8 Females 9–13 y 1,300* 21* 700 2* 120 8 14–18 y 1,300* 24* 890 3* 150 15 19–30 y 1,000* 25* 900 3* 150 18 31–50 y 1,000* 25* 900 3* 150 18 51–70 y 1,200* 20* 900 3* 150 8 > 70 y 1,200* 20* 900 3* 150 8 Pregnancy ≤ 18 y 1,300* 29* 1,000 3* 220 27 19–30 y 1,000* 30* 1,000 3* 220 27 31–50 y 1,000* 30* 1,000 3* 220 27 Lactation ≤ 18 y 1,300* 44* 1,300 3* 290 10 19–30 y 1,000* 45* 1,300 3* 290 9 31–50 y 1,000* 45* 1,300 3* 290 9 h Because 10 to 30 percent of older people may malabsorb food-bound B12, it is advisable for those older than 50 years to meet their RDA mainly by consuming foods fortified with B12 or a supplement containing B12. i In view of evidence linking folate intake with neural tube defects in the fetus, it is recommended that all women capable of becoming pregnant consume 400 μg from supplements or fortified foods in addition to intake of food folate from a varied diet.

OCR for page 772
Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc Magnesium (mg/d) Manganese (mg/d) Molybdenum (μg/d) Phosphorus (mg/d) Selenium (μg/d) Zinc (mg/d) 30* 0.003* 2* 100* 15* 2* 75* 0.6* 3* 275* 20* 3 80 1.2* 17 460 20 3 130 1.5* 22 500 30 5 240 1.9* 34 1,250 40 8 410 2.2* 43 1,250 55 11 400 2.3* 45 700 55 11 420 2.3* 45 700 55 11 420 2.3* 45 700 55 11 420 2.3* 45 700 55 11 240 1.6* 34 1,250 40 8 360 1.6* 43 1,250 55 9 310 1.8* 45 700 55 8 320 1.8* 45 700 55 8 320 1.8* 45 700 55 8 320 1.8* 45 700 55 8 400 2.0* 50 1,250 60 12 350 2.0* 50 700 60 11 360 2.0* 50 700 60 11 360 2.6* 50 1,250 70 13 310 2.6* 50 700 70 12 320 2.6* 50 700 70 12 j It is assumed that women will continue consuming 400 μg from supplements or fortified food until their pregnancy is confirmed and they enter prenatal care, which ordinarily occurs after the end of the periconceptional period—the critical time for formation of the neural tube. Copyright 2001 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. SOURCES: Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride (1997); Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline (1998); Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamine E, Selenium, and Carotenoids (2000); and Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc (2001). These reports may be accessed via www.nap.edu.