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TABLE S-1 Criteria and Dietary Reference Intake Values for Vitamin A by Life Stage Group

Life Stage Group

Criterion

0 through 6 mo

Average vitamin A intake from human milk

7 through 12 mo

Extrapolation from 0 through 6 mo AI

1 through 3 y

Extrapolation from adult EAR

4 through 8 y

Extrapolation from adult EAR

9 through 13 y

Extrapolation from adult EAR

14 through 18 y

Extrapolation from adult EAR

> 18 y

Adequate liver vitamin A stores

Pregnancy

 

14 through 18 y

Adolescent female EAR plus estimated daily accumulation by fetus

19 through 50 y

Adult female EAR plus estimated daily accumulation by fetus

Lactation

 

14 through 18 y

Adolescent female EAR plus average amount of vitamin A secreted in human milk

19 through 50 y

Adult female EAR plus average amount of vitamin A secreted in human milk

aEAR = Estimated Average Requirement. The intake that meets the estimated nutrient needs of half of the individuals in a group.

b RDA = Recommended Dietary Allowance. The intake that meets the nutrient need of almost all (97–98 percent) of individuals in a group.

c AI = Adequate Intake. The observed average or experimentally determined intake by a defined population or subgroup that appears to sustain a defined nutritional status, such as growth rate, normal circulating nutrient values, or other functional indicators of health. The AI is used if sufficient scientific evidence is not available to derive an EAR. For healthy infants receiving human milk, the AI is the mean intake. The AI is not equivalent to an RDA.

be used as a criterion of adequacy. The quality of studies was examined by considering study design; methods used for measuring intake and indicators of adequacy; and biases, interactions, and confounding factors.

Although the reference values are based on data, the data were often scanty or drawn from studies that had limitations in addressing the various questions that confronted the panel. Therefore, many of the questions raised about the requirements for and recommended intakes of these micronutrients cannot be answered fully because of inadequacies in the present database. Apart from studies of overt deficiency diseases, there is a dearth of studies that address specific effects of inadequate intakes on specific indicators of health status, and a research agenda is proposed (see Chapter 15). The



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