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Index A Airports, sea level and, 98 Alaskan coast, 45 Alpine glacier contributions to sea level rise, 27 Antarctic contribution to sea level rise, 27 Antarctic deglaciation, 26 Anthropogenic subsidence, 11 Aquifers, coastal, 113 Artificial islands, sea level and, 115-116 Atlantic City tide gauge records, 14-15 Atlantic coastal plain, 41~3 Auto-subsidence, 11 B Back-barrier marshes, 65 Barrier chains, coastal compartment, 41 Barrier island coasts, 47 Barrier islands, 41 aOuter Banks" type, 42 Barrier width, 57 Bay shores, bulkheading along, 70-71 Beach erosion, 6; Cc also Erosion 143 Beach Erosion Board, 32 Beach nourishment, 75-79 with groins, 79 Beach profiles, equilibrium, 59~60 Beaches perched, 7080 sandy, sec Sandy coastlines Bluff retreat, 61-62 Boston levees, 101-102 Brackish marshes, 65-66 Breakwaters offshore, 8~81 rubble-mound, 105 sea level and, 105 Bridges, sea level and, 108-109 Brnun rule, 2, 53-57 Buildings, commercial and industrial, sea level and, 109 Bulkheading along bay shores, 70-71 Bulkheads, 74-75 C Carbon dioxide monitoring, 24-25 Century, sea level rise per, 17 Chlorolluorocarbons, 13, 25 Cliff retreat, 61~2 Closed basins, 56

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144 Closure, depth of, 55 Coastal aquifers, 113 Coastal armoring, 3 Coastal compartment barrier chains, 41 Coastal Engineering Research Center, 32 Coastal landform type, shoreline erosion rate according to, 51 Coastal land-use planning, 3 Coastal processes research, funding for, 8 Coastal projects, feasibility studies for, 7 Coastal structures and protective techniques, 3, 72-91 beach nourishment, 75-79 bulkheads and sea walls, 74-75 engineering case studies, 82-91 Galveston case study, 82-84 groins, 73-74 Harrison County, Mississippi, case study, 86-87 Miami Beach case study, 86 Netherlands case study, 84-86 offshore breakwaters, 8~81 perched beach, 79-80 revetments, 75 storm surge barriers, 81 Terminal Island case study, 90-91 Tybee Island, Georgia, case study, 87-90 Coastal wetlands, sec Wetlands Coastal zone sea level rise effects, 40-71 Coastlines sandy, sec Sandy coastlines U.S. continental, 40-45 Commercial buildings, sea level and, 109 Conclusions, 4-6, 122-124 Continental coastlines, U.S., 4~45 Continental shelf, 35 Coral reefs, 43 Crustal subsidence, ace Subsidence Cuspate coast, 42 D Dalrymple, Robert A., 137-138 INDEX Dean, Robert G., 137 Decisions, 1 17-121 national policy, 121 strategic, 117-120 Deglaciation, antarctic, 26 Delta Project, 81, 85 Deltaic coast of Louisiana, 44 Deposit slopes, 56 Depth of closure, 55 Dikes, 84 Diversion of rivers, 94 Docking areas, sedimentation of, 102-105 Drains, flooding and storm, 110-112 Drowned-valley concept, 52 Dry docks, sea level and, 107-108 Dynamic equilibrium model, 59-61 Earthquakes, 11 Ebb tidal delta, 62~3 Economic {actors, 118-119 E1 Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) effects, 11-12 Emergency action, 124 Engineering case studies, 82-91 Environmental factors, 12~121 Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 64 Equilibrium beach profiles, 59~0 Equilibrium profile, 53 Erosion beach, 6 at Ocean City, 60 61 shore, Cc Shore erosion Erosion impact, 32 Estuaries freshwater intakes from upstream regions of, 114-115 sedimentation of, 102-105 Estuarine marshes, 65-66 Eustatic contribution, equation for, 28-29 Eustatic rate, global, 19 Eustatic sea level rise, 1-2, 11 scenarios of, 28-30 Eustatic signal, 18

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INDEX F Fairbridge, Rhodes W., 138 Feasibility studies for coastal projects, 7 Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), 36 Federal research funding effort, 12S Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMS), 36 Flood tidal delta, 62~3 Flooding and storm drains, 110-112 Florida Keys, 43 Florida's east coast, 77-79 Fresh water, perched, 113 Freshwater intakes from upstream regions of estuaries, 114-115 Freshwater marshes, tidal, 66 Fending efforts, federal research, 125 Funding for coastal processes research, 8 G Galveston case study, 82-84 Gates of levees, 101 navigation, 106 Gauges, tide, ace Tide gauges Geodetic leveling, 20, 21 Geodetic leveling profile, 22 Geologic record of sea level, 12-13 Geological/geographical factors, 12~121 Geomorphological and geological analysis, 20, 21 Glacial process models, 26 Glaciated coast, 41 Glacio-eustasy, 11 Global eustatic rate, 19 Global Positioning System (GPS), 21 Global temperature, mean, 27-28 Global warming, v, 11, 94-95 Golden Gate Bridge, 108-109 Graving docks, 107 Great Lakes, 55, 56 Greenhouse effect, 1, 94-95 Greenhouse gases, 9, 11, 13 145 Greenland, contribution to sea level rise, 27 Groins, 73-74 beach nourishment with, 79 Gull Coast, 42, 43-44 H Harbors, sedimentation of, 102-105 Harrison County, Mississippi, case study, 86-87 Highways, sea level and, 108-109 Historical trend analysis, 51-53 Hotels, sea level and, 112 Hurricanes, 56 Hydrodynamic processed, 34-39 storm surges, 34-36 tidal ranges and currents, 36-37 waves, 37-39 Hydrologic recycling, 94 I Industrial buildings, sea level and, 109 Inlet cross-sectional area, 37 Inlets, tidal, 6204 Insular tide gauges, 17 Interior ponding, 69 International Association of Geodesy (TAG), 20 International Union for Quaternary Research (INQUA), 20 International Union of Geology and Geophysics (I\JGG), 20 J Japan, subsidence in, 97 Jetties, 14, 64 sea level and, 105 Juneau tide gauge records, 14-15 Landfills, sea level and, 115 Land-use planning, coastal, 3 Leatherman, Stephen P., 138 Levees gates of, 101 sea level and, 98-102 Littoral drift, 58

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146 Littoral transport, 33 Louisiana, deltaic coast of, 44 M Maintenance capability, 11~120 Maintenance costs, 79 Malls, sea level and, 112 Man-made subsidence, 11 Marsh accretion rates, 67-68 Marsh loss, processes of, 69 Marsh plants, 65 Marshes back-barrier, 65 estuarine (brackish), 65-66 tidal freshwater, 66 Mean sea level, arc Relative mean sea level Mesotidal coast, 42~3 Methane, 25 Miami Beach case study, 86 N Narrow shelves, 56 National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), 20 National Ocean Service (NOS), 20 ITS sheets, 52 National policy decisions, 121 Navigation channels, sediments of, 102-105 Navigation gates, 106 Nearshore ridges, 58 Netherlands case study, 84-86 New York City tide gauges, 22-23 Nitrous oxide, 25 Northeasters, 56 . Nummedal, Dag, 138-139 o O'Brien, Morrough P., 139 Ocean City, Maryland, erosion, 60~1 Office of Technology Assessment (OTA), 64 Offshore breakwaters, 8~81 Offshore platforms, sea level and, 115-116 Offshore sediment transport, 60 INDEX `'Outer Banks type barrier islands, 42 Overfill ratio, 54 Overtopping, 80 p Pacific atolls, 18 Pacific Coast, 44-45 Pacific rim, 4~41 Peat outcrops, 47 Perched beach, 7080 Perched fresh water, 113 Piers, sea level and, 106-107 Pilkey, Orrin H., 139 Pinch-out depth, 54-55 Pipelines, sea level and, 110 Planetary spin-rate effects, 17 Folders, 82, 84-86 Ponding, interior, 69 Power plants, sea level and, 109 Profile equilibration, 75-76 Profile retreat, 55 Railroads, sea level and, 108-109 Recession rate multiplier, 77 Recommendations, 6-8, 124-125 References, 126-135 Relative mean sea level, 4-5, 023 alternative responses to rise in, 72-95 assessment of changes in, 24-30 causes of rise of, 11-12 contribution to future rise in, 27 controlling rate of rise in, 94-9S difference in secular changes of, 16 effects and responses of rise in, 31-33 estimates of future rise in, 24-28 geographical distribution of worldwide change of, 19 methods of observing, 1023 past changes in, 12-19 present best estimate of changes in, 10 rise effects in coastal zone, 40-71 risk of accelerated rise in, 123 temporal estimates of future rise in, 27

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INDEX Research funding effort, federal 125 Residential centers, sea level and, 112 Response strategies for specific facilities and systems, assessment of, 96-116 airports, 98 breakwaters, sea walls, and jetties, 105 commercial and industrial buildings, 109 dry docks and wet docks, 107-108 flooding and storm drains, 11~112 highways, railroads, bridges, and vehicular tunnels, 108-109 hotels and malls, 112 landfills and waste disposal sites, 115 levees, 98-102 navigation gates, 106 offshore platform s and artificial islands, 115-116 piers and wharves, 106-107 pipelines, 110 power plants, 109 residential centers, 112 sedimentation and, 102-105 water supply systems, 113-115 Retreat from shoreline, 31, 91-94 e ~ ~ e engmeermg, geologic, and economic considerations, 93-94 mechanisms of, 92-93 Return period, storm, 323 Revetments, 75 Risk, degree of, 119 Rivers, diversion of, 119 Rubble-mound breakwaters, 105 S Sacramento-San Joaquin delta, 98-101, 114 Salinity intrusion, 2-3 San Francisco tide gauge records, 14-15 Sand, nourishment, 75-79 Sand bypassing, artificial, 63 147 Sand ridges, linear, 58 Sand rights, concept of, 12~121 Sand system, 33 Sand transport, 57 Sandy coastlines, 2, 45~1 Brnun rule, 53-57 dynamic equilibrium model, 59-61 geologic indicators, 46~8 historical record, 48-49 historical trend analysis, 51-53 sediment budget approach, 57-59 techniques of projecting shoreline retreat due to sea level rise, 49~1 Satellite altimetry, 20, 21 Scenarios of eustatic sea level rise, 28-30 Sea level eustatic rise in, ecu Eustatic sea level rise geologic record of, 12-13 range of estimates available, 17-19 relative mean, sec Relative mean sea level rise in twentieth century, 13-17 rise per century, 17 Sea walls, 74-75 sea level and, 105 Seaports, sedimentation of, 102-105 Secular change difference, 16 Sediment budget approach, 57-59 Sediment transport, offshore, 60 Sedimentary accretion, 47 Sedimentation of seaports and harbors, 102-1(~5 Seiching conditions, 102 Seismic subsidence, 11 Setback lines, 33, 92-93 Shallow water forecasting relationships, 39 Shore erosion national assessment of, 48 rate of, 50 historical, according to coastal landform type, 51 Shoreline, retreat from, ace Retreat from shoreline Shoreline stabilization, 31

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148 Social factors, 119-120 Spin-rate eRects, planetary, 17 Stabilization projects, 118-119 Steric-expansion eustatic sea level, 11 Storm damage, 32 Storm drains, 110-112 Storm return period, 32 Storm surge barriers, 81 Storm surges, 34-36 maximum, 35 Straight barrier coast of Texas, 44 Strategic decisions, 117-120 Sturges, Wilton, III, 139 Subsidence, 11 in Japan, 97 local rate of, 30 Subsidence processes, T Tectonic phenomena, 11 Temperature, mean global, 27-28 Temporal estimates of future sea level rise, 27 Terminal Island, 23 case study, 90-91 Tcrpen, 84 Texas, straight barrier coast of, 44 Thames barrier, 81 Thermal expansion contributions to sea level rise, 27 Tidal freshwater marshes, 66 Tidal inlets, 62-64 Tidal prisms, 3037, 62-63 Tidal ranges and currents, 36-37 Tide gauge analysis, 20, 21 Tide gauge data, 14-17 Tide gauge pairs, 16 Tide gauges, 2 insular, 17 of New York City, 22-23 Transgressive pulse, 47 Trend analysis, 51 Tunnels, vehicular, sea level and, 108-109 Turning basins, sedimentation of, 102-105 Tybee Island, Georgia, case study, 87-90 INDEX U Uplift, local rates of, 30 U.S. continental coastlines, 40 45 V Vehicular tunnels, sea level and, 108-109 Vlied~crger~ 84 W Warming, global, v, 11, 94-95 Waste disposal sites, sea level and, llS Water depth, 39 Water supply systems, sea level and, 113-115 Wave action effects, 3 Wave-cut cliffs, 47 Wave damping, 38 Wave height, 38-39 wind-generated, 39 Waves, 37-39 Wet docks, sea level and, 107-108 Wetlands, 64-71 human-induced changes in, 69-71 prospects for, 71 Wharves, sea level and, 100107 Wide shelves, 56 Wiegel, Robert L., 140 Wind-generated wave height, 39 Wind stress surge, 35 Windmills, 84 Working and economic life, 96 Zuider Zee, 85