Index

A

Accidental injuries, 131, 132

Cambodians, 113

Kosovars, 92

North Koreans, 74

Afghanistan, 38-41

Africa, 6

ECOMOG, 47

see also Angola;

Burundi;

Eritrea;

Ethiopia;

Liberia;

Mozambique;

Rwanda;

Sierra Leone;

Somalia;

Sudan;

Uganda;

Zaire

Age factors, 2, 12, 14-20, 30, 34, 132

Afghans, 40

Bosnia, 14

Cambodians, 17, 18, 19, 20, 102, 109-111, 112-115, 116-117, 118, 121-126, 127

camp populations, general, 14, 15-17

crude mortality rates, 30, 39, 63

gender factors and, 16, 17-20, 30, 45, 62, 63, 114, 121-123, 124-126, 127, 132

Kosovars, 89, 95-97, 99

North Koreans, 18, 73, 74, 79, 84

Rwandans, 15-16, 55, 61, 62, 63

see also Children;

Elderly persons;

Life expectancy

Aid, see Humanitarian interventions

Albania, Kosovars in, see Kosovo

Alliance des Forces Démocratiques de Libération du Congo-Zaire (AFDL), 53, 57, 59

Angola,5,10,25

Asia, see Afghanistan; Cambodia; China; Iran; Iraq; North Korea; Pakistan; Soviet Union, dissolution of; Thailand; Vietnam

B

Balkans, 22, 25

see also Bosnia;

Kosovo;

Macedonia

Bangladesh, 5, 9, 13

Baseline mortality

defined, 4

Kosovars, 90, 99

Birth rate, see Fertility

Bosnia, 10, 24, 25, 26, 39, 41-43

age factors, 14

crude mortality rates, 41

executions, 41

forensics, 41-42

gender factors, 41

mass graves, 41-42

medical interventions, 42-43

urban areas, 41, 42-43

Burundi, 53



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FORCED MIGRATION & MORTALITY Index A Accidental injuries, 131, 132 Cambodians, 113 Kosovars, 92 North Koreans, 74 Afghanistan, 38-41 Africa, 6 ECOMOG, 47 see also Angola; Burundi; Eritrea; Ethiopia; Liberia; Mozambique; Rwanda; Sierra Leone; Somalia; Sudan; Uganda; Zaire Age factors, 2, 12, 14-20, 30, 34, 132 Afghans, 40 Bosnia, 14 Cambodians, 17, 18, 19, 20, 102, 109-111, 112-115, 116-117, 118, 121-126, 127 camp populations, general, 14, 15-17 crude mortality rates, 30, 39, 63 gender factors and, 16, 17-20, 30, 45, 62, 63, 114, 121-123, 124-126, 127, 132 Kosovars, 89, 95-97, 99 North Koreans, 18, 73, 74, 79, 84 Rwandans, 15-16, 55, 61, 62, 63 see also Children; Elderly persons; Life expectancy Aid, see Humanitarian interventions Albania, Kosovars in, see Kosovo Alliance des Forces Démocratiques de Libération du Congo-Zaire (AFDL), 53, 57, 59 Angola,5,10,25 Asia, see Afghanistan; Cambodia; China; Iran; Iraq; North Korea; Pakistan; Soviet Union, dissolution of; Thailand; Vietnam B Balkans, 22, 25 see also Bosnia; Kosovo; Macedonia Bangladesh, 5, 9, 13 Baseline mortality defined, 4 Kosovars, 90, 99 Birth rate, see Fertility Bosnia, 10, 24, 25, 26, 39, 41-43 age factors, 14 crude mortality rates, 41 executions, 41 forensics, 41-42 gender factors, 41 mass graves, 41-42 medical interventions, 42-43 urban areas, 41, 42-43 Burundi, 53

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FORCED MIGRATION & MORTALITY C Cambodia, x, 5, 11, 25, 33, 34, 102-129 age and gender factors, 17, 18, 19, 20, 102, 109-111, 112-115, 116-117, 118, 121-126, 127 camp populations, 106, 119 children, 104, 117, 122, 124-125 elderly persons, 104 executions, 104, 105, 108, 116, 117, 118, 125, 127 families and households, 106-108, 123, 125 famine, 104, 117, 118, 119, 124 fertility, 106, 109, 111, 119-120, 121, 124 gender factors, 17, 18, 19, 20, 102, 109-111, 112-115, 116-117, 118, 121-126, 127 geographic factors, 112, 119 landmines, 116, 127 medical interventions, 104, 116 retrospective mortality surveys, 107, 108, 109 sampling, 107-108 sanitation, 104 surveillance systems, 105 ; see also“retrospective mortality surveys” supra transportation and travel factors, 104 urban areas, 104 vital statistics, 106, 111, 117-118 war, 102, 103-106, 107, 116, 123-124, 127 Camp populations, 4, 8-9, 31-32, 54 Afghans, 38-39, 40 age factors, 14, 15-17 Cambodians, 106, 119 Kosovars, 90, 91-92, 97-98, 132 Rwandans, 46, 52-68 Sierra Leone, 47-48, 49 stages of crisis, 11 Case studies, x, 2, 33-34 Afghans, 38-41 Albanians Kosovars, 33-34 Bosnians, 39, 41-43 Cambodians, 34, 102-129 Kosovars, 33, 86-101 North Koreans in China, 34, 43-45, 69-85 Rwandans in Zaire, 33, 39, 45-47, 52-68 Sierra Leone, 39, 47-49 Census data, Cambodian crisis, 106-107 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention crude death rate, 7 Kosovo, 88 Children, 4, 14, 15, 16, 30 Afghan, 39, 40, 41 Cambodian, 104, 117, 122, 124-125 crude death rate, 7-8 (n.3) crude mortality rate, 7-8(n.3), 14, 39, 63 gender factors, 17 Kosovar, 95 North Korean, 45, 69, 70, 84 Rwandan, 46, 55, 58, 61, 62, 63, 65, 66 Sierra Leone, 48 see also Fertility China North Korean refugees, x, 18, 34, 39, 43-45, 69-85, 131 Cholera, 47, 55, 57, 58, 61 Coale-Demeny life tables, 15-20, 74 Complex humanitarian emergency, defined, 1, 3-5 Congo, see Zaire, Rwandans in Cost factors, 26, 108 see also Funding Crude death rate (CDR), definitional issues, 4, 7-8 Crude mortality rate (CMR), 2, 9-10 Afghans, 38, 39 age factors, 30, 39, 63 Bosnians, 41 children, 7-8(n.3), 14, 39, 63 definitional issues, 4, 7-8 gender factors, 30 Kosovars, 92-95, 98-99, 100 malnutrition, 13 North Koreans, 44, 73-74 Rwandans, 55-59(passim), 61, 63, 65, 66 stages of crisis, 11-12, 30 Cultural factors, 2 recall and, 32 see also Genocide and ethnic cleansing; Political factors; Psychological factors D Death penalty, see Executions Definitional issues, 3-5 complex humanitarian emergency, 1, 3-5 crude mortality/death rates, 4, 7-8

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FORCED MIGRATION & MORTALITY forced migration, x war-related deaths, 131 Diarrhea, 39, 41, 48, 55, 57, 58 see also Cholera Disasters, see Earthquakes; Famine; Floods; Natural disasters; War and armed conflicts Diseases and disorders, 13-14 Afghans, 38, 40-41 Bosnians, 40-42, 132 Cambodians, 117, 127 cholera, 47, 55, 57, 58, 61 chronic, general, 7(n.3), 24, 25, 42, 95, 96, 97, 132 combatant mortality from disease, 5 communicable, general, 4, 5, 13-14, 24, 38, 40-41, 42, 47, 55, 67, 89, 95, 96, 97, 127, 132 dehydration, 47 diarrhea, 39, 41, 48, 55, 57, 58 disabilities, 24 Kosovars, 89, 95, 132 malaria, 13, 20-21, 41, 61 malnutrition, 4, 7(n.3), 13, 14, 24, 41, 42, 44, 45, 47, 48, 61, 74, 81-83, 117, 132 ; see also Famine measles, 13, 20, 39, 47 meningitis, 55 mental health trauma, 5, 24, 27-28, 34, 35, 131 ; see also Psychological factors North Koreans, 74, 81-83 pertussis, 47 respiratory infections, 39, 47, 48, 61, 95 Rwandans, 47, 54-55, 57, 58, 61, 67 shigella, 47, 55 Sierra Leone, 48 typhoid, 41 see also Medical interventions; Vaccinations Drought, 70 see also Famine E Earthquakes, 5, 41 Eastern Europe, 6 see also Bosnia; Kosovo; Macedonia Economic factors, 3, 13, 14, 23, 26 North Korea, 69-70, 76-77, 79 see also Cost factors; Funding; Humanitarian interventions Education, see Professional training Educational attainment literacy, 4, 70 North Koreans, 70, 79 see also Literacy Elderly persons, 14, 15, 16, 131, 132 Cambodians, 104 Kosovars, 92, 99 North Koreans, 45, 73 Equations, see Mathematical models Eritrea, age factors, camps populations, 14 Ethiopia, 9, 12, 13, 49 age factors, camps populations, 14 Ethnic cleansing, see Genocide and ethnic cleansing Europe political factors, 22 see also Balkans; Bosnia; Kosovo; Macedonia; Soviet Union, dissolution of Excess mortality, 20-21, 28, 30, 38, 130 Afghans, 40, 41 Bosnians, 42 Cambodians, 34, 112, 117-127 North Koreans, 44-45, 82 Rwandans, 46, 55 Sierra Leone, 48 Executions Bosnians, 41 Cambodians, 104, 105, 108, 116, 117, 118, 125, 127 Rwandans, 46 F Families and households, 2, 132 Afghans, 38 Cambodians, 106-108, 123, 125 food entitlements and reports of deaths by, 31 host families, 91-92, 97-98 Kosovo, 90, 91-92, 97, 98 marital status, 80-81, 83 North Koreans, 34, 71-84 Rwandans, 55, 60-61, 67

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FORCED MIGRATION & MORTALITY Famine, x, 12, 130 Cambodians, 104, 117, 118, 119, 124 North Koreans, 43-45, 70, 77, 81-83 see also Food and nutrition; Malnutrition Females, see Gender factors Fertility, 2, 35 Cambodians, 106, 109, 111, 119-120, 121, 124 North Koreans, 71, 75, 82, 83 see also Reproductive health Floods, 47, 69-70 Food and nutrition, 8-9, 13, 20 aid, 31, 43, 58, 70, 77, 78, 79, 84 Cambodians, 104, 117, 118, 119, 124 family reports of deaths and aid entitlements, 31 feeding center registers, 66 gender factors, 81-83 insecurity, 2, 31, 38, 40, 45, 82 ; see“malnutrition” infra Kosovars, 132 malnutrition, 4, 7(n.3), 13, 14, 24, 41, 42, 44, 45, 47, 48, 61, 74, 81-83, 117, 132 ; see also Famine North Koreans, 34, 43, 44, 45, 70, 72, 74, 77, 78-79, 81-84 Rwandans, 58, 66 see also Famine; World Food Program Forced migration, definitional issues, x, 1, 3-5 Forces Armées Rwandaises, 47 Forensics, Bosnia, 41-42 Funding, 7, 27 FYROM, see Macedonia G Gender factors, 2, 12, 30, 34, 132 Afghanistan, 40 age factors and, 16, 17-20, 30, 45, 62, 63, 114, 121-123, 124-126, 127, 132 Bosnia, 41 Cambodians, 17, 18, 19, 20, 102, 109-111, 112-115, 116-117, 118, 121-126, 127 children, 17 crude mortality rates, 30 Kosovo, 95-97 life expectancy, 18, 73 marital status, 80-81, 83 North Koreans, 45, 69, 73, 80-83 nutritional status, 81-83 rape, 24 reproductive health, 27-28, 34, 35 ; see also Fertility Rwandans, 62, 63 Genocide and ethnic cleansing, 1, 5, 26, 130, 131, 133 Cambodians, 104 see also Bosnia; Kosovo; Rwanda Geographic factors Cambodians, 112, 119 country boundaries, adjustment, 7 Kosovo, 87, 97 North Koreans, 44, 45, 76-77 Rwandans, 47, 54 see also Internally displaced persons; Rural areas; Transportation and travel; Urban areas Government role, 83, 131, 134 complex humanitarian emergency defined, 1 destructive policies, x, 1 Kosovars, 89, 100, 133 North Korea, 44, 69, 70, 77, 78, 79 refugee/internally displaced persons, counted as, 6 Rwandans in Zaire, 60 see also War and armed conflicts Guinea, 47 H Health care, see Medical interventions Households, see Families and households Humanitarian interventions, 2, 3, 9, 20-21, 130, 133, 134 evaluation techniques, general, 34 food aid, 31, 43, 58, 70, 77, 78, 79, 84 internally displaced persons, 9, 23, 24, 49 international organizations, aid levels, 7 military targeting of workers, 26, 52 morbidity as guide to, 24-25 North Koreans, 70, 71 Sierra Leone, 49 stages of crisis and, 10, 12 standards, 27, 34, 52

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FORCED MIGRATION & MORTALITY typologies of complex emergencies, 4 U.S. bilateral aid levels, 7 see also Camp populations; International organizations; Logistics; Nongovernmental organizations; specific organizations I ICRC, see Red Cross Immunizations, see Vaccinations Indirect estimation techniques, 3, 34, 71-72, 119-124 Information systems, 27-33 see also Statistical methodology; Surveillance systems Insects, 21 see also Malaria Internally displaced persons (IDPs), 2, 4, 26, 35 Bosnia, 41 crude mortality/death rates, 10 geopolitical factors, 23 international organizations, aid, 9, 23, 24, 49 nongovernmental organizations, 23, 49 Rwanda, 52 Sierra Leone, 47, 49 trends, 5-6 United Nations, 24 International organizations, 9, 21, 26, 132, 133, 134 budgets for relief, 7 internally displaced persons, 9, 23, 24, 49 North Koreans, 84 refugee/internally displaced persons, counted as, 6 Rwandans, 57 standards for assistance, 27, 34, 52 see also Nongovernmental organizations; specific organizations Interventions, see Camp populations; Humanitarian interventions; Medical interventions; Sanitation; Vaccinations Iran, 9, 39 Iraq, 25 K Kampuchea, see Cambodia Korea, North, see North Korea Kosovo, x, 24, 33, 86-101, 131, 132, 133, 134 age factors, 89, 95-97, 99 camp populations, 90, 91-92, 97-98, 132 children, 95 crude mortality rates, 92-95, 98-99, 100 elderly persons, 92, 99 families and households, 90, 91-92, 97, 98 gender factors, 95-97 geographic factors, 87, 97 government role, 89, 100, 133 medical interventions, 89, 97, 99-100 nongovernmental organizations, 87-88, 89, 90 North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), 86, 90, 91 retrospective mortality surveys, 68, 88, 90, 92, 98, 99, 100 sampling, 88, 90, 100 sanitation, 132 surveillance systems, 87-90, 97-100 ; see also“retrospective mortality surveys” supra transportation and travel factors, 86, 132 United Nations, 87-89, 90 vaccinations, 90, 100 L Landmines, 5, 13 Afghanistan war, 40 Cambodians, 116, 127 Liberia, 10, 47 Life expectancy, 8(n.3), 14-15 Cambodians, 124-125 (n.13) gender factors, 18, 73 North Koreans, 73 Literacy, 4 North Koreans, 70 Logistics, 21, 25-26, 133 Kosovo, 88 Rwandans, 60 stages of crises, 10

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FORCED MIGRATION & MORTALITY M Macedonia (FYROM), Kosovars in, 33, 86, 88, 89-100, 132, 133 Malaria, 13, 20-21, 41 Rwandans, 61 Males, see Gender factors Malnutrition, 4, 7(n.3), 13, 14, 24, 41, 42, 44, 45, 47, 48, 61, 74, 81-83, 117, 132 see also Famine Marital status North Koreans, 80-81, 83 Mass graves Bosnia, 41-42 Rwandans, 46, 54 Mass media, Afghans, 40 Mathematical models, ix, 109-112, 115, 116 Measles, 13, 20, 39, 47 Medical interventions, x, 14, 20, 21, 28-29, 130 Afghanistan, 38 Bosnia, 42-43 Cambodians, 104, 116 Kosovo, 89, 97, 99-100 Médicins Sans Frontières (MSF), 39, 41, 46 morbidity and, 24-25 Physicians for Human Rights, 42 reproductive health, 27-28, 34, 35 ; see also Fertility Rwandans, 52, 59 see also Diseases and disorders; Surveillance systems; Vaccinations Médicins Sans Frontières (MSF), 39, 41, 46 Men, see Gender factors Meningitis, 55 Mental health trauma, 5, 24, 27-28, 34, 35, 131 see also Psychological factors Methodology, see Case studies; Definitional issues; Indirect estimation techniques; Logistics; Mathematical models; Recall; Sampling; Statistical methodology; Surveillance systems Middle East, 6 Mines, see Landmines Mortality, see Baseline mortality; Crude death rate; Crude mortality rate; Excess mortality; Retrospective mortality surveys Mozambique, 8 MSF, see Médicins Sans Frontières (MSF) N NATO, see North Atlantic Treaty Organization Natural disasters, x, 5, 83, 130, 131 Afghanistan, 40, 41 defined, 3-4 drought, 70 earthquakes, 5, 41 floods, 47, 69-70 see also Famine Nongovernmental organizations, 23, 25, 26 Afghanistan war, 40 Bosnia, 41 Kosovo, 87-88, 89, 90 North Korea, 71 Sierra Leone, 47, 49 Sphere Project, 27 standards for assistance, 27, 34 see also International organizations; specific organizations North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), Kosovo crisis, 86, 90, 91 North Korea, x, 34, 39, 43-45, 69-85, 131 age factors, 18, 73, 74, 79, 84 children, 45, 69, 70, 84 crude mortality rates, 44, 73-74 economic collapse, 69-70, 76-77, 79 educational attainment, 70, 79 elderly persons, 45, 73 families and households, 34, 71-84 famine, 43-45, 70, 77, 81-83 fertility, 71, 75, 82, 83 food and nutrition, 34, 43, 44, 45, 70, 72, 74, 77, 78-79, 81-84 gender factors, 45, 69, 73, 80-83 geographic factors, 44, 45, 76-77 government role, 44, 69, 70, 77, 78, 79 sampling, 44, 71 transportation and travel factors, 76, 79-80

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FORCED MIGRATION & MORTALITY United Nations, 45, 69, 70, 75, 84 urban areas, 76-77 World Food Program, 43, 70 World Vision, 44-45, 70 Nutrition, see Food and nutrition P Pakistan, Afghans in, 38 Pertussis, 47 Pests, see Insects Political factors, 6, 12, 21(n.7), 22-24, 83, 133 Cambodia, 102-129 North Koreans, 77 stages of crisis, 12 see also Genocide and ethnic cleansing; Government role; War and armed conflicts Professional training, surveillance systems, 21 Protein energy malnutrition, 13 Psychological factors, 2, 27-28, 34, 131 dignity issues, 25 family reports of deaths, 31 recall, 32-33, 66-67 see also Cultural factors; Mental health trauma Q Quality control, see Standards R Rape, 24 Recall, 32-33 North Koreans, 71-75, 82 Rwandans, 66-67 Red Cross (ICRC), 23 Afghans, 41 Bosnians, 41 Kosovars, 98 Rwandans, 46 standards for assistance, 27 Refugees, see Forced migration; individual countries Repatriation, 23, 64 Reproductive health, 27-28, 34, 35 see also Fertility Respiratory infections, 39, 47, 48, 61, 95 Retrospective mortality surveys Cambodians, 107, 108, 109 Kosovars, 68, 88, 90, 92, 98, 99, 100 Rwandans, 33, 53, 55, 60-61, 66-68 Rural areas famine, 4-5 North Koreans, 76-77 Rwanda, x, 8, 9, 11, 12, 13, 26, 29, 33, 39, 45-47, 52-68 age factors, 15-16, 55, 61, 62, 63 camp populations, 46, 52-68 children, 46, 55, 58, 61, 62, 63, 65, 66 crude mortality rates, 55-59 (passim), 61, 63, 65, 66 disease, 47, 54-55, 57, 58, 61, 67 executions, 46 families and households, 55, 60-61, 67 food and nutrition, 58, 66 gender factors, 62, 63 geographic factors, 47, 54 mass graves, 46, 54 medical interventions, 52, 59 retrospective mortality surveys, 33, 53, 55, 60-61, 66-68 sampling, 60, 61-62, 67 sanitation, 52, 57, 59-60 surveillance systems, 33, 53, 54-55, 57, 58, 60, 66; see also“retrospective mortality surveys” supra urban areas, 52, 53-57 vaccinations, 54-55 water supply, 47, 52, 57 S Sampling, 31-32 Cambodians, 107-108 Kosovars, 88, 90, 100 North Koreans, 44, 71 Rwandans, 60, 61-62, 67 Sanitation, 9, 20 Cambodians, 104 Kodovars, 132 Rwandans, 52, 57, 59-60 see also Water supply Sex differences, see Gender factors

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FORCED MIGRATION & MORTALITY Shigella, 47, 55 Sierra Leone, 24, 39, 47-49 Somalia, 10, 12, 13, 14, 25, 49 Southeast Asia, see Cambodia; North Korea; Thailand; Vietnam Soviet Union, dissolution of, 22 Afghanistan war, 38-39, 40 North Korea and, 43 Sphere Project, 27 Standards aid provision, 27, 34, 52 data collection protocols, 28-29 reporting procedures, 31 Statistical methodology, ix, 28-33, 34, 130-135 baseline mortality, 4, 90, 99 camp populations, 31-32, 54 data collection protocols, 28-29 indirect estimation techniques, 3, 34, 71-72, 119-124 vital statistics, ix, 106, 111, 117-118 see also Crude death rate; Crude mortality rate; Mathematical models; Retrospective mortality surveys; Sampling; Surveillance systems Sudan, 5, 10, 13 Suicide, 74, 113 Surveillance systems, 21, 28-33 Cambodians, 105 Kosovo, 87-90, 97-100 professional training, 21 Rwandans in Zaire, 33, 53, 54-55, 57, 58, 60, 66 see also Information systems; Retrospective mortality surveys T Thailand, Cambodian refugees in, 11, 17, 18, 19, 20, 105, 119, 121, 123 Time factors Cambodians, 109-112 duration of crisis, 2, 13, 130 recall, 32-33, 66-67, 71-75, 82 Rwandans, 65, 66-67 stages of crisis, 10-12, 30, 65, 94 Training, see Professional training Transportation and travel, 20, 131 Kosovars, 86, 132 Cambodians, 104 North Koreans, 76, 79-80 stages of crisis, 10-12 Typhoid, 41 U Uganda, 53 United Nations, 23, 24, 25, 26 Bosnia, 42 Cambodians, 106 Kosovo, 87-89, 90 North Koreans, 45, 69, 70, 75, 84 Rwandans, 57 Urban areas, 5 Afghans, 38, 39 Bosnians, 41, 42-43 Cambodians, 104 North Koreans, 76-77 Rwandans in Zaire, 52, 53-57 Sierra Leone, 47, 48 V Vaccinations, 4, 8(n.3), 13, 14, 20, 30 Kosovars, 90, 100 Rwandans, 54-55 Vietnam, Cambodian crisis, 103, 104, 105-106, 121, 126 Violence, 14, 20, 30, 113-114, 124-125, 126 rape, 24 suicide, 74, 113 see also Executions; War and armed conflicts Vital statistics, ix, 106, 111, 117-118 W War and armed conflicts, x, 5, 12-13, 24, 25, 130, 131 Afghans, 38-39, 40 aid workers, military targeting of, 26, 52

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FORCED MIGRATION & MORTALITY Cambodians, 102, 103-106, 107, 116, 123-124, 127 combatant mortality, 5, 116, 127 complex humanitarian emergency defined, 1 exclusion zones, 43 field hospitals, 43 genocide and ethnic cleansing, 1, 5, 26, 104, 130, 131, 133 ; see also Bosnia; Kosovo; Rwanda rape as a weapon, 24 Sierra Leone, 24, 39, 47-49 see also Balkans; Bosnia; Kosovo; Landmines; Rwanda Water supply Bosnians, 43 Kosovars, 132 Rwandans, 47, 52, 57 see also Sanitation Weather drought, 70 floods, 47, 69-70 Whooping cough, see Pertussis Women, see Gender factors World Food Program, 7 North Koreans, 43, 70 World Vision, North Koreans, 44-45, 70 Y Yugoslavia, see Bosnia; Kosovo; Macedonia Z Zaire, Rwandan refugees in, 9, 11, 12, 13, 15-16, 17, 26, 29, 33, 46, 52-68