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Index A Abice concolor, 130, 150, 151, 158 Aeric Haplaquents (soil subgroup), 126 Aerosol production, 61-62, 197 Agriculture, 12,:129, 134-137, 156-157 Agrostis sp., 151 Air Bow patterns and air mass types, 23-35, 24 (figure), 166-170, 168 (figure), 169 (figure) Air quality, effects of changes in lake level on, 5, 12, 166-170, 179, 182, 197-198 Algae ammonium and, 57, 58, 186 effects of changes in lake level and salinity on, 4, 14, 77-79, 187-190, 188 (table) free water requirements of, 206 limited by nitrogen and phosphorus, 57-58, 72 in Mono Lake food chain, 5, 14, 57-58, 69-72, 91 as primary producers and decomposers, 69-72 seasonal dynamics of, 72 259 tufa formations and, 61 Cc also specific types of algae Alkali flats, as nesting area for snowy plovers, 13, 121, 182, 198 Alkaline Herbs (vegetation type), 143, 149 Alkalinity, 6, 14, 19, 50, 57, 58, 69, 70, 71, 91, 92, 103, 127, 129, 143, 147 Alluvial fans and sediments, 124 (figure), 125, 152, 154-156, 160, 200, 203 Amclanchicr sp., 150 Ammonium, 57-58, 70, 83, 186 Aquatic animals, effects of changes in lake level and salinity on, 187-190, 189 (table); ecu ale o specific types of animals Aquatic arthropods, sec Brine flies; Brine shrimp Aquatic biology, effects of changes in lake level and salinity on, 2, 4, 10, 69-92, 179, 183, 187-190, 206; ecc also specific types of play and arums

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260 Aquatic birds, effects of changes in lake level on, 2, 5, 6, g, 12, 92-93, 96, 102-103, 106, 163-165, 179, 182, 183, 190-193, 192 (table), 193 (table), 206-207; Cc ale o Birds and specific types of bird Aquatic pelagic organisms ecological aspects of, 69-77 physiological aspects and salinity tolerances of, 77-92 arc also specific types of orgy Aquatic plants, effects of changes in lake level and salinity on, 187-190, 188 (table); sec also apcafic typo of play Aqueducts, 135 Aquents (soil subgroup), 126 Aquilegiaformosa, 151 Arabie spp., 160 Aragonite, 60, 64 Aral Sea, 17 Arctoetaph~'los patula, 158 Aridsols (soil group), 123, 126 Arsenic, 58, 64, 79 A~temiafranc~cana, sec Brine shrimp Artemia Monica, Cc Brine shrimp Artemia saline, ace Brine shrimp Artem"ia tridentat4 Cc Big sagebrush Ashfalls, 132-134 Aster sp., 150, 151 Astragalw sp., 160 Atnplez canc~cens, 127 Avalanches, 127-129, 131 B Bacteria, as primary producers and decomposes, 69, 70-72 Bald eagle (Haliactus Icucocc~halus1. 163 Bahia h~sopifolia, sec Smother-weed Baja occidental", 150, 151 Bicarbonates, 50, 57, 60, 63 Big sagebrush (Artem~a tridentata), 130, 146, 147, 148, 158, 159, 160, 161 Index Biology of Mono Lake, 69-110; ecc also Aquatic biology and specific typ" of play aM animus Birds ecological characteristics of, 215-225 effects of changes in lake level on, 2, 5, 6, 9, 12, 92-93, 96, 102-103, 106, 179, 182, 183, 190-193, 192 (table), 193 (table), 206, 207 numbers and migratory patterns of, 2, 5, 92-110 as secondary consumers, 5, 14, 70, 92-110, 163-165, 190-193 use of shoreline or upland habitats by, 163-165 Cc To Pacific tics of bit Bishop, California, 26, 27 Biting midge ~ C~icoidc~ occidentally), 76 Bitterbrush (Pwshia t~dentata), 130, 131, 146, 147, 158, 159, 160, Black cottonwood (Popular trichocarpa), 150, 151,152; sec ado Cottonwood Black Point, 37, 126, 133, 148 Blaney-Criddle method of moisture budget analysis, 38 Blue-green algae, 61 Boron, 58, 64 Bound water, 79 Bridgeport Creek, 29, 60, 195, 196 Brine dies (Eph~d~a Can) bioenergetic~ of, 91 effects of changes in lake level and salinity on, 5, 9, 90-92,182, 188-190,189 (table), 191, 207 fluidity and circulation of, 90-91 as food for California guile, 70, 92-93, 109, 110 as food for eared grebes, 70, 92-93, 95-96, 110, 191 as food for phalaropes, 5, 70, 92-93, 101-104, 110, 190, 191, 207 free water requirements of, 79, 90-91, 206

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Index as primary consumers, 1, 14, 70, 76-77 reproductive characteristics of, 77, 90 seasonal variations of, 76-77 sodium pump in, 91-92 spatial distribution of, 77 Brine shrimp (Artc~ua Monica; A. fraruc~cana; A matinal bioenergetics and fecundity of, 89 effects of changes in lake level and salinity on, 4-5, 9, 78, 86, 87, 89, 91-92, 182, 188, 189 (table), 191, 207 effects of pHi on diapause cysts of, 82, 85, 86 effects of temperature on diapause cysts of, 86-87 fluidity and circulation of, 87-89 as food for California gulls, 5, 69, 92-93, 106, 109, 110, 190, 207 as food for eared grebes, 5, 69, 70, 92-100, 110, 190, 207 as food for phalaropes, 5, 70, 92-93, 101-104, 110, 207 free water requirements of, 79, 80-84, 88, 89, 188, 206 reproductive characteristics of, 73-75, 84-86 response to meromixis of, 186 as primary consumers, 1, 14, 69, 70, 73-76 seasonal abundance of, 73-75, 74 (figure) sodium pump in, 88-89, 91-92 spatial distribution of, 75-76 vertical mixing and, 58 water activity (aw) and, 84:)-84, 81 (table), 83 (figure), 88, 89 Brook trout (Saluclinw fontinali`), 162 Brown trout (Salmo Greta), 7, 162, 205 Bulrush (Scirpw decadent), 143, 146 Bunchgrass, 136-137 C Cain Irrigation Company, 135 261 Cain Ranch, 37, 132 Calcite (calcium carbonate), 19, 59, 60, 61, 63, 64 Calcium, 14, 19, 50, S9-60, 63-64, 136 Calcium chloride, 17 California Department of Fish and Game, 163 California gulls (Laws califorr~cu~) breeding habits of, 105-107 brine flies as food for, 70, 92-93, 109, 110 brine shrimp as food for, 5, 69, 92-93, 106, 109, 110, 190, 207 ejects of changes in lake level on nesting habitats of, 106, 182, 192, 193 (table) islands as nesting areas for, 2, 5, 92, 104, 105, 107-109, 182, 191, 192, 207 numbers and migratory patterns of, 2, 92-93, 104-110, 191-192 plover chick e as food for, 164 California Wilderness Act, 8 Camborthide (soil subgroup), 126-127 Carbon dioxide, 18, 27, 59, 61 Carbonates, 14, 18, 19, 50, 57, 59, 60, 63, 69, 70, 72, 170 Farce douglaJii, 159, 161 Carc2 lanugino~a, 151 Care z praegracd", sec Sedge Catch lip., 146, 150, 151 Cattle, 134, 136, 156, 165 Ccar~othw velutinus, 158 Ccrcocarpw Icdifolfw, 130 Charadrius aiczandrinw, em Snowy plovers Chemical stratification, effects of changes in lake level on, 183-187, 206 Chemistry of Mono Basin, 1, 4, 16-19, 50, 56-65, 179, 183-187, 206-207 Chenopodiumfremontdi, 146 Chloride, 50, 56, 57, 60, 63, 64, 82 Chlorophyll, 72, 73 (figure) Chrysotham~us namcosus, ecc Rabbitbr~sh Chr~othamnus 5p., 146, 160

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262 Chry~othamnw v~cidi~orw, 159 C!comcila parvi~ora, 143 Climatology of Mono Lake, 9, 12-15, 22-27, 179 Corny sp., 150 Cloud formations, 167-168, 168 (figure), 169 (figure) Contest ~tolorufcra, 152 Cottonwood (fop ulna sp.), 153, 157-158, 203, 204; Cc also Black cottonwood Cottonwood Creek, 11, 29 County Park Tufa area, 34, 147, 148, 194, 196 Cowtrack Mountain, 11, 14 Coyote Islet, 109 Coyotes (`Canu lairaru), 108 Preps sp., 160 C7tenocladu~ circinnaiw, 72, 79, 187 Cutthroat trout (Salmo clarb.), 162 Cyanobacteria, 72 Cyclones, 23-24, 25 Cyst hydration, 79-84, 82 (table), 83 (figure) D Dark kangaroo mice (Microdipodops mcgaccphalw polion;tw), 166 Dead Sea, 17 Dechambeau Creek, 11, 194 Deer flies ( Ch~sops sp.), 76 Deflation, 61-62 Diatoms, 61, 64, 78, 91 Dissolved oxygen, 18, 56, 59 Distich~ epicata, sec Saligrass Drought, 5, 24-26 Dry Creek, 60 Dry Open (vegetation type), 146 Dry Scrub (vegetation type), 146 Dunalicila parka, 79 D~alidla sp., 79,187 Durorthidic Xeric Torriorthents (soil subgroup), 125, 126 Durorthidic Xeric Torripsamment (soil subgroup), 125, 126 Dust storms, 6, 25, 166-170, 197-198 Dystric Xerorthent (soil subgroup), 125, 126 Index Eared grebes (Podiccps nigncollu) brine flies as food for, 70, 92-93, 95-96, 110, 191 brine shrirmp as food for, 5, 69, 70, 92-100, 110, 190, 207 effects of changing lake level on, 192 (table) estimate of numbers of, 94 (figure) fat reserves and Bight range of, 96-100, 98 (figure) numbers and migratory patterns of, 2, 92-100, 191-192 Earthquakes, 134 Ecological responses to changes in lake level, 3-7, 179-211 Electrical conductivity (EC), 143, 144, 149 Elko, Nevada, 25, 27 El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomena, 26 Ely, Nevada, 25, 26, 27 Elymw sp., 151 ElymuJ t~icoidc~, 150 Entisole (soil group), 122, 125, 126 Ephydra hiana, ecc Brine dies Epilobium adenocaulon, 143 EpRobium sp., 151 Eriogonunm sp., 160 Erosion, 127, 129, 131, 169, 156, 170-173 Evaporation, 1, 3, 9, 14, 25, 28, 38, 40-41, 43, 44, 45, 57, 183; sec ago Terrestrial evapotraD spiration Evapotranspiration, JCC Terrestrial evapotranspiration F Filamentous green algae, 61, 72 Fire, 11, 129-132, 157, 165 Fish, 2, 7, 9, 14, 18, 69, 133, 139, 161-163, 205; JCC also specific type of fish Flash floods, 25, 129 Fluoride, 58, 64, 79

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Index Foxtail barley (Hordc~m jub~um), 143, 146 Free water required by algae, 206 required by Artenua ealina, 80 required by brine dies, 79, 90-91, 206 required by brine shrimp, 79, 80-84, 88, 89, 206 Fresh water available for vegetation, 5-6, 139, 42, 147, 148-149, 154-158, 198-205 bacteria in, 71 California gulls and, 107 evaporation rate of, 44, 46 mixing with saline water, 4, 53-56, 185-187 physical properties of, 51-53 radionuclides in, 18 red-necked phalaropes and, 102-103 volume of, 17, 183, 185 Wilson's phalaropes and, 102-103 ecc also Groundwater; Stream~lows G Geochemical evolution of Mono Basin, 62-65 Geology of Mono Basin, 12-15, 51 Glaciation, 14, 15, 37, 122, 160 Goats, feral, 108 Golden trout (Salmo aguabonita), 162 Granites and metasedimentaries, 14, 59, 123, 126 (table), 128 (table), 160 Grant Lake, 11, 151, 152, 203, 204 Grazing, 12, 129, 134, 136-137 156-157, 165 Greasewood (Sarcobatus vc~culatue), 127, 131, 143, 146, 159, 160 Great Basin air flow patterns in, 23-25, 24 (figure), 166-170, 168 (figure), 169 (figure) bacterial concentrations in, 71-72 263 California gull population of, 105, 192 eared grebe population of, 192 ephydrids in, 90 {all and rise in lake level of, 25-27 fish in, 161-163 phalarope population of, 101, 192 synoptic-scale systems and air masses in, 23-25 precipitation patterns in, 23-27, 167, 169 (figure) topography of, 1, 12-13, 121-122 vegetation studies in, 148 weather stations in, 25-26, 27 (figure) Great horned owl (Bubo uirgiruanus), 109 Great Salt Lake, 17, 25, go, 93, fog Green algae, 72, 78, 79 Groundwater availability for vegetation, 5-6, 39, 142, 148-149, 154-156, 198-205 chemical constituents of, 50, 59-60, 183 data assessment of, 33-37 locations of transects for sampling, 33 (figure) movement of, 30-37 nearshore circulation of, 22, 31-32, 121, 194-196 in water balance models, 39-43 ace also Fresh water; Stream~lows Gulf of California, 25, 97 Gulf of Mexico, 23, 25 E Haplaquents (soil subgroup), 126 Hard substrate (tufa and mudstone), area of, 190 (table) Hiking, 139 Holomictic circulation, 53 Horde um j~aturn, ecc Foxtail barley Hot springs, effects on lake chemistry, 62-65, 71 Hydrogen sulfide, 63, 186 Hydrogeomorphic events, 127-129 Hydrologic cycle, 27-39

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264 Mydro~gk~1 modeb, ~. Riveter balance modeb Hydrology ofh4Ono B "ln'10, 12-13~22-48 Mydrometeoro~gy ofhiono B "in' ^^-^, I Iustre ~ Fog Increments age thod o logy OFIhi] mod e ~ of Ash h~blt~ts,163 Inyo Craters,122 Inyo Natlon~1 Fb~st'135~138 , 1~ Ion ~ctlvlty,1~4~9~14~50' ~65, 80~82~84~183 Irrlg~tlou'26~1 ~ 135~152 Islands erects ofchangeslul ^ levelon, 5,g,182~191~193~207 Stabled as new ~ ~~ O~ Charm gulb,2~5,92,104~105, 10~10g'182~1gl'192~207 . .^ . . , J pee (~ id, ~0~13o, 132~138~150~151~152~158' 15g,160 ago- 6~` .~' Wire rush ;~- _ 143 '~- sp.l142~146~150 Junlper(~n. sp]~132~138' 158 ~u~. ~ 158-160 '~n~ n" o~ns~ 130~158 Lakelevel ~re~ ofl~ke bed exposed ~t dlR~=nt,195 0ab~) eco~g~ r~pon"~ to changesln' 2-7~17g-211 _ ~^ ~, ~ 1~1 eR~cts ofet~ ~ Do. on~g~l4 183~1g4-196~20K4205~202 (t~ble)~2 ~ 211 eScts ou ~lr qu~lky'5~12' 166-170~179~182~197-198 eScts on ~lgae,4~14~77-7g, 18~190~188 (t~ble) eScts on ~qu~tlc ~nlm~ls' 187-190~189 (table) eSctson ~qu~tlc b~log~ 2~4~10, 69-92~179~183~187-190~206 eR~cts on ~qu~tlc pl~nts,187-190, 188 (t~ble) eScts on blrds,2~5~6~9~12, 92-93~96~102-103~106, 163-165~179~182~183, 19~193~192 (t~ble)~193 (tsEle)~206-207 eR~cts on brlne Bles,5~9,gl-92, 182~188-190~18g (tible),lDl, 207 eScts on brlneshrl~p,4-5~9, 91-92~182~188~189(tible), 191~207 eScts on chem k~lstr~lAc~tlon' 18~187~206 eScts on Ash'161-163 eScts on bl~nds'5'g,182~1gl, 193~207 (t~ble) eScts on ~ ~ m~ls,165-166~205 eR~cts on s~llulg~ 4-5~14~44-48, 183-187~206-207 eR~cts on shoreUne en~lronment, 2I5-6,g,12~121~142, 17~173~179-183~180 (Agure), 181 (Ogu~)l182 (Agure)~183, 19~200~201 (t~ble)~206~20g eR~c~ on snowy plovem,5~6~163' 164-165, 1821 198' lOg (table) eScte on tu~ ~rm~t~ns,5~6lg, 12~170~179~182~196~1g? (t~ble)~209 eScts on upl~nd en~l=~ment,2, 3, ~'gl121~183~200-205, 206 eR~cts on veget~tlon,5-~,g, 12 127l130~13g,142~14~148' 16~161~182' 183, 198-200, 201 (table)~208-210 eR~cts on w1~11~6~8,g, 10-11 161-166~179~183~205 equlllbrlum ve~us Oow'145 (Ogure)

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Index historical measurements of, 184 (table) hydrologic processes affecting, 27-39 LADWP records of, 16, 17 (figure) major ecological effects of, 208-209 (table) precipitation patterns and, 9, 13, 25-27 predicted salinity values for, 184 (table) prehistoric and historic changes in, 15-16 ranges of, 2-4, 179-183, 180-181 (table), 206, 210 (figure) water balance models for predicting, 6-7, 22, 43, 39-48, 204 Lake Russell, 15, 133 Lake Tahoe, 56 Land-air interface, 121,166-170 Land use, history of, 134-139 Land-water interface, 121, 170-173 Lams califorrucw, ace California gulls Las Vegas, Nevada, 25, 26, 27 Lee Vining, California, 11, 169 Lee Vining Creek, 6, 7, 10,11, 29, 37, 45, 134, 135, 142, 150, 151, 152, 155, 156, 157, 162, 163, 173, 200, 203 Lee Vining Tufa Area, 196 Lcprodactylon pungent, 160 Lightning, 25, 130, 132 Lithium, 58, 64 Littoral organisms, ecological aspects of, 69-77 physiological aspects and salinity tolerances of, 77-92 Lodgepole pine (Pings cordorta), 129, 150, 151, 158 Logging, 134, 138 Long-legged alien (Hydropheru~ plumicu~), 76 Long Valley, 122, 134, 135 Los Angeles, California, diversion of Mono Basin water by, 1, 2, 7, 8, 9, 11, 16, 53, 135, 152, 155-156 265 Los Angeles Department of Water and Power (LADWP) groundwater studies by, 32-37,, 33 (figure), 34-35 (figure), 36 (table) lake level records of, 16, 17 (figure) plans to use IFIM m - el by, 163 precipitation records of, 13 surface runoff studies by, 30 water balance model of, 39-48, 46 (figure), 183-185, 204 Lundy, California, 137 Lundy Canyon, 125 Lundy Land Company, 37 Lupinue praten~u, 151 M Mahogany, 132 Magnesium, 19, 50, 60,63-64,136 Mammals, ecological characteristics of, 226-229 (table) effects of changes in lake level on, 165-166,205 sec also Wildlife and specific mammals Mcr~zel~a torrcyi, 148 Meromixis, 4,18,53,55-56, 72, 185-187,206-207 Merriam's shrews, 166 Mesozoic era, 14 Methane, 71,186 Milford, Utah, 25,26,27 Mill Creek, 11, 29,135,138,173, 194 Minudue 9uH~w, 143 Mim~lw sp., 150 Minerals as major component of Mono Lake water, 50, 56-65 precipitation of, 4,50,56-65,185 in salt lakes, 18-19,50 in surface water and groundwater 59-60 ecc also speci.~ mincers Mining, 134, 137-138 Miocene epoch, 14 Mirabilite, 63, 185

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266 Muted sedimentaries, 126 (table), 128 (table) Mixolimnion, 53, 73 Moisture balance equations, 40-43, 42 (table) Moisture budget models, 28, 38-39, 60, 64 Mollisols (soil group), 122, 125 Mono Basin and Mono Lake animals in, Cc Mammals; Wildlife; and specific tack of a?urnale aquatic pelagic organisms of, 69-92 area capacity for Mono Lake, 52 (figure), 183-185 birds of, ace Birds and specific types of birds biology of, 2, 4, 10, 69-92, 179, 183, 187-190, 206 chemistry of, 1, 4, 16-19, 50, 56-65, 179, 183-187, 206-207 climatology of, 9, 12-15, 22-27, 179 compared with other salt lakes, 16-19 deflation in, 61-62 density of, 50, 51, 53, 54 earthquakes in, 134 ecological characteristics of birds of, 215-225 (table) ecological characteristics of mammals of, 226-229 (table) fires in, 11, 129-132, 157, 165 fish in, ecc Fish and specific tack of fish geochemical evolution of, 62-65 geology of, 12-15, 51 glaciation in, 14, 15, 37, 122, 160 grazing in, 12, 129, 134, 136-137, 156-157, 165 historic land use in, 134-139 hydrogeomorphic events in, 127-129 hydrology of, 10,12-13, 22-48 hydrometeorology of, 22-27 land-air interface in, 121, 166-170 land-water interface in, 121, 170-173 littoral organisms of, 69-92 Index location of, 1, 8, 10 (figure), 11 (figure), 12 logging in, 134, 138 major ecological effects of changer in lake level on resources of, 208-209 (table) mining in, 134, 137-138 morphometric parameters for, 51, 52 (figure) natural events in, 121, 127-134 physiography of, 12-15, 50, 51-56 precipitation in, Cc Precipitation prehistoric and historic changes in lake level, 15-16 primary consumers in, 1, 14, 70, 73-77, 79-91 primary producers and decomposed in, 69-72, 77-79 recreation in, 138-139, 161 roads in, 137 salinity of, sec Salinity secondary consumers in, 5, 14, 70, 92-110 shoreline environment of, Cc Shoreline environment shoreline of, at various lake elevations, 179-183, 180 (figure), 181 (figure), 182 (figure), 195 (table) soils of, see Soils and specific pro - ~ and Croup of of voile surface elevations of, 17 (figure) surface fluctuations of, 16 (figure) temperature of, 13, 51-53, 54 (figure) topography of, 1, 12-15, 121-122, 123 (figure) total dissolved solids in, 4, 32, 55 (figure), 57, 78, 89, 90-91, 195 tufa formations in, ecc Tufa formations upland environment of, Cc Upland environment vegetation in, ecc Riparian vegetation; Vegetation; and ~peci~c typce of vegetation volcanic activity and ashfall in, 14, 15, 37, 62-65, 121, 124 (figure), 129, 132-134,161

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Index water balance models for, sec Water balance models water diverted from, 1, 2, 7, 8, 9, 11, 16, 53, 135, 152, 155-156 water level in, sec Lake level water mixing in, 4, 53-56 water motions in, 54-55 wildlife in, sec Mammals; Wildlife; and specific tack of - disc ecc alto cntrice im~ncdiatcly following Mono Basin Ecosystem Study Committee established, 8-9 nature of study by, 9-12 summary and conclusions, 206-211 Mono Basin National Forest Scenic Area congressional request for study of, 2, 8-12 established, 2,8 location of, 1, 8, 10 (figure), 11 (figure) vegetation map of, 159 (figure) sec also Mono Basin and Mono Lake Mono Craters, 11,14,15, 16, 122, 124, 125,132, 133, 138, 158, 160 Mono Lake Tufa State Reserve, 8, 170 Monomictic circulation, 53 Mosquitofi.~h (Gambia a1fin;~), 162 Mount Conness, 122 Mount Dana, 122 Mount Lyell, 122 Mount Lyell shrews, 166 Mount St. Helens, 132 Mountain beavers, 166 Mudstone, area of, 190 (table) MuNcnber~a aspcnfolia, 143 Mahicnbergia sp., 150 N Nonnoc~on~ 5p., 72 National Research Council, 2,8-12 Natural events, 121,127-134 Navy Beach, 146,194 267 Negit Island, 10, 11, 14,108,109, 122,124,148,190 Nitrogen, 50,56,57-58, 70,72 Nitzechia f~wtulum, 72 Nutrients, 50,55-56, 72,207 o Old Marina, 32,34,146,194,196 Ord's kangaroo rats, 166 Orthids (soil subgroup), 126 Or~zopsiJ h~noidcs, 160 Owens sucker (Cato~tomw fumouentru), 162 Owens Valley, 15,24,135,167-168 p Pacific Ocean, 1, 14,23,24,25,97, 167 Pacific willow (Saliz la~andra), 151, 153 Paleozoic era, 14 Panamint chipmunks, 166 Panamint kangaroo rats, 166 Panum Crater, 37,133 Paoha Island, 10, 11, 14,15,54,60, 61, 107, 108, 122, 126, 133, 149,173 Parker Creek, 11, 29, 45,135 Pelagic organisms ecological aspects of, 70-77 physiological aspects and salinity tolerances of, 77-92 Peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinate), 163 pH, of soils, 19, 149 Phalaropes brine dies as food for, 5, 70, 92-93, 101-104, 110, 190, 191, 207 brine shrimp as food for, 5, 70, 92-93, 101-104, 110, 207 effects of changes in lake level on, 192 (table) numbers and migratory patterns of, 2, 92-93, 100-104, 191-192 sec also Red phalaropes; Red-necked phalaropes; Wilson's phalaropes

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268 Phalaropus fulicariue, sec Red phalaropes Phalaropw lobatus, Cc Red-necked (northern) phalarope~ Phalaropw tricolor, sec Wilson's phalaropes pHi, effects on diapause cysts of brine shrimp, 82, 85, 86 Phioz longifolia, 160 Phosphorus, 50, 56, 57-58, 60-61 Phreatophytes, 38, 142, 157 Physiography of Mono Basin, 12-15, 50, 51-56 Phytobenthos, sec Algae Phytoplankton, sec Algae Pinup albicaulu, 158 Pinus cordorta, ace Lodgepole pine Pinw jcffrc~, sec Jeffrey pine Pinyon pine (Pinw monoph?ila), 129, 130, 132, 138, 158 Pinyonjuniper woodland, 130, 158 Playas, 5, 6, 164, 169, 209 Pleistocene epoch, 15, 61 Poa sp., 150, 151 Pocliccps rugricollia, sec Eared grebes Pole Line Road, 136, 137 Polypogon sp., 143 Populus sp., sec Cottonwood Pop ulna trem?Joidcs, sec Quaking aspen Populw trichocarpa, ecc Black cottonwood Post Office Creek, 29, 129 Potassium, 50, 63, 80 Precambrian era, 19 Precipitation average annual, 30 (table) gaging stations for, 28-30, 30 (table), 31 (figure), 43 in Great Basin, 23-27 lake level and, 9, 13, 25-27 measurements of, 13, 28-29 in Mono Basin, 9, 13, 22-27, 28-29, 167,169 (figure) natural events and, 127-129 riparian vegetation and, 154-155 upland vegetation and, 160 in water balance models, 40, 41, 43 Index weather stations for, 25-26, 27 (figure) Pronghorns, 165 Protozoa, 69, 70, 73 Pn~nw ander~onii, 146, 147, 148, 159, 160 Pr?`nw sp., 150 PJathyrotce anruta, 146,148 Puccincilia airoidce, 143 Pumice dunes, as nesting area for snowy plovers, 164 Pure water (Po), 80 Purshia tridentata, Cc Bitterbrush Pygmy rabbits, 165, 166 Pyramid Lake, 17, 25, 26, 71 Q Quaking aspen (Poppa tremuloidce), 130, 150, 151, 152, 158 Quaternary period, 14 R Rabbitbrush ( Ch? yJolkamn~u nauscoe=), 130, 142, 146, 147, 148, 159 Radionuclides, 18 Rainbow trout (Salmo gairdacri), 162, 205 Rainfall, ace Precipitation Ranunc~dw cyrnbalaria, 143, 146 Recreation, 138-139, 161 Red phalaropes Phalaropw ~icar~w), 100 Red-necked (northern) phalarope (Phalaropw loba;l;us~), 2, 10~104, 190, 191-192 Rena, Nevada, 25, 27 Rhamnw califorruca, 150 Rhyolitic ash, 124, 125, 126 (table), 128 (table), 132-133 Riparian vegetation and habitats biotic components of, 139, 150-158 effects of changing streamflows on, 6-7, 9, 12, 154-158, 200-205 effects of fire on, 157 effects of grazing on, 156-157

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Index environmental factors influencing, 154-157 mammals utilizing, 165-166 precipitation and, 154-155 regeneration and evapotranspiration of, 38, 157-158 types of, 150-153 water available for, 154-158, 200-205 Riparian vegetation communities Abice concolor-Populue trichoca~pa, 151 Bctula occiderdalu-Saliz: la~olepis, 150 Cares prac~racil - Junew battier, 151 Pinw contort~Populw tremuloidce, 150 Pinw cordort~Popul?" *ichocarpa, 151 Pinw jcffrc~-Populw trichocarpa, 150-151, 152 Populus tremulo~dc`-Carc2 lan~nosa, 151 Saw: "gid~Sal~e la~andra, 151 Roads, 137 Rosa sp., 150 Rosa wooded, 150, 152 Rotifers, 73 Rush, 147, 152 Rush Creek, 6, 7, 11, 29, 45, 135, 142, 150, 151, 152, 155, 156, 162, 163, 173, 200, 203, 2()4, 205, 210 S Sacramento perch (Archopl*ce interrupts), 162 Sage grouse ~ Ccntroccrew uropha~anus), 163-164 Sagebrush, 136-137, 158, 160 Salinity comparison of salt lakes, 16-19 eared grebes and, 95-96 eEects of changes in lake level on, 4-5, 14, 44-48, 183-187, 206-207 269 effects on algae, 4, 14, 72, 77-79, 187-190, 188 effects on aquatic animals, 187-190, 189 (table) effects on aquatic biology, 2, 4, 10, 69-92, 187-190 effects on aquatic plants, 187-190, 188 (table) effects on bacteria, 70-72 effects on birds, 2, 3, 5, 6, 9, 12, 92-93, 96, 102-103, 106, 179, 182, 183, 190-193, 192 (table), 206, 207 effects on brine flies, 5, 9, 90-92, 188-190, 189 (table), 191 Effects on brine shrimp, 4-5, 9, 78, 86, 87, 89, 90-91, 188, 189 (table), 191 historical measurements of, 183-185, 184 (tables) predicted values for, 183-187, 184 (tables) of soils, 125-127, 139, 146, 148, 149, 198-199 Volume of, 1, 17-18 water activity ~ aw) and, 80-84 water balance models for predicting, 6-7, 22, 43, 39-48, 204 sec also Salt lakes Saliz Aqua, ecc Sandbar Salix laculgata, 150 Sal" lasiandia, ace Pacific willow Saliz rigida, 131, 150, 151 Saliz sp., ecc Willow Salsola pceNfcra, 146 Salt Lake City, Utah, 25, 26, 27 Salt lakes compared, 16-19 geographic, morphometric, and chemical characteristics of, 16-19, 19 (table) ions in, 1, 4, 9, 14 physical characteristics of, 51-56 trace elements in, 58-59 Cc also Salinity Saltgrase (Distichlis Picas, 127, 130, 143, 146, 147, 148, 149, 160-161, 199 Salton Sea, 93, 95, 97, 191

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270 Sambucu~ 8p., 150 Sandbar willow (Salix Papua), 143, 150, 152 Sarcobatue vc~culatus, Cc Greasewood Scirpus arrKricanuJ, 143 Scirpw nevadeneu, Cc Bulrush SCiPpUJ Sp., 142, 143, 146 Sedge ~ Farce praegracil"), 151, 152 Sedimentaries and mixed sedimentaries, 123, 126 (table), 128 (table), 160 Sheep, 134, 136, 156, 165 ShepAcrdia aryentca, 131 Shoreline environment biotic components of, 139-158 effects of changes in lake level on, 2, 5-6, 9, 12, 121, 142, 170-173, 179-183, 180 (figure), 181 (figure), 182 (figure), 183, 193-200, 195 (table), 198-200, 201 (table), 206, 209 environmental factors influencing vegetation of, 148-149 erosion of, 121, 170- 173 physical components of, 121-139 vegetation of, 5, 121, 139-150, 140 (figure), 141 (figure), 144-145 (figure), 148-149, 170-171, 182, 209 Sierra Nevada air flow patterns in, 23-25, 24 (figure), 167-168, 168 (figure) avalanches in, 129 as barrier to moisture, 23 fire in, 131 groundwater from, 9, 28, 32, 59, 154-156 history of, 134 precipitation in, 13, 23-27, 154-155 riparian vegetation in, 150-156 surface runoff from, 29-30 topography of, 1, 12-13, 14, 121-122, 123-124 upland vegetation of, 158-161 wildlife in, 161-166 Simon's Spring, 32, 149, 194, 195, 196, 198, 199 Sitamon hystr=, 160 Index Smother-weed (Bas~a hyssopifolia), 143, 146, 147 Snowmelt, 9, 28, 29, 40, 59, 132 Snowpack, 28, 40, 131, 162, 185 Snowy plovers fC1`ara~ius alczandrintu) effects of changes in lake level on, 5, 6, 163, 164-165, 182, 198, 199 (table) nesting area for, 164, 182, 198 numbers and migratory patterns of, 6, 163, 164-165 Sodium, 4, 18, 50, 59-60, 63, 80, 82 Sodium chloride, 64, 80 Sodium pump, 88-89, 91-92 Soils chemical and physical characteristics of, 121, 122-127, 128 (table), 149 salinity of, 125-127, 139, 146, 148, 149, 198-199 types of, 121, 125-127, 126 (table), 128 (table) vegetation and, 127, 143-146, 149, 198 Solar radiation, 50, 51 Solidago sp., 150, 151 South Tufa Area, 170, 196 Southern Sierra Power Company, 134 Spartina gracilu, 130 Springs chemical constituents of, 59-60, 62-63 effects on lake level, 9, 194-196 hot, 62-65 locations of, 32, 33 (figure) tufa formations and, 14, 32, 60-61 vegetation and, 6, 139, 148-149 Stipa sp., 160 Storms, 6, 13, 23, 25, 28, 166-170 Streamfiows effects on lake level, 9, 14, 183, 194-196, 2~00-205, 202 (table), 205, 209-211 effects on riparian vegetation and habitats, 6-7, 9, 12, 154-158, 183, 200-205, 209-211 fish populations and, 162-163 mammals and, 165-166

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Index seasonal nature of, 29 shoreline erosion and, 173 in water balance models, 44-48 Subalpine forests, 158 Sulfate, 50, 57, 63, 71 Sweetwater Mountain, 122 T Temperature of Mono Lake, 13, 51-53, 54 (figure), 55-56, 60 Ten Mile Road, 34,147 Terrestrial evapotranspiration, 28, 38-39, 40-41, 47, 155, 157-158, 204 Test holes, groundwater studies using, 32-27, 33 (figure), 34-35 (figure), 36 (table) Tctradynua sp., 160 Thermocline, 55, 56, 57, 59, 72 Threespine stickleback (Gasterostew ac~deatus), 162 Topography of Mono Basin, 1, 12-15, 121-122, 123 (figure) Total dissolved solids (TDS), 4, 32, 55 (figure), 57, 78, 89, 90-91, 195 Trace elements, 56, 58-59 Transition Dry/Shrub (vegetation type), 143 Transition Marsh/Dry (vegetation type), 146, 149 Transparency, 51 Trout, 162-163, 205; ecc To spc=fic tI,pce of trout Tufa formations algae and, 61 area of, 190 (table) dynamics of, 1, 32, 121, 170, 196-197 effects of changes in lake level on, 5, 6, 9, 12, 170, 179, 182, 196, 197 (table), 209 sand, 6, 170, 171 (figure), 172 (figure), 196, 209 as scenic attraction, 1, 6, 9, 179, 196 springs and, 14, 60-61 towers, 1, 6, 14, 60-61, 102, 103, 170, 171 (figure), 196 271 Wilson's phalaropes and, 102, 103 windstorms and, 169 Tui chub (Gila bicolor), 162 Typic Cryoborolls (soil subgroup), 125,126 Typic Cryorthents (soil subgroup), 125, 126 Typic Haplaquents (soil subgroup), 126 Typic Haploxerolls (soil subgroup), 125,126 Typic Psammaquents (soil subgroup), 126 Typic Xeropsamments (soil subgroup), 125,126 Typic Xerorthents (soil subgroup), 125,126 U Upland environment biotic components of, 139, 158-161 effects of changes in lake level on, 2, ~7,9, 121,183,200-205, 206 physical components of, 121-139 vegetation of, 121,139, 158-161, 200-205 U.S. Bureau of Land Management, 8 U.S. Congress establishes Mono Basin National Forest Scenic Area, 2, 8 requests study of Mono Basin National Forest Scenic Area, 2,9-12 U.S. Forest Service, 8, 11 V Vegetation effects of ashfall on, 133-134 effects of avalanches on, 129, 131 effects of changes in lake level on, 5-7, 9, 12, 127, 130, 139, 142, 146-148, 160-161, 182, 183, 198-200, 201 (table), 208-210 effects of fire on, 129-132, 157

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272 effects of grazing on, 129, 136-137, 156-157 effects of wind on, 127, 129, 169 inventory of, 12 mapped, 140 (figure), 141 (figure), 159 (figure) riparian, Cc Riparian vegetation and habitats shoreline, 5, 121, 139-149, 140 (figure), 141 (figure), 144-145 (figure), 170-171, 182, 198-200, 201 (table), 209 soils and, 127, 143-146, 149, 198 types of, 143-146, 144-145 (figure), 15~152 upland, 121, 139, 158-161, 200-205 water available for, 5-6, 139, 142, 147, 148-149, 154-158, 198-205 Vertical mixing, 53, 55-56, 5B, 72, 186, 207 Volcanic activity, 14, 15, 37, 62-65, 121, 124 (figure), 129, 132-134, 161 Vorster's water balance model, 39-48, 46 (figure), 204 W Walker Creek, 11, 29, 45, 135 Warm Springs, 32, 149, 196, 198, 199 Water activity (aw), brine shrimp and, 80-84, 81 (table), 83 (figure), 88, 89 Water balance models description and assessment of, 28, 39-43, 41 (figure) of LADWP, 39-48, 46 (figure), 183-185, 204 of Vorster, 39-48, 46 (figure), 204 for predicting lake level and salinity, 6-7, 22, 43, 39-48, 204 Index Weather stations in Great Basin, 25-26, 27 (figure) Weather systems in Great Basin, 23-25, 167; Cc also Precipitation Well water, chemical constituents of, 59-60, 62-63 Wells, in groundwater data assessment, 37 Wet Marsh (vegetation type), 143 Wet Shrub (vegetation type), 143 White Mountains, 122 White-tailed hare, 165, 166 Wildlife, effects of changes in lake level on, 6-7, 8, 9, 10-11, 161-166, 179, 183, 205 Willow (Saliz sp.), 147, 152, 157, 158, 203, 2~34 Wilson Creek, 11, 29, 125, 133, 173, 194 Wilson's phalaropes (Phalaropue tricolors, 2, 92-93, 100-104, 190, 191 Windstorms, 129, 132, 166-170, 197 Winnemucca, Nevada, 25, 27 Wire rush (Juncm bathe - I, 151, 152, 159, 161 Xa~hoccphal?`m sp., 160 Xeric Torriorthents (soil subgroup), 125, 126 Xeric Torripsamments (soil subgroup), 125, 126 Xerollic Camborthid (soil subgroup), 126 Xerophytes, 38-39 z Zoobenthos, ace Brine flies Zooplankton, ace Brine shrimp