References

Bailey, D.H., E. Barszcz, J.T. Barton, D.S. Browning, R.L. Carter, L. Dagum, R. A. Fatoohi, P.O. Frederickson, T.A. Lasinski, R.S. Schreiber, H.D. Simon, V. Venkatakrishnan, and S.K. Weeratunga. 1991. The NAS Parallel Benchmarks. Int. J. Supercomputer Applic.5: 66–73.

Barnston, A.G., A. Leetmaa, V.E. Kousky, R.E. Livezey, E.A. O'Lenic, H. Van den Dool, J. Wagner, and D.A. Unger, 1999: NCEP Forecasts of the El Niño of 1997–98 and its U.S. Impacts, Bull. Am. Met. Soc., 80, 1829–1852.

Barnston, A.G., H.M. van den Dool, S.E. Zebiak, T.P. Barnett, M. Ji, D.R. Roedenhuis, M.A. Cane, A. Leetmaa, N.E. Graham, C.R. Ropelewski, V.E. Kousky, E.A. O'Lenic, and R.E. Livezey, 1994: Long-lead Seasonal Forecasts – Where Do We Stand? Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc., 75, 2097–2114.

Bryan, K. 1984. Accelerating the Convergence to Equilibrium of Ocean-climate Models J. Phys. Ocean., 14: 666–673.

Chang, P., C. Penland, L. Ji, H. Liand L. Matrasova, 1998: Predicting Decadal Sea Surface Temperature Variability in the Tropical Atlantic Ocean, Geophys. Res. Let. 25, 1193–1196.

Chang, P., L. Ji, H. Li, C. Penland, and L. Matrisova, 1998. Prediction of Tropical Atlantic Sea Surface Temperature, Geophys. Res. Let., 25, 1193–1196.

Department of Energy, National Science Foundation. 1998. National Workshop on Advanced Scientific Computing: http://www.sc.doe.gov/ssi/LangerRep.html.

Department of Energy. 1998. The Accelerated Climate Prediction Initiative: Bringing the Promise of Simulation to the Challenge of Climate Change.: http://www.epm.ornl.gov/ACPI/.

Hennessy, J.L., and D.A. Patterson. 1990. Computer Architecture: A Quantitative Approach. Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, Inc.

Higgins, R.W., A. Leetmaa, Y. Xue, and A. Barnston, 2000: Dominant Factors Influencing the Seasonal Predictability of U.S. Precipitation and Surface Air Temperature. J. Climate, 13, 3994–4107.

Hollingsworth, A., M. Capaldo, and A.J. Simmons. 1999. The Scientific and Technical Foundation of the ECMWF Strategy 1999 –2008. ECMWF.



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Improving the Effectiveness of U.S. Climate Modeling References Bailey, D.H., E. Barszcz, J.T. Barton, D.S. Browning, R.L. Carter, L. Dagum, R. A. Fatoohi, P.O. Frederickson, T.A. Lasinski, R.S. Schreiber, H.D. Simon, V. Venkatakrishnan, and S.K. Weeratunga. 1991. The NAS Parallel Benchmarks. Int. J. Supercomputer Applic.5: 66–73. Barnston, A.G., A. Leetmaa, V.E. Kousky, R.E. Livezey, E.A. O'Lenic, H. Van den Dool, J. Wagner, and D.A. Unger, 1999: NCEP Forecasts of the El Niño of 1997–98 and its U.S. Impacts, Bull. Am. Met. Soc., 80, 1829–1852. Barnston, A.G., H.M. van den Dool, S.E. Zebiak, T.P. Barnett, M. Ji, D.R. Roedenhuis, M.A. Cane, A. Leetmaa, N.E. Graham, C.R. Ropelewski, V.E. Kousky, E.A. O'Lenic, and R.E. Livezey, 1994: Long-lead Seasonal Forecasts – Where Do We Stand? Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc., 75, 2097–2114. Bryan, K. 1984. Accelerating the Convergence to Equilibrium of Ocean-climate Models J. Phys. Ocean., 14: 666–673. Chang, P., C. Penland, L. Ji, H. Liand L. Matrasova, 1998: Predicting Decadal Sea Surface Temperature Variability in the Tropical Atlantic Ocean, Geophys. Res. Let. 25, 1193–1196. Chang, P., L. Ji, H. Li, C. Penland, and L. Matrisova, 1998. Prediction of Tropical Atlantic Sea Surface Temperature, Geophys. Res. Let., 25, 1193–1196. Department of Energy, National Science Foundation. 1998. National Workshop on Advanced Scientific Computing: http://www.sc.doe.gov/ssi/LangerRep.html. Department of Energy. 1998. The Accelerated Climate Prediction Initiative: Bringing the Promise of Simulation to the Challenge of Climate Change.: http://www.epm.ornl.gov/ACPI/. Hennessy, J.L., and D.A. Patterson. 1990. Computer Architecture: A Quantitative Approach. Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, Inc. Higgins, R.W., A. Leetmaa, Y. Xue, and A. Barnston, 2000: Dominant Factors Influencing the Seasonal Predictability of U.S. Precipitation and Surface Air Temperature. J. Climate, 13, 3994–4107. Hollingsworth, A., M. Capaldo, and A.J. Simmons. 1999. The Scientific and Technical Foundation of the ECMWF Strategy 1999 –2008. ECMWF.

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Improving the Effectiveness of U.S. Climate Modeling Hooke, W.H.and R.A. Pielke Jr., 2000. Short-term Weather Prediction: An Orchestra in Need of a Conductor, in Prediction: Science, Decision Making and the Future of Nature D. Sarewitz, R.A. Pielke, Jr.and R. Byerly, Jr.(eds), Island Press, Washington D.C. pp.61–84. JASON, 1998. Letter to Dr. Ari Patrinos about ACPI. http://www.epm.ornl.gov/ACPI/Documents/jason_letter_report.html Ji, M., A. Leetmaa, and V.E. Kousky, 1996: Coupled Model Forecasts of ENSO During the 1980's and 1990's at the National Meteorological Center. J. Climate, 9, 3105–3120. Ji, M., D. W. Behringer, and A. Leetmaa, 1996: An Improved Coupled Model for ENSO Prediction and Implications for Ocean Initialization. Part II: The Coupled Model. Mon. Wea. Rev., 126, 1022–1034. Kantha, L.H., and C.A. Clayson. 2000. Numerical Models of Oceans and Oceanic Processes. Academic Press, International Geophysics SeriesVol 66, 940pp. McPhaden, M. J., A.J. Busalacchi, R. Cheney, J.R. Donguy, K.S. Gage, D. Halpern, M. Ji, P. Julian, G. Meyers, G.T. Mitchum, P.P. Niiler, J. Picaut, R.W. Reynolds, N. Smith, and K. Takeuchi, 1998: The Tropical Ocean — Global Atmosphere Observing System: A Decade of Progress. J. Geophys, Res., 103, 14169–14240. NRC, 1994: GOALS (Global Ocean-Atmosphere-Land System) for Predicting Seasonal-to-Interannual Climate: A Program of Observation, Modeling, and Analysis . National Academy Press, 116 pages. NRC, 1996: Learning to Predict Climate Variations Associated with El Niño and the Southern Oscillation: Accomplishments and Legacies of the TOGA Program. National Academy Press, 192 pages. NRC, 1998a: Capacity of U.S. Climate Modeling to Support Climate Change Assessment Activities. National Academy Press, 78 pages. NRC, 1998b: The Atmospheric Sciences Entering the Twenty-First Century. National Academy Press, 364 pages. NRC, 1998c: Decade-to-Century-Scale Climate Variability and Change: A Science Strategy. National Academy Press, 160 pages. NRC, 1999a: Global Environmental Change: Research Pathways for the Next Decade . National Academy Press, 616 pages. NRC, 1999b: Adequacy of Climate Observing Systems. National Academy Press, 66 pages. NRC, 1999c: Making Climate Forecasts Matter. Paul C. Sternand William E. Easterling, Editors. National Academy Press, 192 pages. NRC, 2000a: From Research to Operations in Weather Satellites and Numerical Weather Prediction. Crossing the Valley of Death. National Academy Press, 80 pages. NRC, 2000b. Our Common Journey. National Academy Press, 363 pages. Nordhaus, W.D, and J. Boyer. 2000. Warming the World: Economic Models of Global Warming. Cambridge, Mass. : MIT Press, 232 pages. NSF/NCEP, 1998: Workshop on “Global Weather and Climate Modeling” http://nsipp.gsfc.nasa.gov/infra/report.final.html Oliker, L., and R. Biswas. 2000. Parallelization of a Dynamic Unstructured Application Using Three Leading Paradigms. IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems. Pielke, R.A., Jr., and J. Kimpel. 1997. Societal Aspects of Weather: Report of the Sixth Prospectus Development Team of the U.S. Weather Research Program to NOAA and NSF Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 78: 867–76. President's Information Technology Advisory Committee (PITAC). 1999. Information Technology Research: Investing In Our Future. http://www.ccic.gov/ac/report/ Randall, D.A., editor, 2000: General Circulation Model Development: Past, Present, Future. Academic Press, International Geophysics SeriesVol 70, 807 pages. Rodwell, M. J., D. P. Rowell, and C. K. Folland, 1999: Oceanic Forcing of the Wintertime North Atlantic Oscillation and European Climate. Nature, 398, 320–323.

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