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References

Barry, R. G., ed. 1998. Proceedings of a Meeting of Experts on Cryosphere and Climate, February 3-5, 1997. WCRP-102, WMO/TD-No. 867. World Climate Research Programme, Cambridge, U.K.

Bromwich, D.H., R.I. Cullather, and M.L. van Woert. 1998. Antarctic precipitation and its contribution to the global sea-level budget. Annals of Glaciology 27: 220-226.

Cavalieri, D.J., P. Gloersen, C.L. Parkinson, J.C. Comiso, and H.J. Zwally. 1997. Observed hemispheric asymmetry in global sea ice changes. Science 97(D1): 278.

Curry, J.A., W.B. Rossow, D. Randall, and J.L. Schramm. 1996: Overview of Arctic cloud and radiation characteristics. Journal of Climatology 9: 1731-64.

Emery, W.J., D.J. Baldwin, P. Schlussel, and R.W. Reynolds. 2001. Accuracy of in situ sea surface temperatures used to calibrate infrared satellite measurements. Journal of Geophysical Research.

Frolking, S., K.C. McDonald, J.S. Kimball, J.B. Way, R. Zimmermann, and S.W. Running. 1999. Using the space-borne NASA scatterometer (NSCAT) to determine the frozen and thawed seasons of a boreal landscape. Journal of Geophysical Research 104(D22): 27895-907.

Giovinetto, M.B., D.H. Bromwich, and G. Wendler. 1992. Atmospheric net transport of water vapor and latent heat across 70°S. Journal of Geophysical Research 97(D1): 917-930.

Houghton, J.T., and L.G.M. Filho, B.A. Callandar, N. Harris, A. Kattenberg, and K. Maskell (eds.). 1996. Climate Change 1995: The Science of Climate Change. Contribution of Working Group I to the Second Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, U.K.



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Page 104 References Barry, R. G., ed. 1998. Proceedings of a Meeting of Experts on Cryosphere and Climate, February 3-5, 1997. WCRP-102, WMO/TD-No. 867. World Climate Research Programme, Cambridge, U.K. Bromwich, D.H., R.I. Cullather, and M.L. van Woert. 1998. Antarctic precipitation and its contribution to the global sea-level budget. Annals of Glaciology 27: 220-226. Cavalieri, D.J., P. Gloersen, C.L. Parkinson, J.C. Comiso, and H.J. Zwally. 1997. Observed hemispheric asymmetry in global sea ice changes. Science 97(D1): 278. Curry, J.A., W.B. Rossow, D. Randall, and J.L. Schramm. 1996: Overview of Arctic cloud and radiation characteristics. Journal of Climatology 9: 1731-64. Emery, W.J., D.J. Baldwin, P. Schlussel, and R.W. Reynolds. 2001. Accuracy of in situ sea surface temperatures used to calibrate infrared satellite measurements. Journal of Geophysical Research. Frolking, S., K.C. McDonald, J.S. Kimball, J.B. Way, R. Zimmermann, and S.W. Running. 1999. Using the space-borne NASA scatterometer (NSCAT) to determine the frozen and thawed seasons of a boreal landscape. Journal of Geophysical Research 104(D22): 27895-907. Giovinetto, M.B., D.H. Bromwich, and G. Wendler. 1992. Atmospheric net transport of water vapor and latent heat across 70°S. Journal of Geophysical Research 97(D1): 917-930. Houghton, J.T., and L.G.M. Filho, B.A. Callandar, N. Harris, A. Kattenberg, and K. Maskell (eds.). 1996. Climate Change 1995: The Science of Climate Change. Contribution of Working Group I to the Second Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, U.K.

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Page 105 Houghton, J.T., L.G. M. Filho, B.A. Callandar, N. Harris, A. Kattenberg, and K. Maskell (eds.) 1996. Climate Change 1995: Impacts, Adaptations and Mitigation of Climate Change, Scientific-Technical Analysis. Contribution of Working Group II to the Second Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, U.K. Kwok, R. 2000. Recent changes in Arctic Ocean sea ice motion associated with the North Atlantic Oscillation. Geophysical Research Letters 27: 775-78. Lindsay, R.W., Y. Yu, H.L. Stern, D.A. Rothrock, and R. Kwok. 2000. RADARSAT geophysical processor system products: Evaluation and validation. Available online at < http://psc.washington.edu/RGPS/validation>. Accessed December 18, 2000. Miller, J.L. 2000. Airborne remote sensing of salinity, Backscatter, summer, pp. 24-27. NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration). 1988. Earth System Science, A Program for Global Change. Report of the Earth System Sciences Committee. National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, D.C. NASA. 1998. Catalog of Data Sets and Services Available from the EOS Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs). Washington, D.C.: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. NASA. 2000. What is the Earth System Enterprise? Available online at < http:www.earth.nasa.gov/whatis/index.html>. Accessed December 18, 2000. NRC (National Research Council). 1998. Review of NASA's Distributed Active Archive Centers. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. Peixoto, J.P., and A.H. Oort. 1992. Physics of Climate. American Institute of Physics, New York. Prigent, C., W.B. Rossow, and E. Matthews. 1997. Microwave land surface emissivities estimated from SSM/I observations. Journal of Geophysical Research 102: 21867-890. Rignot E., and J.B. Way. 1994. Monitoring freeze-thaw cycles along north-south Alaskan transects using ERS-1 SAR. Remote Sensing Environment 49: 131-37. Rossow, W.B., and R.A. Schiffer. 1999. Advances in understanding clouds from ISCCP. Bulletin American Meteorological Society 80: 2261-87. Rossow, W.B., and Y-C. Zhang. 1995. Calculation of surface and top-of-atmosphere radiative fluxes from physical quantities based on ISCCP data sets. Part II: Validation and first results. Journal of Geophysical Research 100: 1167-97. Running, S.W., J.B. Way, K. McDonald, J.S. Kimball, A.R. Keyser, S. Frolking, and R.Zimmermann. 1999. Recent advances in the use of satellite radar data to monitor freeze/thaw transitions in boreal regions. Secretariat of the American Geophysical Union. 1999. The Arctic Paleosciences in the Context of the Global Change Research-PARCS, Paleoenvironmental Arctic Sciences, Earth System History . American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C. White, M.A., and K.J. Heywood. 1995. Seasonal and interannual changes in the North Atlantic subpolar gyre from Geosat and TOPEX/POSEIDON altimetry. Journal of Geophysical Research 100: 24931-941. World Climate Research Programme. 1991. Scientific Concept of the Arctic Climate System Study (ACSYS). WMO/TD-No. 486. World Climate Research Programme, Cambridge,U.K. WCRP (World Climate Research Programme). 1994. Arctic Climate System Study (ACSYS): Initial Implementation Plan. WCRP-85, WMO/TD-No. 627. Cambridge, U.K. WCRP (World Climate Research Programme). 2000. Climate and Cryosphere Initiative (CliC).

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