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Ambulatory without aid or rest for about 100 meters; disability severe enough to preclude full daily activities


Intermittent or unilateral constant assistance (cane, crutch, or brace) required to walk about 100 meters with or without resting


Constant bilateral assistance (canes, crutches, or braces) required to walk about 20 meters without resting


Unable to walk beyond about 5 meters even with aid. Essentially restricted to a wheelchair. Wheels self in standard wheelchair and transfers alone. Active in wheelchair about 12 hours a day


Unable to take more than a few steps. Restricted to wheelchair. May need aid to transfer. Wheels self but cannot carry on in standard wheelchair a full day. May require a motorized wheelchair


Unable to walk at all, essentially restricted to bed, chair or wheelchair but may be out of bed much of the day. Retains many self-care functions. Generally has effective use of the arms


Essentially restricted to bed much of the day. Has some effective use of arm(s). Retains some self-care functions


Helpless bed patient. Can communicate and eat


Totally helpless bed patient. Unable to communicate effectively or eat/ swallow


Death due to Multiple Sclerosis

SOURCE: Kurtzke JF. 1983. Rating neurologic impairment in multiple sclerosis: an expanded disability status scale (EDSS). Neurology.;33:1444-52.

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