Page 471

Index

A

Absenteeism, 1, 11, 17, 30, 47-52 (passim), 58. 153, 157, 351, 364
     age factors, 51
     back disorders, 53-54, 97, 123, 143, 147, 153, 154, 157
     Bureau of Labor Statistics, 50, 51, 52
     epidemiologic studies, 97, 98, 435
     preventive interventions, 305-306, 316-317, 319, 326, 327
     surveillance, 305-306
     upper extremity disorders, 98, 110, 183, 315-317
     workers' compensation and, 28-29, 58
     Adenosine triphosphate, 202
Administrative controls, 8, 304, 307, 368, 437
     see also Ergonomic interventions
     back disorders, 8, 309, 311, 312, 313
     rest breaks, 111-112, 160, 161, 162, 174, 181, 183, 263, 274, 320
     upper extremity disorders, 183, 315-316, 322
African Americans,
     see Race/ethnicity
Age factors, 2, 4, 6, 9, 11, 10, 32, 89, 90, 330, 336, 347, 365, 373, 433
     see also Elderly persons
     absenteeism, 51
     back disorders, 7, 39, 40, 43, 44, 51, 55, 151
     carpal tunnel syndrome, 51, 56, 286, 360, 442, 447-448
     databases, 39, 40, 43, 44, 46-47, 48, 366
     ergonomic interventions, 304
     gender and, 39, 42, 51, 337
     hand disorders, 54-55
     muscle contraction, 203
     peripheral nerve, 217-218
     psychosocial factors, 141, 151
     skeletal muscle, 209, 210, 217-218
     tendinitis, 51
     tendons, other, 198-199
     upper extremity disorders, 7, 51, 55, 56, 183, 286, 360, 433
     vertebral bone and disc, 188, 189-190, 193-194, 217-218, 433
Agricultural workers,
     see Farm workers
Alcohol consumption, 75-76, 442
Allodynia, 186-187
American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, 57
American National Standards Institute, 307
Animal models, 5, 22, 65, 66, 67, 184, 216
     peripheral nerve, 213, 216
     skeletal muscle, 207-208, 216
     spinal discs, 193, 194, 216
     tendons, 197-199, 216-217
Annual Survey of Occupational Injuries and Illnesses, 44-45, 49, 60-61


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Page 471 Index A Absenteeism, 1, 11, 17, 30, 47-52 (passim), 58. 153, 157, 351, 364      age factors, 51      back disorders, 53-54, 97, 123, 143, 147, 153, 154, 157      Bureau of Labor Statistics, 50, 51, 52      epidemiologic studies, 97, 98, 435      preventive interventions, 305-306, 316-317, 319, 326, 327      surveillance, 305-306      upper extremity disorders, 98, 110, 183, 315-317      workers' compensation and, 28-29, 58      Adenosine triphosphate, 202 Administrative controls, 8, 304, 307, 368, 437      see also Ergonomic interventions      back disorders, 8, 309, 311, 312, 313      rest breaks, 111-112, 160, 161, 162, 174, 181, 183, 263, 274, 320      upper extremity disorders, 183, 315-316, 322 African Americans,      see Race/ethnicity Age factors, 2, 4, 6, 9, 11, 10, 32, 89, 90, 330, 336, 347, 365, 373, 433      see also Elderly persons      absenteeism, 51      back disorders, 7, 39, 40, 43, 44, 51, 55, 151      carpal tunnel syndrome, 51, 56, 286, 360, 442, 447-448      databases, 39, 40, 43, 44, 46-47, 48, 366      ergonomic interventions, 304      gender and, 39, 42, 51, 337      hand disorders, 54-55      muscle contraction, 203      peripheral nerve, 217-218      psychosocial factors, 141, 151      skeletal muscle, 209, 210, 217-218      tendinitis, 51      tendons, other, 198-199      upper extremity disorders, 7, 51, 55, 56, 183, 286, 360, 433      vertebral bone and disc, 188, 189-190, 193-194, 217-218, 433 Agricultural workers,      see Farm workers Alcohol consumption, 75-76, 442 Allodynia, 186-187 American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, 57 American National Standards Institute, 307 Animal models, 5, 22, 65, 66, 67, 184, 216      peripheral nerve, 213, 216      skeletal muscle, 207-208, 216      spinal discs, 193, 194, 216      tendons, 197-199, 216-217 Annual Survey of Occupational Injuries and Illnesses, 44-45, 49, 60-61

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Page 472 Anxiety, 25, 148, 149, 159, 289, 435      see also Psychosocial factors      back disorders, 107, 108, 109, 142, 145, 149, 150, 151, 154, 156, 157      somatization, 26-27, 108, 149, 175, 288      upper extremity disorders, 7, 111, 112, 161, 166, 296, 358 Arms, 111, 151, 173, 174, 180, 231, 255, 268-269, 319      see also Elbows; Forearms; Hands; Shoulders; Upper arm; Wrists Arthritis,      see Osteoarthritis ATP,      see Adenosine triphosphate Attitudes, 26, 30, 108, 314, 319, 326      see also Anxiety; Depression; Job satisfaction; Psychosocial factors about pain/functional limitations, 23, 33, 59, 145 Attributable risk, 114, 118-132      back disorders, 98-99, 108-109, 118-124, 141-147      defined, 87-88      psychosocial factors, 141-183 (passim)      upper extremity disorders, 101-102, 110, 111-112, 125-132, 160-183, 314, 441-442, 443, 459 Auditory disorders,      see Hearing disorders; Noise Australia, 452-453 Automobile manufacturing workers, 22, 23, 56-57, 180-181, 238, 239, 275, 307 B Back belts, 307, 309, 310, 311, 312, 313, 436 Balance theory of job design and stress, 293 Bending, 9, 55, 98, 99-100, 119-122, 124, 354, 364, 434      attributable risk, 88, 119-122, 124      spinal curvature, 251      spinal discs, 190, 192, 249-250 Best practice interventions, xiii, 13, 310-313, 320, 322-323, 369, 437, 439 Biomechanics, 9, 56, 81, 91, 219-286, 353, 356-357, 361, 362, 365, 373, 432, 439      see also Tissue mechanobiology      back disorders, 6-7, 219, 235-253, 356-358, 363      spinal discs, 229-230, 239, 247-250, 252, 373      vertebra, 229-230, 250, 252      carpal tunnel syndrome, 260, 261, 265, 266-268, 286      collagen, 228, 229      committee study methodology, 4, 5, 22      connective tissue, 227-228;      see also “tendons” infra      elbows, 253, 269, 277, 278      electrophysical measurements, 24, 93, 208, 225, 230, 231-232, 233, 243, 257-258, 259, 260, 263-264, 268-269, 271, 274, 275, 278, 291-292, 297, 360, 443, 440-449 (passim)      epidemiology and, 252, 253, 459      fatigue, tissue, 226, 232-233, 269-279      force, general, 221-222, 224, 225, 226, 253-286      forearms, 233, 257, 260, 267-269, 274, 277, 278, 284      gender factors, 258, 277, 284      grip, 231, 233, 258, 259, 268, 274, 275-276, 279-285 (passim), 360           pinch grip, 267, 276, 279, 448      hands, general, 231, 254-260 (passim), 265-266, 270-281 (passim)      individual factors, 33, 35      lifting, 225, 236, 237-239, 244, 246, 250-251      loading, 3, 5, 6-7, 33, 34, 35, 81, 95      neck, 253      pain, 373           back, 235-241, 246-248, 250-253, 287, 357-358           upper extremities, 279-284, 286, 287, 360      pinch force/strength, 254, 256, 260, 262, 268, 270, 276, 277, 280, 282, 284, 285-286, 317, 448      posture, 221, 257-258, 259, 266-268, 270, 279, 280, 281, 284, 286, 359-360      preventive interventions, 304      prospective research, 237      psychosocial factors, 234, 237, 275-279, 297, 373      repetitive motion, 221, 224, 225, 253-257 (passim), 270, 275-277, 373      shear loads, 221, 227-228, 230, 232, 239-251 (passim), 265, 268

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Page 473      shoulder disorders, 253, 263, 264, 269, 274, 277, 278      skeletal muscle, 222, 225, 226, 227, 228-229, 234, 242-243      spinal discs, 229-230, 239, 247-250, 252, 373      stress, general, 234, 259      stretching, 202, 206, 207-208, 216, 227, 228      surveillance, 243, 250      temperature factors, 219, 221-226 (passim), 248, 253, 255-256, 258, 260-264, 280-282      tendons, 222, 227-228, 239, 247, 250-252, 265-266, 268, 373      time factors, 224, 225, 226, 258, 280, 281-284, 286, 373      twisting, 55, 239, 244, 270, 271, 275-276, 278      typing, 231, 254, 256, 257, 260, 263, 264, 268-269, 278, 280, 281      upper extremity disorders, 7, 219, 253-286, 359-360, 363, 432, 439, 458;      see also specific disorders and extremities supra      vertebra, 229-230, 250, 252      vibration, 221-226 (passim), 230, 231, 233, 254, 255-256, 258, 260-264, 268, 270-273, 274, 276, 277-278, 280, 281-283, 286      wrist, 255, 257-258, 260, 261, 262, 263, 265-267, 268, 270, 274, 275-279, 282, 284, 360, 363 Biophysical model, 293 Biostatistics, 68, 74 Blood flow/pressure, 76, 198, 205, 210, 212, 214, 233, 269, 274, 293, 297, 299, 448 Body weight,      see Weight factors, body Bone, 22, 101, 251-252, 372      see also Skeletal muscle; Vertebra cellular healing processes, 193 Bracial arteriography, 135 Bradford Hill criteria,      causality, 20, 21, 28, 66, 72-79, 87, 108, 144      tissue mechanobiology, 184 Brain neurobiology, 186      pain, 25-26, 185      psychological stress, 290, 291 Breaks,      see Rest breaks Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), xiv, 10, 58, 64      absenteeism, 50, 51, 52      Annual Survey of Occupational Injuries and Illnesses, 44-45, 49-51, 60-61      databases, 22-23, 44-45, 46-47, 48-52, 60-61, 351-352, 366, 435-436 Bursitis, 48 C Cadaver studies, 22, 66, 184, 253, 261, 266      spinal discs, 191, 192      tendinosis, 197      tissue mechanobiology, 22, 66, 184 Caffeine, 442 Canada, 30, 31, 121 Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), 19, 27, 56, 79, 231, 360, 431, 434, 435-436, 440-451, 458-460      age factors, 51, 56, 286, 360, 442, 447-448      biomechanics, 260, 261, 265, 266-268, 286      computer users, 45-46, 51, 340-341, 452      cultural factors, 449      epidemiology, 101-102, 103, 118-124, 435-436, 440-443, 451, 459-460      incidence and prevalence, 39, 40, 41, 43, 49, 50, 51, 56, 176, 352, 435-436, 440-443, 448-449      exercise, 267      gender factors, 55, 56, 442, 447-448      preventive interventions, 267, 301, 318, 439-442, 450, 459      psychological stress, 299      racial factors, 442, 447-448      self-reports, 43      service workers, 50, 435-436 Case-control studies, 22, 76-77, 79      see also Randomized controlled trials back disorders, 97, 99-100, 238, 308, 311      upper extremity disorders, 131, 442 Catecholamines, 290, 293, 295, 298, 299 Causality, 20, 21, 28, 66, 72-79, 87, 108, 144, 184, 352, 361-362, 446      epidemiology, 77, 78, 79, 352, 361-362, 446

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Page 474 Cellular processes, 184, 247, 372, 374      see also Contraction, muscles; Immune response; Inflammatory response      cytokines, 215, 217, 290, 299      peripheral nerve, 12, 25, 185-187, 210-213      synovial cells and synovitis, 48, 194      tendons, 194, 196-197, 199      vertebra and discs, 188, 189-190, 192-193, 362 Chairs, 318, 359 Chrysler Corporation, 56 CISDOC, 86 Clerical workers      see also Office workers;      Typing age factors, 51      back disorders, 51      preventive interventions, 318-319      upper extremity disorders, 51, 103, 138, 160-161, 166, 167, 169, 173, 174, 178      visual display units (VDUs), 138, 160-161, 166, 182, 340-341 Clinical evaluation, 97, 98, 253 Clinical interventions, 70, 97, 308-309, 316, 445      see also Physicians      safety culture, 4, 314, 327 Cocontraction, muscles, 231-232, 249, 292, 296 Coffee,      see Caffeine Collagen, 188, 194, 196, 197, 198, 199, 213, 217, 228, 229 Comorbidity, 2, 90, 304, 374 Compensation,      see Wages and salaries; Workers' compensation Compressive loads and compression muscle cocontraction, 232      peripheral nerve, 211-212, 217, 230-231      spinal, 73, 186, 188, 191, 193, 214-215, 216, 229, 237-238, 244, 248, 249-250      discs, 73, 186, 188, 191, 193, 248, 249-250      vertebra, 186, 188, 191, 192      tendons, 194, 197 Computer databases,      see Databases Computer users, 337, 340-341, 344, 346, 365      see also Typing      back disorders, 8, 51, 54      carpal tunnel, 45-46, 51, 340-341, 452      e-commerce, 342-343, 346-347      mouse use, 268-269, 315, 341      preventive interventions, 315, 316, 317, 318-319, 340-341, 452      psychosocial factors, 7, 347      upper extremity disorders, 7, 45-46, 51, 138, 160, 263, 264, 269, 315, 316, 317, 318-319, 340-341, 358, 452, 459      visual display units (VDUs), 138, 160-161, 166, 182, 340-341 Confidentiality, 45, 56, 60 Confounding, 6, 68, 73-74, 75-76, 89-91, 100, 114, 145, 447 Connective tissue      see also Tendons and ligaments biomechanics, 227-228      muscle contraction, 202 Construction workers, 55, 91-92, 334      back disorders, 53, 54, 55, 118, 119, 120, 352      gender factors, 54      incidence and prevalence, 50, 53, 352, 436      upper extremity disorders, 129, 134, 135, 139, 172, 322-323 Contraction, muscles, 199-210, 217, 226, 232-233, 242-243, 296      age factors, 203      cocontraction, 231-232, 249, 292, 296      motor neurons/units, 186, 199-209 (passim), 233, 275, 297      psychosocial stress, 292, 296, 297, 298      spasms, 186, 291 Coping mechanisms, 2, 4, 23, 31, 32, 33, 35, 107, 108, 187, 189, 302, 374, 435 Cortisol, 290, 293, 295, 296, 298, 299 Cost factors, 1, 8-9, 11, 12, 17, 50, 57-59, 63-64, 150, 338, 343, 364, 368      see also Absenteeism      back disorders, 150      databases, 47, 150      e-commerce, 343      interventions, 302, 319, 324-327      medical, 62, 63, 326      research, 70      somatization, 26-27      surveillance, 304-305      wages, loss of, 1, 8-9, 17, 58, 63      whole person approach, 26

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Page 475 Court cases,      see Litigation Cross-sectional surveys, 98      back disorders, 68, 73, 79-80, 97, 100      upper extremity disorders, 88, 97, 102-103, 360, 448-449 CTS,      see Carpal tunnel syndrome Cultural factors, 2, 20(n.3), 22, 28, 31      see also Organizational factors; Social factors      carpal tunnel syndrome, 449      safety culture, 4, 314, 327      whiplash, 31      workers' compensation, 31, 449 Cumulative trauma disorder (CTD), 102, 125, 193, 220, 248, 254 Cyclical loading, 184, 185, 216, 218      see also Repetitive motion      tendons, 196, 199, 216, 266      vertebra, 192, 216 Cytokines, 215, 217, 290, 299 D Databases, 1, 22-23, 38-64, 351-352, 366-367, 368      see also Incidence and prevalence; Reporting      age factors, 39, 40, 43, 44, 46-47, 48, 366      back disorders, general, 39, 48, 53-54      best practices, 13      Bureau of Labor Statistics, 22-23, 44-45, 46-47, 48-52, 60-61, 351-352, 366, 435-436      cost factors, 47, 150      epidemiologic literature review, 86      gender factors, 42, 43, 46, 48, 366      insurance, 40, 46, 49      interventions, 45-46      National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey, 38, 62      National Arthritis Data Workgroup, 435      National Center for Health Statistics, 11, 45, 61-62, 352, 366-367, 436      National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 38, 41, 62      National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), 38, 39-42, 43, 45, 46-47, 52-56, 61-62, 441      NIOSHTIC database, 86      National Occupational Exposure Survey, 11, 57, 63, 79, 366-367      OSHA, 46-48 (passim), 61      pain, 44, 49      racial factors, 43, 46-47, 48      repetitive motion, 48, 49      risk factors, 45, 86      self-report surveys, 38      time factors, 46-47 Decision latitude      see also Monotonous work      back disorders, 105, 106, 109, 143, 144, 365      epidemiology,      upper extremity disorders, 96, 110, 111, 112, 160, 161, 165, 166, 170, 172, 173, 177, 178, 183, 435      upper extremity disorders, other, 298, 435 Definitional issues, 11, 19-20, 36-37, 62, 367, 371, 440, 445, 458-459      see also Standards      attributable risk, 87-88      case definitions, 371      diagnosis, 11, 18      elastic materials, 185      ergonomics, 303, 452      fatigue, 185      load tolerance, 219      OSHA reporting requirements, 47      relative risk, 87      repetitive stress, 451      risk, 31-32, 440      stiffness, 185      strength, 185      workers' compensation, 36      work-related conditions, 1, 20(n.3), 37, 440 Demographic factors, 6, 10, 39, 44, 61, 64, 330, 331, 336-337, 366      see also Age factors; Gender factors; Race/ethnicity; Sectoral/occupational breakdowns;      specific sectors and occupational categories      educational attainment, 90, 149, 151, 342      marital status, 90      socioeconomic status, 90 Department of Defense, 307

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Page 476 Department of Labor      see also Bureau of Labor Statistics; Mine Safety and Health Administration      Workers' Compensation Programs, 45, 56-57 Department of Transportation, 45 Depression, 158, 159, 289, 435      back disorders, 107, 109, 148, 149, 150, 154, 156, 157, 287      somatization, 27, 149      upper extremity disorders, 180, 287 Diabetes, 434 Diagnosis, 18, 98, 321, 326      back disorders, 44, 432      definitional issues, 11, 18      insurance claims data, 56-57, 96, 98, 141, 142, 151      medical records, 56-57, 63, 142, 183, 304-305, 351      radiographs, 19, 24, 25, 98, 192, 217, 431, 432, 438      upper extremity disorders, 431-432, 441, 445-446      whole person approach, 24, 25 Disability, 3, 5, 17, 19, 35, 36, 150, 152      attitudes about pain/functional limitations, 23, 33, 59, 145      defined, 36 Distress,      see Anxiety; Depression Dose-response relationships, 6, 31, 75, 77, 78, 93, 103, 184, 185, 308, 356, 360, 361, 370-371, 372, 440      see also Load-response relationships Dupuytren's contracture, 129 Duty cycle, 207, 208, 238, 274, 345-346, 372      see also Rest breaks Dynamic load, 21, 198, 228, 230, 241, 243, 245, 257, 331, 333 Dynamometers, 284, 285 E Ecological model, 293-295 Economic factors, 1, 22, 28, 29, 330, 338      see also Cost factors; Funding; Insurance; Wages and salaries; Workers' compensation      downsizing, 343-344      globalization, 331, 341-343, 344-345, 347      preventive interventions, 303      profitability, 30      socioeconomic status, 90 Edema, 7      peripheral nerve, 210-212, 213      spinal, 214, 217      tendons, 196, 197-198, 216 Educational interventions, 8, 324, 326, 327, 344-345      back disorders, 301, 309, 310, 311, 313      upper extremity disorders, 316, 317, 318, 323 Educational workers      back disorders, 54      upper extremity disorders, 56, 171 Education of professionals, 12, 13, 368 Effective Workplace Practices and Programs Conference, 310 Elbows, 20, 27, 297, 436, 446, 450      biomechanics, 253, 269, 277, 278      epidemiology, 110, 111, 125, 172, 173, 175, 177, 182      tissue mechanobiology, 186, 196 Elderly persons, 336, 347, 351, 360, 365, 433      back disorders, 39, 44, 433      skeletal muscle, 209 Electrophysical measurements, 24, 93, 208, 225, 230, 231-232, 233, 243, 257-258, 259, 260, 263-264, 268-269, 271, 274, 275, 278, 291-292, 297, 360, 440-449 (passim) Embase, 187 Emotionally stressful work, 106, 147 Engineering controls, 8, 303, 321, 322, 345, 355, 437      see also Ergonomic interventions      back belts, 307, 309, 310, 311, 312, 313, 436      upper extremity disorders, 315, 320, 322, 459 Epicondylitis, 19, 133, 134, 180, 196, 197, 216, 431 Epidemiology, 3, 5, 19, 20, 22, 27, 34, 85-183, 361, 362, 373-374, 432, 434, 439      see also Attributable risk; Incidence and prevalence; Relative risk; Reporting; Surveillance      absenteeism, 97, 98, 435

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Page 477      back disorders, 6, 31, 65, 66, 67-70, 73, 81, 97, 98-101, 104-108, 109, 118- 124, 141-159, 252, 352, 354-355, 356      biomechanics and, 252, 253, 459      carpal tunnel syndrome, 101-102, 103, 118-124, 435-436, 440-443, 459- 460      incidence and prevalence, 39, 40, 41, 43, 49, 50, 51, 56, 176, 352, 435-436, 440-443, 448-449      causal associations, criteria for, 77, 78, 79, 352, 361-362, 446      comorbidity, 2, 90, 304, 374      confounding, 6, 68, 73, 89-91, 100, 114, 145, 447      cultural factors, 31      decision latitude,      back disorders, 105, 106, 109, 143, 144      upper extremity disorders, 96, 110, 111, 112, 160, 161, 165, 166, 170, 172, 173, 177, 178, 183, 435      definitional issues, 11      elbow disorders, 110, 111, 125, 172, 173, 175, 177, 182      forearm disorders, 111, 173, 175      hand disorders, 20, 94-95, 101, 102, 125, 138, 161, 172, 173, 174, 175, 177, 178, 180, 181, 182      incidence and prevalence, 43, 53, 54-55, 57, 174, 175, 181, 436, 440-441      see also “carpal tunnel syndrome” supra      literature review, methodology, 85-98      neck disorders, 85, 101, 103-104, 110, 138, 150, 153, 158, 160, 161, 173, 178, 179, 180, 182      observational, methodology, 65, 66, 67-70, 73, 77, 78, 81, 91, 93-95,      psychosocial factors, 104-113, 141-183, 370-371, 373      shoulder disorders, 101, 103-104, 110, 111, 138, 139, 140, 150, 160, 161, 163, 166, 168, 169, 171, 173, 174, 177, 178, 179, 180, 182      spinal disc disorders, 42, 44, 123, 124, 142, 153      standards for data collection, 45, 46, 48-49, 61, 64, 304-305, 321, 366, 367, 371      typing-related disorders, 103, 138      upper extremity disorders, 7, 94-95, 96, 97, 98, 101-104, 109-113, 125-140, 160-183, 253, 314, 358, 359, 458, 459      pain, 110, 127, 128, 129-131, 138, 139, 161-183, 352      posture, 138, 139      repetitive motion, 102, 103, 114-115, 125-127, 131, 133, 134, 140, 358      vibration, 101, 102, 103, 114, 125-131, 134-137, 139, 140, 314      see also specific disorders and extremities supra      wrists, 20, 102, 111, 125, 126, 138, 172, 174, 175, 177, 178, 180, 181, 182;      see also “carpal tunnel syndrome” supra Epinephrine/norepinephrine, 290, 298-299 Ergonomic interventions, 2, 10, 33, 303-329, 344, 365-366      see also Administrative controls; Engineering controls; Modifier interventions; Workstations      age factors, 304      back disorders, 8, 9, 308-314, 438      chairs, 318, 359      defined, 303, 452      gender factors, 304      job analysis, 93-95, 238, 304, 305, 306-307, 330, 331, 365      psychosocial factors, 9-10, 27, 304      upper extremity disorders, 7, 9, 314-320, 439-440, 451-452 Ergoweb, 86 Error of measurement, 76-77 Ethics, research, 70, 184 Ethnicity,      see Race/ethnicity Event data, 10, 11, 23, 27, 47, 48, 49, 53, 219, 248, 250, 289, 368 Exercise, 8      see also Physical therapy      back disorders, 309      carpal tunnel syndrome, 267      skeletal muscle, 206      tendons, 197, 198-199      upper extremity disorders, 314, 316, 318, 319, 320

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Page 478 F Factory workers,      see Manufacturing workers Family factors, 108, 159 Farm workers, 118, 332, 333      incidence and prevalence, 46-47, 50-51, 426      sprains, strains, and tears, 51, 436 Fatigue, human experience of, 3, 34, 205, 234, 326, 353      upper extremity disorders, 172, 175 Fatigue, tissue, 216, 344, 346-347      biomechanics, 226, 232-233, 269-279      defined, 185      skeletal muscle, 200, 202-203, 205, 208, 217, 226, 232-233, 269-275      spinal discs, 191-192      tendons, 216      time factors, testing, 216 Federal Employees' Compensation      program, 45 Federal Railroad Administration, 45 Females,      see Gender factors Fibrosis, 7, 188, 189, 192, 198, 199, 212-213, 214, 217, 229, 291, 363 Finland, 121 Food processing workers, 333, 334      upper extremity disorders, 7, 127, 130, 133, 134, 276, 316, 317-318, 438 Force, general, 20, 230, 358, 434      see also Grip;      Pinch force/strength biomechanics, 221-222, 224, 225, 226, 253-286, 286      skeletal muscles, 205, 206      time study, 94      upper extremity disorders, 7, 102, 103, 114-115, 125, 133-134, 139, 253-286, 314, 359, 360, 364-365 Ford Motor Company, xiv, 22, 23, 307 Forearms, 297, 450      see also Wrists biomechanics, 233, 257, 260, 267-269, 274, 277, 278, 284      epidemiology, 111, 173, 175      preventive interventions, 315, 317, 318, 319      psychosocial stress, 297      ulnar deviation, 231, 257, 265, 274, 276, 279, 284, 448 Foreign countries,      see International perspectives;      specific countries Forestry workers, 127-131, 135, 136, 137, 150 Funding      research, administrative procedures, 13      research, general, 367-368, 369 G Gender factors, 2, 4, 6, 9, 11, 32, 46, 53, 90, 153, 335, 337, 347, 365, 433, 436      age and, 39, 42, 51, 337      back disorders, 7, 39, 42, 43, 51, 53, 54, 121-124, 141-159 (passim)      biomechanics, 258, 277, 284      carpal tunnel syndrome, 55, 56, 442, 447-448      databases, 42, 43, 46, 48, 366      ergonomic interventions, 304      hormone-related conditions, 90      peripheral nerve, 212-213      psychophysical factors, 277, 298      psychosocial factors, 141-159 (passim), 163, 170, 173, 178, 179, 183, 298      relative risk, 53      upper extremity disorders, 7, 51, 134, 163, 170, 173, 178, 179, 183, 258, 277, 284, 433 Genetic factors, 2, 289, 433      see also Race/ethnicity Globalization, 331, 341-343, 344-345, 347 Gloves, 274, 280, 282, 284, 285 Government workers, 8, 46, 56, 60, 332, 333      public utility, 51, 322 Grip, 208, 441, 451      biomechanics, 231, 233, 258, 259, 268, 274, 275-276, 279-285 (passim), 360      pinch grip, 267, 276, 279, 448      preventive interventions, 315      see also Power hand tools H HAL (hand activity level) scales, 94-95 Hammering, 85, 257, 278, 279, 281, 284

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Page 479 Hands, 54-55, 340, 431, 433      see also Carpal tunnel syndrome; Grip; Trigger finger; Typing age factors, 54-55      biomechanics, 231, 254-260 (passim), 265-266, 270-281 (passim)      epidemiology, 20, 94-95, 101, 102, 125, 138, 161, 172, 173, 174, 175, 177, 178, 180, 181, 182      incidence and prevalence, 43, 53, 54-55, 57, 174, 175, 181, 436, 440-441      gloves, 274, 280, 282, 284, 285      HAL (hand activity level) scales, 94-95      power hand tools, 85, 219, 222, 255, 258, 259, 263, 268, 274, 276, 277-279, 280, 282, 315, 438      preventive interventions, 315, 319, 439-440      racial factors, 54-55      repetitive motion, 54-55, 125      time factors, activity level, 95      twisting, 55      vibration, 48, 101, 102, 212-213, 231, 260      vibration white finger (VWF), 127, 130, 131, 135, 136, 137      work stations, hand tools, 222, 259 Health and Retirement Survey, 38, 40, 58-59 Health care workers, 148, 160, 333-334, 436      see also Nurses; Physicians      back disorders, 53, 54, 72, 106, 148, 312      carpal tunnel syndrome, 55      hand disorders, 54-55      physical therapists, disorders among, 333-334      upper extremity disorders, 56, 163-164, 181, 318-318, 436 Hearing disorders, 48      see also Noise Height, 90 Hispanics, 336 Historical perspectives, 78; 330, 335, 345      absenteeism, surveillance, 306      distribution of workers, 331-334      incidence and prevalence, 49, 50, 57, 64      organizational factors, 30      preventive interventions, 308-310 Holistic approach,      see Whole person approach Hormones, 90, 290, 298 Hours worked, 46, 48, 136, 138, 139, 303, 344, 346-347      overtime, 161, 183, 303, 344 HSELINE, 86 Hypothyroidism, 434 I Immigrants, 336-337 Immune response, 186      see also Inflammatory response      psychological stress, 198, 290, 295, 299, 300 Incidence and prevalence, 19, 20, 21, 40-64 (passim), 79, 87, 435-436, 438      see also Databases      back disorders, general, 41, 42, 43-44, 53-54, 55, 352, 435      carpal tunnel, 39, 40, 41, 43, 49, 50, 51, 56, 176, 352, 435-436, 440-443, 448-449      construction workers, 50, 53, 352, 436      farm workers, 46-47, 50-51, 426      general population vs workers, 2, 9, 18, 20, 38-39, 55, 59-60, 64, 85, 351, 354, 435      historical perspectives, 49, 50, 57, 64      manufacturing workers, 7, 22, 50-51, 53, 55-57, 351-352, 435-436      mine workers, 45, 47, 50-51, 436      patterns of evidence, 5, 6-8, 25, 27, 56, 81-82, 351-363      research methodology, 79, 87      sciatica, 42, 44      service workers, 50, 53, 177, 352      specific industries, 18      specific occupational groups, 18      spinal disk injuries, 42, 44      sprains, strains, and tears, 49, 50, 352, 435-436      tendinitis, 40, 49, 53, 54, 352, 436      time-series analysis, 70      transportation workers, 50, 51, 53, 436      upper extremity disorders, general, 40, 42, 43, 54-55, 136, 137, 160-164, 166, 169, 173, 174, 177, 181, 182, 435-436

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Page 480 Individual risk factors, 2, 5-9 (passim), 19, 21, 32-33, 35, 65, 85, 90, 104, 220, 353, 364, 365, 372, 433-434, 433      see also Attitudes; Demographic factors; Job satisfaction; Self-report methods      alcohol consumption, 75-76, 442      back disorders, 25-26, 97, 106-108, 357      biomechanical loading, 33, 35      caffeine, 442      coping mechanisms, 2, 4, 23, 31, 32, 33, 35, 107, 108, 187, 189, 302, 374, 435      height, 90      interventions, 8, 21, 302      pain and functional limitations,      responses to, 2, 23, 33, 59, 108, 145, 287, 291, 365      psychosocial, 2, 21, 26-27, 31-32, 97, 104, 106-108, 294, 297, 374;      see also “coping mechanisms” supra      smoking, 2, 4, 75-76, 90, 304, 433, 442      somatization, 26-27, 108, 149, 175, 288      upper extremity disorders, 7, 97, 294, 297, 359, 360, 442, 447-448      weight, body, 2, 4, 9, 32, 89, 304, 365, 374, 433 Industrial workers,      see Manufacturing workers Inflammatory response, 25, 247, 372      see also Edema; Fibrosis cytokines, 215, 217, 290, 299      psychological stress, 290, 299      skeletal muscle, 204, 206-207      spinal discs, 186, 190, 247      tendons, 196, 198;      see also Tendinitis      tenosynovitis, 19, 48, 133, 134, 196, 216, 431 Insurance, 334      see also Workers' compensation      claims data, 56-57, 96, 98, 141, 142, 151      cultural factors, 31      databases, 40, 46, 49      self-insured persons, 46-47, 55      Social Security Insurance Disability, 40      surveillance, 79 International Classification of Diseases, 20, 45, 431 International perspectives      back disorders, 121      globalization, 331, 341-343, 344-345, 347      immigrants, 336-337      psychosocial stress measurement, 96 Internet, 86, 187 Interventions, 5, 8, 9-10. 13, 21, 32, 64, 114, 286, 301-329      see also Administrative controls; Best practice interventions; Clinical interventions; Educational interventions; Engineering controls; Ergonomic interventions; Exercise; Medical care; Modifier interventions; Physical therapy; Preventive interventions      attributable risk, 88      back belts, 307, 309, 310, 311, 312, 313, 436      back disorders, 8, 9-10, 109, 235, 308-314, 355-356, 362-363      cost factors, 302, 319, 324-327      databases, 45-46      definitional issues, 11      education, professional, 12, 13, 368      evaluation methodology, 8, 13, 65, 66, 69-71, 77, 79-82, 80-81, 235, 301, 308-329, 352, 358, 371, 374      job satisfaction, 305, 347      light duty, 310, 312, 320, 322, 323, 355      organizational factors, 9-10, 302, 303-304, 305, 327, 328      psychosocial factors, 27, 109, 355, 356      randomized controlled trials, 69-71, 79, 80-81      upper extremity disorders, 7, 9-10, 112, 314-320, 359, 361 Ischemia, 197, 204, 207 J Job analysis, 93-95, 238, 304, 305, 306-307, 330, 331, 365 Job Content Questionnaire, 96 Job rotation, 7, 10, 320

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Page 481 Job satisfaction, 20, 96, 104, 148-149, 156, 157, 326, 340, 347      see also Decision latitude; Monotonous work      back disorders, 9, 105, 106, 141-147, 149, 151, 365, 434      interventions, 305, 347      upper extremity disorders, 111-112, 169, 170, 176, 177, 178, 287 K Keyboard work,      see Typing L Labor unions, 13, 30, 172 Lifting, 334, 335, 346, 347, 365, 434      back belts, 307, 309, 310, 311, 312, 313, 436      back disorders, general, 98, 99, 100, 118-124, 236, 237-239, 244, 246, 250-251, 292, 312, 362-363, 364-365, 438      biomechanics, 225, 236, 237-239, 244, 246, 250-251      lift index, back disorders, 94      psychosocial factors, 292      repetitive, back disorders, 9, 53, 66, 67-74, 81, 119      upper extremity disorders, 139, 275 Ligaments and tendons,      see Tendons and ligaments Light duty, 310, 312, 320, 322, 323, 355 Litigation, 29, 31 Livermore National Laboratories, xiv Load-response relationships, 6, 19, 21, 98, 99, 100-101, 133-134, 138-140, 184, 220, 364      see also Lifting biomechanics, 3, 5, 6-7, 33, 34, 35, 81, 95      spinal disc effects, 190-193 Load tolerance, 219-235, 247-249 Log and Summary of Occupational Injury and Illnesses, 48 Longitudinal studies, 88, 98, 158, 373      see also Prospective research      back disorders, 97, 98, 100, 141, 145, 146, 147      upper extremity disorders, 97, 448-449 Lungs,      see Respiratory diseases M Maintenance workers, 91, 118, 127-128, 285, 331, 333, 442 Males,      see Gender factors Manufacturing workers, 54, 91, 331, 332, 333, 334, 338, 345-346      see also Food processing workers      automobile manufacturing workers, 22, 23, 56-57, 180-181, 238, 239, 275, 307      back disorders, 53, 54, 120, 146, 237-239, 312-313, 355      biomechanical studies, 237-239      downsizing, 343-344      exposure determinations, 91      incidence and prevalence, 7, 22, 50-51, 53, 55-57, 351-352, 435-436      organizational factors, 30      preventive interventions, 305-306, 318-319, 322, 355      psychosocial factors, 141, 146, 165, 340      surveillance, 305-306      technological innovation, 338-340      upper extremity disorders, 7, 55-57, 125, 126, 131, 134, 136, 137, 139, 165, 167-169, 171, 175, 176, 179, 180, 318-319, 322, 340, 352, 435-436, 448-449 Marital status, 90 Mechanical factors, 3, 29      see also Biomechanics; Tissue mechanobiology Medical care, 1, 301-302, 326, 327      see also Health care workers; Nurses; Physical therapy, Physicians      back disorders, 312, 313      upper extremity disorders, 294, 323 Medical records, 56-57, 63, 142, 183, 304-305, 351 MEDLINE, 86, 187 Men,      see Gender factors

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Page 482 Methodology,      see Reporting; Research methodology Military personnel, 307, 442 Mine Safety and Health Administration, 45, 47, 48, 49, 60 Mine workers      incidence and prevalence, 45, 47, 50-51, 436      upper extremity disorders, 135 Minority groups,      see Race/ethnicity Modifier interventions, 304, 307, 312, 313, 315, 316, 320, 321, 322-323, 437, 442, 448 Monotonous work, 6, 9, 96, 105, 109, 141, 143, 145, 147, 170, 182, 287, 298, 303, 365, 434, 437 Motor neurons/units, 186, 199-209 (passim), 233, 275, 297 Muscle contraction,      see Contraction, muscles Muscle-tendon syndrome, 128, 133 N National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey, 38, 62 National Arthritis Data Workgroup, 435 National Center for Health Statistics, 11, 45, 61-62, 352, 366-367, 436 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 38, 41, 62 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), 38, 39-42, 43, 45, 46-47, 52-56, 61-62, 441 National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 11, 12, 13, 20, 45, 52-53, 65, 162, 167, 366-368, 369, 445      lift index, 94, 239, 335      NIOSHTIC database, 86 National Institute for Working Life in Sweden, 338 National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases, 12, 13, 39, 368, 369, 435 National Institute of Mental Health, 13 National Institutes of Health (NIH), 2, 4 National Occupational Exposure Survey, 11, 57, 63, 79, 366-367 Neck disorders, 19, 44, 50, 56, 58, 446      biomechanics, 253      epidemiology, 85, 101, 103-104, 110, 138, 150, 153, 158, 160, 161, 173, 178, 179, 180, 182      preventive interventions, 317-322 (passim), 340 Necrosis      skeletal muscle, 204, 206, 217      tendons, 197 Nerve entrapment, 231, 234, 266-268, 443      see also Carpal tunnel syndrome Netherlands, 121 NIOSHTIC, 86 Noise, 57, 329      see also Hearing disorders Nonwork risk factors, 19, 38-39, 59, 62, 63, 89, 90, 91, 293, 335-337, 351, 432, 433      see also Demographic factors      family factors, 108, 159      general population vs workers, 2, 9, 18, 20, 38-39, 55, 59-60, 64, 85, 351, 435      psychosocial, 7, 102, 104, 108, 110-113 (passim), 159, 287, 291, 304, 314, 358-359, 435 Norepinephrine,      see Epinephrine/norepinephrine Norway, 305 Nurses, 53, 72, 106, 118, 119, 120, 123, 135, 151, 170, 333-334, 352, 436 O Occupational Safety and Health Administration, 367-368      assessment standards, 307      databases, 46-48 (passim), 61 Office workers, 332, 333, 340-341      see also Clerical workers; Computer users;      Typing preventive interventions, 318-319, 322-323      upper extremity disorders, 51, 103, 138, 160-161, 166, 167, 169, 173, 174, 178, 294, 318-319, 322-323      visual display units (VDUs), 138, 160-161, 166, 182, 340-341 Olecranon spurs, 125

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Page 483 Organizational factors, 3, 8, 20, 21, 30, 31-32, 33, 34, 220, 330, 331, 343-346, 353, 365      see also Administrative controls; Labor unions      downsizing, 343-344      interventions, 9-10, 302, 303-304, 305, 327, 328      modified work after injury, 30      upper extremity disorders, 183, 294, 314      work-related conditions, defined, 1 Osteoarthritis, 54, 125, 438 Osteoporosis, 433 P Pain, 1, 3, 17, 21, 34, 35, 98, 158, 351, 353, 365      back disorders, 6-7, 8, 19, 20, 25, 44, 49, 53-54, 67, 431, 433-434, 436      biomechanics, 235-241, 246-248, 250-253, 287, 357-358      epidemiology, 107, 108, 109, 118-124, 141-159, 352      interventions, 308-314      preventive interventions, 301, 309, 310, 311, 312-313      psychosocial stress, 190, 291-292      sciatica, 19, 44, 145, 247, 431      biomechanics, 235-241, 246-248, 250-253, 279-284, 286, 287, 357-358, 373      databases, 44, 49      medical interventions, 302      muscle spasms, 186, 291      nonspecific, 19, 20, 101, 102, 371, 431      peripheral nerve, 185-187      personal responses, 2, 23, 33, 59, 108, 145, 287, 291, 365      self reports, 96, 97, 98      skeletal muscle, 199, 205      somatization, 26, 288      spinal nerve root, 215      stiffness, 185, 195, 198      upper extremity disorders, 433      see also Carpal tunnel syndrome      biomechanics, 279-284, 286, 287, 360      epidemiology, 110, 127, 128, 129-131, 138, 139, 161-183, 352      preventive interventions, 315, 316, 319, 439-440      psychosocial stress, 295-299 (passim)      vertebra, 217      whole person approach, 23, 24, 25-26 Passive stretch injury, 207-208 Patterns of evidence, 5, 6-8, 25, 27, 56, 81-82, 351-363      back disorders, 6-7, 8, 351, 354-358, 361-363      causal inference, criteria for, 20, 21, 28, 66, 72-79, 87, 108, 144, 184, 352, 361-362, 446      upper extremity disorders, 7, 358-363 Peripheral nerve, 12, 25, 185-187, 210-213, 230-231, 291, 360, 372      age factors, 217-218      animal models, 213, 216      cellular processes, 12, 25, 185-187, 210-213      compression, 211-212, 217, 230-231      edema, 210-212, 213      gender factors, 212-213      pain, 185-187      temperature factors, 186, 230      time factors, 212      vibration, 212-213, 230, 231      wrist, 212-213,      see also Carpal tunnel syndrome Peritendinitis, 133, 196, 197-198 Physical therapy      see also Exercise      back disorders, 8, 311      employed in sector, 333-334      upper extremity disorders, 161, 162 Physicians, 98      back disorders, 20, 32, 44      number of visits to, 1, 20      upper extremity disorders, 181      whole person approach, 24, 25      wrist, 20 Pinch force/strength, 254, 256, 260, 262, 268, 270, 276, 277, 280, 282, 284, 285-286, 317, 448      posture, 254, 256, 262, 268 Postal workers      back pain, 54, 120      biomechanics, 221      upper extremity disorders, 140

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Page 484 Posture, 6, 8, 20, 57, 365, 434      see also Bending; Static postural loads; Twisting      back disorders, 118, 119, 121, 251      biomechanics, 221, 257-258, 259, 266-268, 270, 279, 280, 281, 284, 286, 359-360      chairs, 318, 359      hammering, 85, 257, 278, 279, 281, 284      pinch force, 254, 256, 262, 268      preventive interventions, 315, 317, 359      psychosocial factors, 295      standing, prolonged, 120, 122, 269      time study, 94      upper extremity disorders, 7, 20, 94, 295      epidemiology, 138, 139      interventions, 315, 317, 359 Power hand tools, 85, 219, 222, 255, 258, 259, 263, 268, 274, 276, 277-279, 280, 282, 315, 438 Pre-Medline, 187 Prevalence,      see Incidence and prevalence Preventive interventions, 10, 12, 28, 114, 286, 301-329, 365-366, 374, 436-438, 439      see also Administrative controls; Clinical interventions; Educational interventions; Engineering controls; Ergonomic interventions; Exercise; Medical care; Modifier interventions      absenteeism, 305-306, 316-317, 319, 326, 327      age factors, 304      back belts, 307, 309, 310, 311, 312, 313, 436      back disorders, other, 8, 9, 301, 308-314, 355-356, 434      pain, 301, 309, 310, 311, 312-313      best practice interventions, xiii, 13, 310-313, 320, 322-323, 369, 437, 439      biomechanics, 304      carpal tunnel syndrome, 267, 301, 318, 439-442, 450, 459      computer users, 315, 316, 317, 318-319, 340-341, 452      cost factors, 302, 319, 324-327      databases, 45-46      evaluation methodology, 8, 13, 65, 66, 69-71, 77, 79-82, 235, 301, 308-329, 352, 358, 371, 374      forearms, 315, 317, 318, 319      gender factors, 304      hands, 315, 319, 439-440      historical perspectives, 308-310      individual risk factors, 8, 21, 302      job satisfaction, 305, 347      light duty, 310, 312, 320, 322, 323, 355      manufacturing workers, 305-306, 318-319, 322, 355      neck, 317-322 (passim), 340      office workers, 318-319, 322-323      organizational factors, 9-10, 302, 303-304, 305, 327, 328;      see also Administrative controls      posture, general, 315, 317, 359      psychosocial factors, 27, 109, 301-302, 316, 326, 355, 356, 436-437      safety culture, 4, 314, 327      shoulders, 317, 319      standards, 304-305, 307, 321, 328-329, 374;      see also “best practice interventions” supra      stretching, 319, 320, 322      surveillance and, 304-306, 320-321      time factors, 319, 325, 326      typing, 315, 439-440, 450      upper extremity disorders, 7, 9, 314-320, 359, 439-440;      see also specific disorders and extremities infra and supra      vibration, 314-315      wages and salaries, 303, 326      worker compensation, 303      workstations, 7, 8, 302, 314, 317, 318, 320, 359, 361, 452      wrist, 319, 451 Privacy,      see Confidentiality Prognostic research, 374      back disorders, 141, 142, 149, 153, 157, 159 Prospective research, 22, 69, 73, 77, 79, 80, 141-159, 370-371      see also Randomized controlled trials      back pain, 86, 106, 107-108, 141-159, 153, 237      biomechanics, 237      randomized controlled trials, 69-71, 79, 80-81, 308-309, 327      upper extremity disorders, 112-113

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Page 485 Psychological factors, 2, 5, 6, 20, 29, 31-35, 85, 86, 115      see also Anxiety; Attitudes; Job satisfaction; Psychosocial factors; Social factors      back disorders, 6-7, 237, 291-292, 314, 355, 356      pain, 190, 291-292      biomechanics and, 234, 237, 275-279, 297      coping mechanisms, 2, 4, 23, 31, 32, 33, 35, 107, 108, 187, 189, 302, 374, 435      monotonous work, 6, 9, 96, 105, 109, 287, 303, 355, 434      somatization, 26-27      upper extremity disorders, 275-279, 287, 291, 358, 359 Psychosocial factors, xiii, 2, 6, 9, 23, 32, 287-300, 353, 365, 373, 434-435      see also Anxiety; Decision latitude; Depression; Job satisfaction; Psychological factors      age and, 141, 151      attributable risk, 141-183 (passim)      back disorders, 9, 97, 104-109, 141-159 (passim), 252, 291-292, 355, 365      pain, 190, 291-292      biomechanics and, 234, 237, 275-279, 297, 373      brain neurobiology, 290, 291      carpal tunnel syndrome, 299      computer users, 7, 347      coping mechanisms, 2, 4, 23, 31, 32, 33, 35, 107, 108, 187, 189, 302, 374, 435      downsizing, 341      emotionally stressful work, 106, 147      epidemiology, 104-113, 141-183, 370-371, 373      ergonomics, 9-10, 27, 304      evaluation of individual workers, 27      family factors, 108, 159      forearms, 297      gender factors, 141-159 (passim), 163, 170, 173, 178, 179, 183, 277, 298      immune response, 198, 290, 295, 299, 300      individual response, 2, 21, 26-27, 31-32, 97, 104, 106-108, 294, 297, 374;      see also “coping mechanisms” supra      inflammatory response, 290, 299      international perspectives,      measurement, 96      lifting, 292      manufacturing workers, 141, 146, 165, 340      monotonous work, 6, 9, 96, 105, 109, 141, 143, 145, 147, 170, 182, 287, 298, 303, 365, 434, 437      muscle contractions, 292, 296, 297, 298      nonwork risk factors, 7, 102, 104, 108, 110-113 (passim), 159, 287, 291, 304, 314, 358-359, 435      posture, 295      preventive interventions, 27, 109, 303, 316, 326, 355, 356, 436-437      research, invasiveness of, 93      self-report methods, 95-96, 141-145, 149, 164-174      social support systems, 2, 104, 105, 109, 110, 111, 143, 147, 160-170 (passim), 178, 287, 323, 434      sociotechnical systems, 345      spinal discs, 291      tendons, 298      time factors, 95, 347      hours worked, 46, 48, 136, 138, 139, 303, 344, 346-347      overtime, 161, 183, 303, 344      stress, time pressure, 32, 96, 104, 105, 109, 171, 181, 183, 298-299, 365      upper extremity disorders, 7, 9, 97, 109-113, 160-183, 275-279, 287, 292-300, 314, 316, 358, 361, 365, 449-450      pain, 295-299 (passim)      see specific disorders and extremities supra Public utility workers      preventive interventions, 322      sprains, strains, and tears, 51 R Race/ethnicity, 90, 336-337      black persons, 43, 336      carpal tunnel syndrome, 442, 447-448      databases, 43, 46-47, 48      data collection, 10, 11

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Page 486      hand disorders, 54-55      Hispanics, 336      immigrants, 336-337 Radiographs, 19, 24, 25, 98, 192, 217, 431, 432, 438 Railroad workers, 45, 136 Randomized controlled trials, 69-71, 79, 80-81, 308-309, 327 Raynaud's phenomena, 48, 101, 102, 127, 134, 135, 137, 231 Relative risk, 434, 435      back disorders, 6, 53      defined, 87-88      gender factors, 53 Repetitive motion, 17, 20, 21, 93, 334, 347, 365, 434, 451-425, 439-453      see also Carpal tunnel syndrome; Typing; Vibration      back disorders, 9, 53, 66, 67-74, 81, 98, 99, 437      biomechanics, 221, 224, 225, 253-257(passim), 270, 275-277, 373      databases, 48, 49      defined, 451      hand/wrist disorders, 54-55, 125      lifting, 9, 53, 66, 67-74, 81, 119      skeletal muscle, 203-206, 209      spinal discs, 9, 53, 66, 67-74, 81      sprains, strains, and tears, 51      tendons, general, 197-198, 199, 216, 217      tissue mechanobiology, 185, 372-373      upper extremity disorders, general, 7, 51, 364-365      biomechanics, 253, 270, 275-277      epidemiology, 102, 103, 114-115, 125-127, 131, 133, 134, 140, 358      interventions, 314, 359      preventive interventions, 314 Repetitive work,      see Monotonous work Reporting, 20, 58      see also Databases; Self-report methods      Bureau of Labor Statistics, 10-11, 49      confidentiality, 45, 56, 60      Mine Safety and Health Administration, 48      Occupational Safety and Health Administration, 47, 48      organization factors, 30 Research methodology, 65-82, 368-369, 370-374      see also Animal models; Biomechanics; Cadaver studies, Case-control studies; Cross-sectional surveys; Databases; Epidemiology; Longitudinal studies; Patterns of evidence; Prospective research; Randomized controlled trials; Reporting; Sampling; Surveillance      basic sciences, 65, 66-68, 70, 77, 78, 432;      see also Tissue mechanobiology      biostatistics, 68, 74      causal inference, criteria for, 20, 21, 28, 66, 72-79, 87, 108, 144, 184, 352, 361-362, 446      confidentiality, 45, 56, 60      confounding, 6, 68, 73-74, 75-76, 89-91, 100, 114, 145, 447      electrophysical measurements, 24, 93, 208, 225, 230, 231-232, 233, 243, 257-258, 259, 260, 263-264, 268-269, 271, 274, 275, 278, 291-292, 297, 360, 440-449 (passim)      error of measurement, 76-77      ethical issues, 70, 184      funding, 13, 367-368, 369      general population vs workers, 2, 20, 435      levels of analysis, general, 27-28      literature reviews, 85-98, 187, 253, 308-310, 439-460      preventive interventions, evaluation of, 8, 13, 65, 66, 69-71, 77, 79-82, 80-81, 235, 301, 308-329, 352, 358, 371, 374      prognostic studies, 141, 142, 149, 153, 157, 159, 374      time-series analysis, 70, 334-335 Research recommendations, 4, 8, 10-13, 19, 365-367, 370-374 Respiratory diseases, 48 Rest breaks, 111-112, 160, 161, 162, 174, 181, 183, 263, 274, 320 Retail workers, 123, 332. 436

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Page 487 Risk factors, general, 9, 10, 28-35, 54-55, 59-60, 64, 72, 86-87, 364, 372, 432-435      see Age factors; Attributable risk; Demographic factors; Epidemiology; Gender factors; Individual risk factors; Interventions; Preventive interventions; Psychosocial factors; Race/ethnicity; Relative risk; Research methodology; Sectoral/occupational breakdowns; Surveillance; specific risk factors      automobile manufacturing workers, 56      biomechanics, 236-286      causal inference, criteria for, 20, 21, 28, 66, 72-79, 87, 108, 144, 184, 352, 361-362, 446      confounding, 6, 68, 73-74, 75-76, 89-91, 100, 114      databases, 45, 86      education on, 12      job analysis, 93-95, 238, 304, 305, 306-307, 331      pattern of evidence approach, 5, 6-8, 25, 27, 56, 81-82, 351-363 Rotation,      see Job rotation Rotator cuff syndrome, 19, 197, 198, 431      automobile manufacturing workers, 56 S Salaries,      see Wages and salaries Sampling, 46-49, 335      Annual Survey of Occupational Injuries and Illnesses, 60      back disorders, 98, 308      cross-sectional surveys, 79      National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey, 38, 62      National Arthritis Data Workgroup, 435      National Center for Health Statistics, 11, 45, 61-62, 352, 366-367, 436      National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 38, 41, 62      National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), 38, 39-42, 43, 45, 46-47, 52-56, 61-62, 441      National Occupational Exposure Survey, 11, 57, 63, 79, 366-367      work sampling, 94 Sciatica, 19, 44, 145, 247, 431 Sectoral/occupational breakdowns, 50-51, 64, 118-183, 331-334, 361, 366, 437-438, 447-448      see also specific sectors and occupational categories      back disorders, 53-54, 118-124      sprains, strains, and tears, 50, 51, 435-436 Self-employed persons, 46-47, 60, 332, 343-344, 436      back disorders, 53, 352 Self-insured persons, 46-47, 55 Self-report methods, 38, 45, 46-47, 52-55, 81, 86, 91, 92-93, 96-98, 361, 435      back disorders, 108, 141-145, 149, 151, 436      carpal tunnel, 43      National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), 38, 39-42, 43, 52-56, 43, 45, 46-47, 52-55, 61-62, 441      pain, 96, 97, 98      psychosocial factors, 95-96, 141-145, 149, 164-174      standards, 95, 96, 98      time factors, 92, 95      upper extremity disorders, 101, 164-174, 181, 436, 441 Serotonin, 299 Service workers, 330, 331-333, 345-346, 452      back pain, 53, 54      carpal tunnel syndrome, 50, 435-436      gender factors, 53      globalization, 331, 341-343, 344-345, 347      incidence and prevalence, 50, 53, 177, 352      upper extremity disorders, 50, 166, 167, 177, 183, 352, 435-436 Sex differences, see Gender factors Shear loading, 292      biomechanics, 221, 227-228, 230, 232, 239-251 (passim), 265, 268      skeletal muscle, 206, 232, 242      tendons, 194      vertebra and discs, 191, 192, 239-251 (passim)

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Page 488 Shoulders, 43, 50, 57, 340, 433, 436, 451      biomechanics, 253, 263, 264, 269, 274, 277, 278      epidemiology, 101, 103-104, 110, 111, 138, 139, 140, 150, 160, 161, 163, 166, 168, 169, 171, 173, 174, 177, 178, 179, 180, 182      preventive interventions, 317, 319 Sick leave,      see Absenteeism Skeletal muscle      see also Tendons and ligaments      age factors, 209, 210, 217-218      animal models, 207-208, 216      biomechanics, 222, 225, 226, 227, 228-229, 234, 242-243      elderly persons, 209      electrophysical measurements, 24, 93, 208, 225, 230, 231-232, 233, 243, 257-258, 259, 260, 263-264, 268-269, 271, 274, 275, 278, 291-292, 297, 360, 443, 440-449 (passim)      exercise, 206      fatigue, 200, 202-203, 205, 208, 217, 226, 232-233, 269-275      force, general, 205, 206      inflammation, 204, 206-207      necrosis, 204, 206, 217      pain, 199, 205      repetitive motion, 203-206, 209      shear loading, 206, 232, 242      static postural loads, 205, 206      time factors, 203-204, 208, 226      tissue mechanobiology, 200-210, 217-218, 372-373      vibration, 208, 226 Small and medium-sized businesses, 12, 60, 343-344, 347      back disorders, 53, 312-313, 352      farms, 46-47, 60      gender factors, 53      upper extremity disorders, 322-323 Smoking, 2, 4, 75-76, 90, 304, 433, 442 Social factors, 2, 3, 5, 6, 20, 24, 29, 33-35      see also Cultural factors; Organizational factors; Psychosocial factors      back disorders, 6-7      interventions, 302      support systems, 2, 104, 105, 109, 110, 111, 143, 147, 160-170 (passim), 178, 287, 323, 434      work-related conditions, defined, 1 Social Security Insurance Disability, 40 Socioeconomic status, 90 Somatization, 26-27, 108, 149, 175, 288 Spinal discs, 188-194, 217, 372, 373, 432, 433-434, 437      see also Vertebra      age factors, 188, 189-190, 193-194, 217-218, 433      animal models, 193, 194, 216      bending, 190, 192, 249-250      biomechanics, 229-230, 239, 247-250, 252, 373      cellular processes, 188, 189-190, 192-193, 362      compression, 73, 186, 188, 191, 193, 248, 249-250      epidemiologic studies, 123, 124, 142, 153      prevalence, 42, 44      fatigue, 191-192      inflammatory response, 186, 190, 247      psychosocial factors, 291      repetitive lifting, 9, 53, 66, 67-74, 81      shear loads, 191, 192, 239-251 (passim)      tissue mechanobiology, 187-194, 217      twisting, 190, 191, 192, 249-250      vibration, 191-192 Spinal loading, 81, 93, 190-193 (passim), 235-236, 239-248, 252, 292, 354-358, 362, 363      compression, 73, 186, 188, 191, 193, 214-215, 216, 229, 237-238, 244, 248, 249-250 Spinal nerve roots, 19(n.2), 25, 185, 186, 189, 190, 210, 213-215, 217, 247, 291      edema, 214, 217 Spinal stenosis, 19 Spondyloisthesis, 19, 431 Spondylolysis, 19, 431 Sprains, strains, and tears      incidence and prevalence, 49, 50, 352, 435-436      repetitive motion, 51      sectoral breakdowns, 50, 51, 435-436 Standards      best practice interventions, xiii , 13, 310-313, 320, 322-323, 369, 437, 439      causal associations, criteria for, 72-77, 446

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Page 489      data collection, 45, 46, 48-49, 61, 64, 304-305, 321, 366, 367, 371      diagnostic codes, 45, 321      globalization, 343, 347      OSHA assessment standards, 307      preventive interventions, 304-305, 307, 321, 328-329, 374      self-reports, 95, 96, 98      skeletal muscle injury prevention, 210 Standard Industrial Classification codes, 46, 331 Standard Occupational Classification codes, 46      surveillance questionnaires, 304-305, 321 Standing, prolonged, 120, 122, 269 Static postural loads, 8, 10, 21, 221, 365, 434      back disorders, 99, 119, 242-243      skeletal muscle, 205, 206      standing, prolonged, 120, 122, 269      upper extremity disorders, 269, 317 Statistical methodology, see Biostatistics Stiffness, 185, 195, 198 Strains, see Sprains, strains, and tears Stress, general, 159, 221, 287-300      see also Psychosocial factors      back disorders, 9, 105, 142, 145, 237, 291-292, 365, 434      biomechanics, 234, 259      catecholamines, 290, 293, 295, 298, 299      coping mechanisms, 2, 4, 23, 31, 32, 33, 35, 107, 108, 187, 189, 302, 374, 435      cortisol, 290, 293, 295, 296, 298, 299      epinephrine/norepinephrine, 290, 298-299      immune response, 198, 290, 295, 299, 300      muscle contraction, 292, 296, 297, 298      preventive interventions, 303, 437      upper extremity disorders, 7, 9, 109-110, 160, 164-170, 173, 174, 175, 178, 179, 180, 287, 292-300, 358, 365, 435 Stretching      biomechanics, 202, 206, 207-208, 216, 227, 228      passive stretch injury, 207-208      preventive interventions, 319, 320, 322 Supplemental Security Income, 39 Surveillance, 1, 8, 10, 11, 44, 60, 79, 243, 250      see also Bureau of Labor Statistics; Databases; Incidence and prevalence; National Center for Health Statistics; National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health; Reporting      absenteeism, 305-306      biomechanical, 243, 250      cost factors, 304-305      definitional issues, 11      manufacturing workers, 305-306      preventive interventions and, 304-306, 320-321 Sweden, 121, 122, 338 Synovial cells and synovitis, 48, 194 T Tears,      see Sprains, strains, and tears Technological innovation, 330, 331, 337-343, 344, 346-347, 365      see also Computer users      globalization, 331, 341-343      sociotechnical systems, 345 Temperature factors, 25      biomechanics, 219, 221-226 (passim), 248, 253, 255-256, 258, 260-264, 280-282      peripheral nerve, 186, 230      tendons, 194, 197, 198      time factors, 127, 134, 224      upper extremity disorders, 127, 134, 253, 255, 258, 260-264, 275, 285, 286, 358 Temporal factors,      see Time factors Tendalgia, 178 Tendinitis, 19, 27, 139, 216, 431, 435-436      forestry workers, 128, 133      incidence and prevalence, 40, 49, 53, 54, 352, 436      manufacturing workers, 50, 180, 435-436      peritendinitis, 133, 196, 197-198 Tendinosis, 196-198 Tendons and ligaments, 22, 183, 358, 360, 372      see also Carpal tunnel syndrome; Tendinitis      age factors, 51, 198-199

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Page 490      animal models, 197-199, 216-217      biomechanics, 222, 227-228, 239, 247, 250-252, 265-266, 268, 373      cellular processes, 194, 196-197, 199      compression, 194, 197      cyclical loading, 196, 199, 216, 266      edema, 196, 197-198, 216      epicondylitis, 133, 134, 180, 196, 197, 216, 431      exercise, 197, 198-199      fatigue, 216      inflammation, general, 196, 198      muscle contraction, 202      muscle-tendon syndrome, 128, 133      necrosis, 197      nociceptors, 186      peritendinitis, 133, 196, 197-198      psychological stress, 298      repetitive motion, 197-198, 199, 216, 217      shear loading, 194      temperature factors, 194, 197, 198      tendinosis, 196-198      tenosynovitis, 19, 48, 133, 134, 196, 216, 431      tenovaginitis, 196      tissue mechanobiology, 185, 186, 194-199      vertebral bone and discs, 189 Tenosynovitis, 19, 48, 133, 134, 196, 216, 431 Tenovaginitis, 196 Thermal factors,      see Temperature factors Time factors, 2, 91, 92, 94      see also Absenteeism; Historical perspectives      back disorders, general, 44, 104, 105, 108, 365      biomechanics, 224, 225, 226, 258, 280, 281-284, 286, 373      bone fracture repair, 193      causal inference, criteria for, 72-73, 74-75, 77, 79, 108, 114, 184, 446      databases, 46-47      deadlines,      see “stress, time pressure” infra      duty cycle, 207, 208, 238, 274, 345-346, 372      fatigue testing, 216      force, time study, 94      gripping, 280      hand activity levels, 95      hours worked, 46, 48, 136, 138, 139, 303, 344, 346-347;      see also “overtime” infra      job analysis, 93-95, 238, 304, 305, 306-307, 331      job, time on, 10, 11, 30, 48, 91, 92, 94, 136, 138, 176, 366      ligament damage recovery, 251      litigation, 30      National Occupational Exposure Survey, 11      overtime, 161, 183, 303, 344      peripheral nerve compression, 212      preventive interventions, 319, 325, 326      psychosocial factors, 95, 347      rest breaks, 111-112, 160, 161, 162, 174, 181, 183, 263, 274, 320      self-reports, 92, 95      skeletal muscle damage, 203-204, 208, 226      spinal loading, 193      spinal nerve root, 215-216      stress, time pressure, 32, 96, 104, 105, 109, 171, 181, 183, 298-299, 365      temperature extremes, 127, 134, 224      tendons, repetitive stress, 197-198, 216-217      upper extremity disorders, 96, 109, 110, 111-112, 136, 138, 161, 162, 171, 174, 258, 280, 360, 446, 450      workers' compensation, 28-29, 450 Time-series analysis, 70, 334-335 Tissue mechanobiology, 5, 21, 22, 33, 184-218, 372-373      see also Cellular processes; Peripheral nerve; Spinal nerve roots      animal models, 5, 22, 65, 66, 67, 184      back disorders, 6, 187-198, 213-216, 357      cadaver studies, 22, 66, 184      collagen, 188, 194, 196, 197, 198, 199, 213, 217      elbows, 186, 196      repetitive motion, 185, 372-373      skeletal muscle, 200-210, 217-218, 372-373      tendons, 185, 186, 194-199      ultrastructural responses, 199, 207-208, 216, 372, 373

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Page 491      vertebral bone and spinal disc, 187-194, 217      wrists, 196 Tobacco use,      see Smoking Torsion,      see Twisting Torso, 6, 227, 246, 251, 278, 357, 362 Torts,      see Litigation Toxic agents, 48, 329      respiratory diseases, 48 Training,      see Educational interventions; Education of professionals Transportation workers, 332, 334      back disorders, 53, 118, 119, 352, 433-434, 438      incidence and prevalence, 50, 51, 53, 436      railroad workers, 45, 136      sprains, strains, and tears, 51      upper extremity disorders, 164, 178, 436 Trigger finger, 19, 133, 431 Twisting, 9      back disorders, attributable risk, 88, 119, 120, 124, 354      back disorders, other, 98, 99-100, 119, 120, 124, 239, 244, 251, 364      biomechanics, 55, 239, 244, 270, 271, 275-276, 278      hand disorders, 55      muscle cocontraction, 232      spinal discs, 190, 191, 192, 249-250      upper extremity disorders, general, 270, 271, 278, 281, 285      wrist disorders, 55, 275-276 Typing, 51, 337, 340, 341, 439-440      biomechanics, 231, 254, 256, 257, 260, 263, 264, 268-269, 278, 280, 281      epidemiology, 103, 138      preventive interventions, 315, 439-440, 450 U Ulnar deviation, 231, 257, 265, 274, 276, 279, 284, 448 Ultrastructural responses, 199, 207-208, 216, 372, 373 Unions,      see Labor unions United Auto Workers, xiv, 56 Upper arm, 101, 111, 186, 253, 278, 253      see also Shoulders V Vertebra      see also Spinal discs      age factors, 188, 189-190, 193-194, 217-218, 433      biomechanics, 229-230, 250, 252      cellular processes, 188, 189-190, 192-193, 362      compression, 186, 188, 191, 192      cyclical loading, 192, 216      shear loading, 191, 192, 239-251 (passim)      tissue mechanobiology, 187-194, 217 Vertebral endplates, 188, 190, 193, 248-249 Vibration, 57, 93, 219, 434      back disorders, 9, 98, 99, 118-122, 433-434      biomechanics, 221-226 (passim), 230, 231, 233, 254, 255-256, 258, 260-264, 268, 270-273, 274, 276, 277-278, 280, 281-283, 286      peripheral nerve, 212-213, 230, 231      skeletal muscle, 208, 226      spinal discs, 191-192      upper extremity disorders, 7, 48, 364-365      biomechanics, 254, 255-256, 258, 260-264, 270-273, 286      epidemiology, 101, 102, 103, 114, 125-131, 134-137, 139, 140, 314      hands, general, 48, 101, 102, 212-213, 231, 260      power hand tools, 85, 219, 222, 255, 258, 259, 263, 268, 274, 276, 277-279, 280, 282, 315, 438      preventive interventions, 314-315      Raynaud's phenomena, 48, 101, 102, 127, 134, 135, 137, 231 Vibration white finger (VWF), 127, 130, 131, 135, 136, 137 Viscoelasticity, 195 Visual analog scale, 94-95, 142, 154, 234, 277 Visual display units (VDUs), 138, 160-161, 166, 182, 340-341

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Page 492 W Wages and salaries      job satisfaction, 146      loss of, 1, 8-9, 17, 58, 63      preventive interventions, 303, 326 Washington State, workers' compensation, 45, 46-47, 55-56, 57-58, 62 Weight factors, body, 2, 4, 9, 32, 89, 304, 365, 374, 433      upper extremity disorders, 7, 359, 360, 442, 447-448 Weight factors, object handled      upper extremity disorders, 254, 272 Whiplash, cultural factors, 31 Whole person approach, 9, 23-27, 216, 234-235 Wisconsin, workers' compensation, 57-58 Women,      see Gender factors Workers' compensation, 28-29, 55-56, 57-58, 64, 90, 155      absenteeism and, 28-29, 58      back disorders, 55, 144, 149      cultural factors, 31, 449      defined, 36      preventive interventions, 303      somatization, 26-27      upper extremity disorders, 55, 449-450 Washington State, 45, 46-47, 55-56, 57-58, 62 Workers' Compensation Programs,      Department of Labor, 45, 56-57 Workstations, 259, 275-276, 278, 298, 339, 346      see also Computer users; Typing chairs, 318, 359      hand tools, 222, 259      preventive interventions, 7, 8, 302, 314, 317, 318, 320, 359, 361, 452 Work style model, 295-296 World Health Organization, 1, 89 World Wide Web,      see Internet Wrists, 340, 431      see also Carpal tunnel syndrome      biomechanics, 255, 257-258, 260, 261, 262, 263, 265-267, 268, 270, 274, 275-279, 282, 284, 360, 363      epidemiology, 20, 102, 111, 125, 126, 138, 172, 174, 175, 177, 178, 180, 181, 182      incidence and prevalence, 43, 51, 54, 57, 181, 436, 440-441      nonspecific, 19      peripheral nerve, 212-213      physician visits, 20      preventive interventions, 319, 451      tissue mechanobiology, 196      twisting, 55, 275-276 X X rays,      see Radiographs