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L^~'~ INVENTION TO APPLICATION JOHN R. WHINNERY Symposium Chairman JESSE H. AUSUBEL H. DALE LANGFORD Editors `~, National Academy of Engineering NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS WASH I NGTON, D.C., 1 987

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NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW Washington, DC 20418 NOTICE The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organiza- tion of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achieve- ments of engineers. Dr. Robert M. White is president of the National Academy of Engineering. Funds for the National Academy of Engineering's symposium "Twenty-Five Years of the Laser" were provided by the Academy's Technological Leadership Program. Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 87-042941 ISBN 0-309-03776-X Printed in the United States of America First Printing, September 1987 Second Printing, April 1988 Third Printing, August 1988

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Preface and Acknow~eclgments Month by month the practical applications of lasers are more evident. They provide the music in our homes and print the documents in our offices. They are integral to our systems for telecommunications and national security and, increasingly, medical care. As this report vividly portrays, the laser story is one of harmony between engineering and science, industry and universities, the impulse of the inventor and the needs of society. It is a story we should understand as we seek to provide fertile ground for discovery and to reap greater benefits from research. Anthony Siegman and John Whinnery urged the National Academy of Engineering (NAE) to take note in 1985 of the 25th anniversary of the invention of the laser. With their assistance, we organized a symposium commemorating dis- coveries that brought this technological star into our midst and exploring where laser light might leas! us in the future. The symposium was so successful that we decided to seek to capture the essence of the presentations in a publication that might bring the excitement and intensity of the laser story to a broader audience. This report is the result. We are grateful to the authors for translating what were often highly visual presentations into words and images that can be conveyed in printed form. John Whinnery guided the endeavor with imagination and affection. NAE staff members Jesse Ausube! and Dale Langford provided effective support and editorial assistance. . . .

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iv PREFACE AN D ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I hope the readers of this report will gain a greater appreciation of one of the seminal inventions of our era and the many dimensions of our research and industrial institu- tions that can contribute to technological leaclership. Let us emulate the invention and application of the laser many times over in harnessing technology to increase fundamental knowI- edge and promote economic growth. ROBERT M. WHITE, President National Academy of Engineering

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Contents THE LASER: STILL YOUNG AT 25? Anthony E. Siegman LASERS IN MODERN INDUSTRIES Anthony f. DeMaria LASERS IN COMMUNICATIONS AND INFORMATION PROCESSING C. Kumar N. Patel LASERS IN MEDICINE Rodney Perkins, M.D. LASERS IN SCIENCE Arthur L. Schawlow INTERACTIONS BETWEEN THE SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY OF LASERS fohn R. Whinnery CONTRIBUTORS GLOSSARY 1 17 45 101 118 123 131 133 v

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LASERS INVENTION TO APPLICATION

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