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APPENDIX A Data Sources and Acknowledgments The committee explored various data sources in a concerted effort to cast a broad net for the collection and assessment of information. In addi- tion to reviewing the literature, the committee invited scientific experts to make presentations and commissioned an independent consultant to pre- pare a background paper. Many of the study sponsors also provided helpful information including published reports, regulations and guid- ance documents, remarks and testimony from meetings and hearings, and additional literature. The committee also reviewed relevant articles and editorials in the popular press, as well as federal agency and health information sites on the World Wide Web. LITERATURE REVIEW The committee was provided with copies of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Agenda for Research on Women's Health for the 21st Century (National Institutes of Health, Office of Research on Women's Health, l999a-f) before the first committee meeting. That six-volume report pro- vided the committee with a broad base of knowledge and issues on which it could build. The committee expanded its review by conducting numer- ous literature searches. Search terms used included, but were not limited to, sex differences or gender differences and each of the following: biology, immunology, endocrinology, metabolism, physiology, genetics, pharmacology, toxicology, infectious disease, psychology, behavior, animal models, and aging. The sponsors, invited speakers, and other researchers and professionals 229

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230 EXPLORING THE BIOLOGICAL CONTRIBUTIONS TO HUMAN HEALTH who consider sex and gender differences in their work also provided literature for the committee's review and consideration. In addition, Institute of Medicine staff attended professional scientific meetings and symposia during the course of the study to bring back the latest research information for the committee's review. Among the meet- ings attended were the annual scientific advisory meetings of the Society for Women's Health Research, the Conference on Sex and Gene Expres- sion sponsored by the Society for Women's Health Research, the National Forum of the Centers of Excellence in Women's Health, a Smithsonian Institution seminar entitled Gender Differences in Addiction and Recov- ery, and a seminar entitled Sex and Gender Analysis in Health Research at the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. INVITED PRESENTATIONS Over the course of the study, the committee received and considered information from organizations and individuals representing many dif- ferent perspectives on research on sex and gender issues.1 The committee believed that it was important to receive direct input from researchers whose work has included the analysis of sex and gender differences in health. At the first four committee meetings, the committee invited experts in various related fields of scientific endeavor to make presentations and have discussions with the committee (Box A-1. Speakers and topics were chosen to complement, expand upon, and fill gaps in the committee's own collective expertise. Committee members heard presentations and asked questions to explore fully the data, sur- rounding issues, and unique perspectives that each researcher provided. TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE In addition to discussions with the invited speakers, the committee sought additional expert technical assistance over the course of the study. The committee is grateful to the following individuals for their helpful contributions and discussions via phone and e-mail: Philip L. Cohen, University of Pennsylvania; Peter K. Gregersen, North Shore University Hospital; Helen Hobbs, University of Texas Southwestern Medical School; Peter Nathanielsz, Cornell University; J. Lee Nelson, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center; Christopher O'Donnell, Massachusetts General hall written materials presented to the committee were reviewed and considered with respect to the committee's four tasks. This material can be examined by the public at 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W., Room 204, Washington, DC 20418; telephone: (202) 334-3543.

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232 EXPLORING THE BIOLOGICAL CONTRIBUTIONS TO HUMAN HEALTH Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Allen C. Steere, New England Medical Center. COMMISSIONED PAPER To gain a more in-depth perspective on current and potential barri- ers to the conduct of valid and productive research on sex and gender differences, the committee commissioned an independent consultant to prepare a background paper on this topic for the committee's use. Beth Schachter, a professional science writer and editor with a biomedical research background in cellular and molecular biology and endocrinol- ogy, interviewed selected researchers and administrators by phone and e-mail and reviewed relevant articles and editorials in scientific journals and the popular press. That paper provided some of the background for Chapter 6.