Page xviii

3.5     Medications Used to Treat Bladder and Bowel Dysfunction, 144
3.6     Medications Used to Treat Optic Neuritis and Abnormal Eye Movements, 150
3.7     Medications Used to Treat Fatigue, 154
3.8     Neurological Pathways That Control Sexual Response in Men and Women, 157
3.9     Medications Used to Treat Erectile Dysfunction, 159
5.1     Hypothetical Results of a Clinical Trial, 262
6.1     MRI Outcomes for Clinical Trials, 310
7.1     Research Budgets of Selected Health Organizations in 1998, 329

FIGURES

1.1     MS distribution map, 18
1.2     The nerve fiber in multiple sclerosis, 19
2.1     Spectrum of disease course, 31
2.2     Areas of the CNS affected by MS, 32
2.3     MRI scans of the brain, 37
2.4     Oligodendrocyte making myelin, 55
2.5     Pathogenesis, 57
2.6     Axonal transection and degeneration, 59
2.7     Possible mechanisms of demyelination, 61
2.8     The blood-brain barrier, 63
2.9     Interactions between major cell components of the immune system, 68
2.10     Possible mechanism of viral etiology, 70
3.1     Functions controlled by nerves at different levels of the spine, 129
5.1     Demyelination and axonal degeneration in multiple sclerosis, 242
5.2     Possible role of AMPA/kainate receptors on neurons and glia, 244
6.2     Lineage of neural stem cells, 294
7.1     Relationship between NIH disease-specific research funding, 327
7.2a     Summary of publications in general medical journals, 328
7.2b     Summary of publications in neurology journals, 330
7.3     Ph.D and postdoctoral fellowship trends, 335
7.4     Trends in postdoctoral fellowship applications, 337


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