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AMPA/kainate receptors, 243, 244, 287, 290
Amputation, 247, 250
Amytrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), 13, 14, 115, 330, 339, 365
treatment, 283, 285, 286, 287, 289, 300, 305, 366, 367
Anergix, 394
Animal models, ix , 84, 90-104, 396
bone marrow transplants, 296
brain, 96, 103
encephalomyelitis, 7, 43, 72-73, 84-86, 99;
see also

Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE)
demylenation, 7, 91-99 (passim), 102-103, 357
immune system, general, 7, 21, 48, 91, 97, 103
magnetic resonance imaging, 262
major histocompatibility complex (MHC), 91, 103
neurons, 6, 7, 95
remyelination, 243-244
research recommendations, 4, 6-7, 356-358
spasticity, 131
T cells, autoreactive, 251-252, 355
tolerance strategies, 21
transgenic, 91, 93, 97, 100-104, 280, 355, 356-357
transplantation, 292
viruses, 21, 91, 357-358
mouse hepatitis virus (MHV), 95, 98-100
Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV), 48, 91, 92, 95-98, 99, 269, 357
Antegren, 294
Antibiotics, 407
Antibodies, 42, 68, 255, 349, 350, 394, 410
see also

Antigens;
Immunoglobulins;
Vaccines
autoantibodies, 66, 73, 74, 92, 93, 251, 255, 266, 355
neutralizing, beta-interferon, 51, 52, 97
T cells, antigen-specific, 60, 70, 93, 252-253, 254, 257-258, 260, 263-265, 279, 280, 354, 355, 397
Antigens, 60, 68, 263
see also

Major histocompatibility complex
astrocytes, 244-245, 350
autoantigens, 5-6, 7, 42, 44, 45, 50, 60, 66, 67, 71-74 (passim), 82, 88, 91, 93, 100, 244, 251-255, 257, 279, 280, 354, 355, 357, 398
superantigens, 67, 92, 93, 95, 254
cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), 42, 45
neutralizing antibodies, 51, 52, 97
Anxiety, 122, 123, 152, 200, 211, 217, 224
see also

Depression
side effects of treatment, 50, 125, 126, 127, 135, 388
treatment, 227, 229
Apoptosis, 7, 98, 243, 254, 255, 259, 269, 281, 284-285, 286, 287, 295, 351, 358-359, 392
Arthritis, 14, 44, 69, 122, 145, 152, 153, 297, 299, 328, 329, 337, 366
Asians, 48, 77, 79, 83, 85, 87
Assistive technology, ix , 199, 205-210, 385-386
catheterization, 143, 206
cognitive impairment, 119, 209
cost and cost-effectiveness, 205, 206, 207, 210
defined, 205
employment, 193, 207-208
environmental control technology, 206, 207
health screening, 222-223
insurance coverage, 206, 209, 222
wheelchairs, 128, 188, 199, 206-207, 209, 220, 222, 386
Astrocytes, 3, 4
antigens, 244-245, 350
biological features of MS, 45, 62, 64, 71, 87
blood-brain barrier, 257
cytokines, 257, 258, 259, 350
disease mechanism research, 241, 245, 253, 257, 258, 259, 267
glial scars, 3, 241, 350
inflammation, 258
research recommendations, 241, 244-245, 253, 257, 258, 259, 267, 349, 350
treatment, 282, 284, 286, 294
Asymptomatic MS, 6, 30, 35-36, 88, 115, 177
Ataxia and tremor, 128, 138-140, 163
assistive technologies, 209
employment and, 191
experimental autoimmune
encephalomyelitis (EAE) vs MS, 92


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