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Testing Teacher Candidates: The Role of Licensure Tests in Improving Teacher Quality Appendix B Teaching Standards of the Interstate New Teacher Assessment and Support Consortium (INTASC), National Council for the Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE), and National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS) INTERSTATE NEW TEACHER ASSESSMENT AND SUPPORT CONSORTIUM1 The Interstate New Teacher Assessment and Support Consortium (INTASC) is a consortium of state education agencies, higher education institutions, and national educational organizations dedicated to the reform of the education, licensing, and on-going professional development of teachers. Created in 1987, INTASC’s primary constituency is state education agencies responsible for teacher licensing and professional development. Its work is guided by one basic premise: An effective teacher must be able to integrate content knowledge with pedagogical understanding to assure that all students learn and perform at high levels. Model Standards for Beginning Teachers The INTASC model core standards for licensing teachers represent those principles which should be present in all teaching regardless of the subject or grade level taught and serve as a framework for the systemic reform of teacher preparation and professional development. The core standards are currently being translated into standards for discipline-specific teaching. Standards for teaching mathematics were released in Spring 1995, and a draft of standards in English/language arts will soon be released. INTASC recently began developing standards for teaching science. In the next five years 1 Excerpts from the Council of Chief State School Officers, 1998. Used by permission of author.
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Testing Teacher Candidates: The Role of Licensure Tests in Improving Teacher Quality INTASC will continue crafting model standards for teaching in history/social studies, the arts, elementary education, and special education. INTASC Core Standards Principle #1: The Teacher Understands the Central Concepts, Tools of Inquiry, and Structures of the Discipline(s) He or She Teaches and Can Create Learning Experiences That Make These Aspects of Subject Matter Meaningful for Students. Knowledge The teacher understands major concepts, assumptions, debates, processes of inquiry, and ways of knowing that are central to the discipline(s) s/he teaches. The teacher understands how students’ conceptual frameworks and their misconceptions for an area of knowledge can influence their learning. The teacher can relate his/her disciplinary knowledge to other subject areas. Dispositions The teacher realizes that subject matter knowledge is not a fixed body of facts but is complex and ever evolving. S/he seeks to keep abreast of new ideas and understandings in the field. The teacher appreciates multiple perspectives and conveys to learners how knowledge is developed from the vantagepoint of the knower. The teacher has enthusiasm for the discipline(s) s/he teaches and sees connections to everyday life. The teacher is committed to continuous learning and engages in professional discourse about subject matter knowledge and children’s learning of the discipline. Performances The teacher effectively uses multiple representations and explanations of disciplinary concepts that capture key ideas and link them to students’ prior understandings. The teacher can represent and use differing viewpoints, theories, “ways of knowing” and methods of inquiry in his/her teaching of subject matter concepts. The teacher can evaluate teaching resources and curriculum materials for their comprehensiveness, accuracy, and usefulness for representing particular ideas and concepts. The teacher engages students in generating knowledge and testing hypotheses according to the methods of inquiry and standards of evidence used in the discipline. The teacher develops and uses curricula that encourage students to see, question, and interpret ideas from diverse perspectives. The teacher can create interdisciplinary learning experiences that allow students to integrate knowledge, skills, and methods of inquiry from several subject areas.
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Testing Teacher Candidates: The Role of Licensure Tests in Improving Teacher Quality Principle #2: The Teacher Understands How Children Learn and Develop, and Can Provide Learning Opportunities That Support Their Intellectual, Social and Personal Development. Knowledge The teacher understands how learning occurs—how students construct knowledge, acquire skills, and develop habits of mind—and knows how to use instructional strategies that promote student learning. The teacher understands that students’ physical, social, emotional, moral, and cognitive development influence learning and knows how to address these factors when making instructional decisions. The teacher is aware of expected developmental progressions and ranges of individual variation within each domain (physical, social, emotional, moral, and cognitive), can identify levels of readiness in learning, and understands how development in any one domain may affect performance in others. Dispositions The teacher appreciates individual variation within each area of development, shows respect for the diverse talents of all learners, and is committed to help them develop self-confidence and competence. The teacher is disposed to use students’ strengths as a basis for growth and their errors as an opportunity for learning. Performances The teacher assesses individual and group performance in order to design instruction that meets learners’ current needs in each domain (cognitive, social, emotional, moral, and physical) and that leads to the next level of development. The teacher stimulates student reflection on prior knowledge and links new ideas to already familiar ideas, making connections to students’ experiences, providing opportunities for active engagement, manipulation, and testing of ideas and materials, and encouraging students to assume responsibility for shaping their learning tasks. The teacher accesses students’ thinking and experiences as a basis for instructional activities by, for example, encouraging discussion, listening and responding to group interaction, and eliciting samples of student thinking orally and in writing. Principle #3: The Teacher Understands How Students Differ in Their Approaches to Learning and Creates Instructional Opportunities That Are Adapted to Diverse Learners. Knowledge The teacher understands and can identify differences in approaches to learning and performance, including different learning styles, multiple intelligences, and performance modes, and can design instruction that helps use students’ strengths as the basis for growth.
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Testing Teacher Candidates: The Role of Licensure Tests in Improving Teacher Quality The teacher knows about areas of exceptionality in learning—including learning disabilities, visual and perceptual difficulties, and special physical or mental challenges. The teacher knows about the process of second language acquisition and about strategies to support the learning of students whose first language is not English. The teacher understands how students, learning is influenced by individual experiences, talents, and prior learning, as well as language, culture, family, and community values. The teacher has a well-grounded framework for understanding cultural and community diversity and knows how to learn about and incorporate students’ experiences, cultures, and community resources into instruction. Dispositions The teacher believes that all children can learn at high levels and persists in helping all children achieve success. The teacher appreciates and values human diversity, shows respect for students’ varied talents and perspectives, and is committed to the pursuit of “individually configured excellence.” The teacher respects students as individuals with differing personal and family backgrounds and various skills, talents, and interests. The teacher is sensitive to community and cultural norms. The teacher makes students feel valued for their potential as people and helps them learn to value each other. Performances The teacher identifies and designs instruction appropriate to students’ stages of development, learning styles, strengths, and needs. The teacher uses teaching approaches that are sensitive to the multiple experiences of learners and that address different learning and performance modes. The teacher makes appropriate provisions (in terms of time and circumstances for work, tasks assigned, communication, and response modes) for individual students who have particular learning differences or needs. The teacher can identify when and how to access appropriate services or resources to meet exceptional learning needs. The teacher seeks to understand students’ families, cultures, and communities and uses this information as a basis for connecting instruction to students’ experiences (e.g. drawing explicit connections between subject matter and community matters, making assignments that can be related to students’ experiences and cultures). The teacher brings multiple perspectives to the discussion of subject matter, including attention to students’ personal, family, and community experiences and cultural norms. The teacher creates a learning community in which individual differences are respected.
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Testing Teacher Candidates: The Role of Licensure Tests in Improving Teacher Quality Principle #4: The Teacher Understands and Uses a Variety of Instructional Strategies to Encourage Students’ Development of Critical Thinking, Problem Solving, and Performance Skills. Knowledge The teacher understands the cognitive processes associated with various kinds of learning (e.g. critical and creative thinking, problem structuring and problem solving, invention, memorization and recall) and how these processes can be stimulated. The teacher understands principles and techniques, along with advantages and limitations, associated with various instructional strategies (e.g. cooperative learning, direct instruction, discovery learning, whole group discussion, independent study, interdisciplinary instruction). The teacher knows how to enhance learning through the use of a wide variety of materials as well as human and technological resources (e.g. computers, audio-visual technologies, videotapes and discs, local experts, primary documents and artifacts, texts, reference books, literature, and other print resources). Dispositions The teacher values the development of students’ critical thinking, independent problem solving, and performance capabilities. The teacher values flexibility and reciprocity in the teaching process as necessary for adapting instruction to student responses, ideas, and needs. Performances The teacher carefully evaluates how to achieve learning goals, choosing alternative teaching strategies and materials to achieve different instructional purposes and to meet student needs (e.g. developmental stages, prior knowledge, learning styles, and interests). The teacher uses multiple teaching and learning strategies to engage students in active learning opportunities that promote the development of critical thinking, problem solving, and performance capabilities and that help students assume responsibility for identifying and using learning resources. The teacher constantly monitors and adjusts strategies in response to learner feedback. The teacher varies his or her role in the instructional process (e.g. instructor, facilitator, coach, audience) in relation to the content and purposes of instruction and the needs of students. The teacher develops a variety of clear, accurate presentations and representations of concepts, using alternative explanations to assist students’ understanding and presenting diverse perspectives to encourage critical thinking. Principle #5: The Teacher Uses an Understanding of Individual and Group Motivation and Behavior to Create a Learning Environment That Encourages Positive Social Interaction, Active Engagement in Learning, and Self-Motivation.
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Testing Teacher Candidates: The Role of Licensure Tests in Improving Teacher Quality Knowledge The teacher can use knowledge about human motivation and behavior drawn from the foundational sciences of psychology, anthropology, and sociology to develop strategies for organizing and supporting individual and group work. The teacher understands how social groups function and influence people and how people influence groups. The teacher knows how to help people work productively and cooperatively with each other in complex social settings. The teacher understands the principles of effective classroom management and can use a range of strategies to promote positive relationships, cooperation, and purposeful learning in the classroom. The teacher recognizes factors and situations that are likely to promote or diminish intrinsic motivation and knows how to help students become self-motivated. Dispositions The teacher takes responsibility for establishing a positive climate in the classroom and participates in maintaining such a climate in the school as a whole. The teacher understands how participation supports commitment and is committed to the expression and use of democratic values in the classroom. The teacher values the role of students in promoting each other’s learning and recognizes the importance of peer relationships in establishing a climate of learning. The teacher recognizes the value of intrinsic motivation to students’ lifelong growth and learning. The teacher is committed to the continuous development of individual students’ abilities and considers how different motivational strategies are likely to encourage this development for each student. Performances The teacher creates a smoothly functioning learning community in which students assume responsibility for themselves and one another, participate in decisionmaking, work collaboratively and independently, and engage in purposeful learning activities. The teacher engages students in individual and cooperative learning activities that help them develop the motivation to achieve, by, for example, relating lessons to students’ personal interests, allowing students to have choices in their learning, and leading students to ask questions and pursue problems that are meaningful to them. The teacher organizes, allocates, and manages the resources of time, space, activities, and attention to provide active and equitable engagement of students in productive tasks. The teacher maximizes the amount of class time spent in learning by creating expectations and processes for communication and behavior along with a physical setting conducive to classroom goals.
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Testing Teacher Candidates: The Role of Licensure Tests in Improving Teacher Quality The teacher helps the group to develop shared values and expectations for student interactions, academic discussions, and individual and group responsibility that create a positive classroom climate of openness, mutual respect, support, and inquiry. The teacher analyzes the classroom environment and makes decisions and adjustments to enhance social relationships, student motivation and engagement, and productive work. The teacher organizes, prepares students for, and monitors independent and group work that allows for full and varied participation of all individuals. Principle #6: The Teacher Uses Knowledge of Effective Verbal, Nonverbal, and Media Communication Techniques to Foster Active Inquiry, Collaboration, and Supportive Interaction in the Classroom. Knowledge The teacher understands communication theory, language development, and the role of language in learning. The teacher understands how cultural and gender differences can affect communication in the classroom. The teacher recognizes the importance of nonverbal as well as verbal communication. The teacher knows about and can use effective verbal, nonverbal, and media communication techniques. Dispositions The teacher recognizes the power of language for fostering self-expression, identity development, and learning. The teacher values many ways in which people seek to communicate and encourages many modes of communication in the classroom. The teacher is a thoughtful and responsive listener. The teacher appreciates the cultural dimensions of communication, responds appropriately, and seeks to foster culturally sensitive communication by and among all students in the class. Performances The teacher models effective communication strategies in conveying ideas and information and in asking questions (e.g. monitoring the effects of messages, restating ideas and drawing connections, using visual, aural, and kinesthetic cues, being sensitive to nonverbal cues given and received). The teacher supports and expands learner expression in speaking, writing, and other media. The teacher knows how to ask questions and stimulate discussion in different ways for particular purposes, for example, probing for learner understanding, helping students articulate their ideas and thinking processes, promoting risk-taking and problem solving, facilitating factual recall, encouraging convergent and divergent thinking, stimulating curiosity, helping students to question.
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Testing Teacher Candidates: The Role of Licensure Tests in Improving Teacher Quality The teacher communicates in ways that demonstrate a sensitivity to cultural and gender differences (e.g. appropriate use of eye contact, interpretation of body language and verbal statements, acknowledgment of and responsiveness to different modes of communication and participation). The teacher knows how to use a variety of media communication tools, including audio-visual aids and computers, to enrich learning opportunities. Principle #7: The Teacher Plans Instruction Based Upon Knowledge of Subject Matter, Students, the Community, and Curriculum Goals. Knowledge The teacher understands learning theory, subject matter, curriculum development, and student development and knows how to use this knowledge in planning instruction to meet curriculum goals. The teacher knows how to take contextual considerations (instructional materials, individual student interests, needs, aptitudes, and community resources) into account in planning instruction that creates an effective bridge between curriculum goals and students’ experiences. The teacher knows when and how to adjust plans based on student responses and other contingencies. Dispositions The teacher values both long-term and short-term planning. The teacher believes that plans must always be open to adjustment and revision based on student needs and changing circumstances. The teacher values planning as a collegial activity. Performances As an individual and a member of a team, the teacher selects and creates learning experiences that are appropriate for curriculum goals, relevant to learners, and based upon principles of effective instruction (e.g. that activate students’ prior knowledge, anticipate preconceptions, encourage exploration and problem solving, and build new skills on those previously acquired). The teacher plans for learning opportunities that recognize and address variation in learning styles and performance modes. The teacher creates lessons and activities that operate at multiple levels to meet the developmental and individual needs of diverse learners and help each progress. The teacher creates short-range and long-term plans that are linked to student needs and performance and adapts the plans to ensure and capitalize on student progress and motivation. The teacher responds to unanticipated sources of input, evaluates plans in relation to short- and long-range goals, and systematically adjusts plans to meet student needs and enhance learning.
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Testing Teacher Candidates: The Role of Licensure Tests in Improving Teacher Quality Principle #8: The Teacher Understands and Uses Formal and Informal Assessment Strategies to Evaluate and Ensure the Continuous Intellectual, Social, and Physical Development of the Learner. Knowledge The teacher understands the characteristics, uses, advantages, and limitations of different types of assessments (e.g. criterion-referenced and norm-referenced instruments, traditional standardized and performance-based tests, observation systems, and assessments of student work) for evaluating how students learn, what they know and are able to do, and what kinds of experiences will support their further growth and development. The teacher knows how to select, construct, and use assessment strategies and instruments appropriate to the learning outcomes being evaluated and to other diagnostic purposes. The teacher understands measurement theory and assessment-related issues, such as validity, reliability, bias, and scoring concerns. Dispositions The teacher values ongoing assessment as essential to the instructional process and recognizes that many different assessment strategies, accurately and systematically used, are necessary for monitoring and promoting student learning. The teacher is committed to using assessment to identify student strengths and promote student growth rather than to deny students access to learning opportunities. Performances The teacher appropriately uses a variety of formal and informal assessment techniques (e.g. observation, portfolios of student work, teacher-made tests, performance tasks, projects, student self-assessments, peer assessment, and standardized tests) to enhance her or his knowledge of learners, evaluate students’ progress and performances, and modify teaching and learning strategies. The teacher solicits and uses information about students’ experiences, learning behavior, needs, and progress from parents, other colleagues, and the students themselves. The teacher uses assessment strategies to involve learners in self-assessment activities, to help them become aware of their strengths and needs, and to encourage them to set personal goals for learning. The teacher evaluates the effect of class activities on both individuals and the class as a whole, collecting information through observation of classroom interactions, questioning, and analysis of student work. The teacher monitors his or her own teaching strategies and behavior in relation to student success, modifying plans and instructional approaches accordingly. The teacher maintains useful records of student work and performance and
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Testing Teacher Candidates: The Role of Licensure Tests in Improving Teacher Quality can communicate student progress knowledgeably and responsibly, based on appropriate indicators, to students, parents, and other colleagues. Principle #9: The Teacher Is a Reflective Practitioner Who Continually Evaluates the Effects of His/Her Choices and Actions on Others (Students, Parents, and Other Professionals in the Learning Community) and Who Actively Seeks Out Opportunities to Grow Professionally. Knowledge The teacher understands methods of inquiry that provide him/ her with a variety of self-assessment and problem-solving strategies for reflecting on his/her practice, its influences on students’ growth and learning, and the complex interactions between them. The teacher is aware of major areas of research on teaching and of resources available for professional learning (e.g. professional literature, colleagues, professional associations, professional development activities). Dispositions The teacher values critical thinking and self-directed learning as habits of mind. The teacher is committed to reflection, assessment, and learning as an ongoing process. The teacher is willing to give and receive help. The teacher is committed to seeking out, developing, and continually refining practices that address the individual needs of students. The teacher recognizes his/her professional responsibility for engaging in and supporting appropriate professional practices for self and colleagues. Performances The teacher uses classroom observation, information about students, and research as sources for evaluating the outcomes of teaching and learning and as a basis for experimenting with, reflecting on, and revising practice. The teacher seeks out professional literature, colleagues, and other resources to support his/her own development as a learner and a teacher. The teacher draws upon professional colleagues within the school and other professional arenas as supports for reflection, problem solving, and new ideas, actively sharing experiences and seeking and giving feedback. Principle #10: The Teacher Fosters Relationships with School Colleagues, Parents, and Agencies in the Larger Community to Support Students Learning and Well-Being. Knowledge The teacher understands schools as organizations within the larger community context and understands the operations of the relevant aspects of the system(s) within which s/he works.
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Testing Teacher Candidates: The Role of Licensure Tests in Improving Teacher Quality The teacher understands how factors in the students’ environment outside of school (e.g. family circumstances, community environments, health and economic conditions) may influence students’ [lives] and learning. The teacher understands and implements laws related to students’ rights and teacher responsibilities (e.g. for equal education, appropriate education for handicapped students, confidentiality, privacy, appropriate treatment of students, reporting situations related to possible child abuse). Dispositions The teacher values and appreciates the importance of all aspects of a child’s experience. The teacher is concerned about all aspects of a child’s well being (cognitive, emotional, social, and physical) and is alert to signs of difficulties. The teacher is willing to consult with other adults regarding the education and well being of his/her students. The teacher respects the privacy of students and confidentiality of information. The teacher is willing to work with other professionals to improve the overall learning environment for students. Performances The teacher participates in collegial activities designed to make the entire school a productive learning environment. The teacher makes links with the learners’ other environments on behalf of students, by consulting with parents, counselors, teachers of other classes and activities within the schools, and professionals in other community agencies. The teacher can identify and use community resources to foster student learning. The teacher establishes respectful and productive relationships with parents and guardians from diverse home and community situations and seeks to develop cooperative partnerships in support of student learning and wellbeing. The teacher talks with and listens to the student, is sensitive and responsive to clues of distress, investigates situations, and seeks outside help as needed and appropriate to remedy problems. The teacher acts as an advocate for students. NATIONAL COUNCIL FOR ACCREDITATION OF TEACHER EDUCATION2 Teaching children—to recognize letters, to read for the first time, to understand how a tree grows—is one of the most important jobs in America. The nation’s future depends, in large part, on how well it is done. 2 Excerpts from the National Council for the Accreditation of Teacher Evaluation, 2000b. Used by permission of the author. NCATE reserves all rights.
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Testing Teacher Candidates: The Role of Licensure Tests in Improving Teacher Quality NCATE is the profession’s mechanism to help establish high-quality teacher preparation. Through the process of professional accreditation of schools, colleges and departments of education, NCATE works to make a difference in the quality of teaching and teacher preparation today, tomorrow, and for the next century. NCATE is a coalition of 33 specialty professional associations of teachers, teacher educators, content specialists, and local and state policy makers. All are committed to quality teaching, and together the coalition represents over 3 million individuals. See Table B-1. NATIONAL BOARD FOR PROFESSIONAL TEACHING STANDARDS (NBPTS)3 The mission of the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS) is to establish high and rigorous standards for what accomplished teachers should know and be able to do; to develop and operate a national, voluntary system to assess and certify teachers who meet these standards; and to advance related education reforms for the purpose of improving student learning in American schools. Governed by a 63-member board of directors, the majority of whom are classroom teachers, the National Board is dedicated to bringing teaching the respect and recognition this important work deserves. National Board Certification, developed by teachers, with teachers, and for teachers, is a symbol of professional teaching excellence. Offered on a voluntary basis, it complements, not replaces, state licensing. While state licensing systems set entry-level standards for beginning teachers, National Board Certification has established advanced standards for experienced teachers. The Five Propositions of Accomplished Teaching The National Board for Professional Teaching Standards seeks to identify and recognize teachers who effectively enhance student learning and demonstrate the high level of knowledge, skills, abilities, and commitments reflected in the following five core propositions. Proposition #1. Teachers are Committed to Students and Their Learning. Accomplished teachers are dedicated to making knowledge accessible to all students. They act on the belief that all students can learn. They treat students equitably, recognizing the individual differences that distinguish one student 3 National Board for Professional Teaching Standards, 1994. Used by permission of author.
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Testing Teacher Candidates: The Role of Licensure Tests in Improving Teacher Quality TABLE B-1: CANDIDATE PERFORMANCE Standard 1. Candidate Knowledge, Skills, and Dispositions—Candidatesa preparing to work in schools as teachers or other professional school personnel know and demonstrate the content, pedagogical, professional knowledge, skills, and dispositions necessary to help all studentsb learn. Assessments indicate that candidates meet professional, state, and institutionalc standards. Rubrics Elements of Standards Unacceptable Acceptable Target Content Knowledge for Teacher Candidates (Initial and Continuing Preparation of Teachers) Teacher candidates have inadequate knowledge of subject matter that they plan to teach as shown by their inability to give examples of important principles or concepts delineated in professional, state, and institutional standards. Teacher candidates know the subject matter that they plan to teach as shown by their ability to explain important principles and concepts delineated in professional, state, and institutional standards. Teacher candidates have in-depth knowledge of the subject matter that they plan to teach as described in professional, state, and institutional standards. They demonstrate their knowledge through inquiry, critical analysis, and synthesis of the subject. Pedagogical Content Knowledge for Teacher Candidates (Initial and Continuing Preparation of Teachers) Teacher candidates do not understand the relationship of content and pedagogy delineated in professional, state, and institutional standards in a way that helps them develop learning experiences that integrate technology and build on students’ cultural backgrounds and knowledge of content so that students learn. Teacher candidates have a broad knowledge of institutional strategies that draws upon content and pedagogical knowledge and skills delineated in professional, state, and institutional standards to help all students learn. They facilitate student learning of the subject matter through presentation of the content in clear and meaningful ways and the integration of technology. Teacher candidates reflect a thorough understanding of pedagogical content knowledge delineated in professional, state, and institutional standards. They have indepth understanding of the subject matter that they plan to teach, allowing them to provide multiple explanations and instructional strategies so that all students learn. They present the content to students in challenging, clear, and compelling ways and integrate technology appropriately. Professional and Pedagogical Knowledge and Skills for Teacher Candidates (Initial and Continuing Preparation of Teachers) Candidates have not mastered professional and pedagogical knowledge and skills delineated in professional, state, and institutional standards as shown in their lack of Candidates use their professional and pedagogical knowledge and skills delineated in professional, state, and institutional standards to facilitate learning. They consider Candidates reflect a thorough understanding of professional and pedagogical knowledge and skills delineated in professional, state, and institutional standards, as
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Testing Teacher Candidates: The Role of Licensure Tests in Improving Teacher Quality knowledge of school, family, and community contexts or in their inability to develop learning experiences that draw on students’ prior experience. the school, family, and community contexts in which they work and the prior experience of students to develop meaningful learning experiences. shown in their development of meaningful learning experiences to facilitate student learning for all students. They reflect on their practice and make necessary adjustments to enhance student learning. They know how students learn and how to make ideas accessible to them. They consider school, family, and community contexts in connecting concepts to students’ prior experience and applying the ideas to real-world problems. Disposition for ALL Candidates Candidates are not familiar with professional dispositions delineated in professional, state, and institutional standards. They do not model these dispositions in their work with students, families, and communities. Candidates are familiar with the dispositions expected of professionals and their work with students, families, and communities reflects the dispositions delineated in professional, state, and institutional standards. Candidates’ work with students, families, and communities reflects the dispositions expected of professional educators as delineated in professional, state, and institutional standards. Candidates recognize when their own dispositions may need to be adjusted and are able to develop plans to do so. Student Learning for Teacher Candidates (Initial and Continuing Preparation of Teachers) Teacher candidates do not accurately assess student learning or develop learning experiences based on students’ developmental levels or prior experience. Teacher candidates focus on students’ learning as shown in their assessment of student learning, use of assessments in instruction, and development of meaningful learning experiences for students based on their developmental levels and prior experience. Teacher candidates accurately assess and analyze student learning, make appropriate adjustments to instruction, monitor student learning, and have a positive effect on learning for all students. aCandidates include persons preparing to teach, teachers who are continuing their professional development, and persons preparing for other professional roles in schools such as principals, school psychologists, and school library media specialists. bAll students include students with exceptionalities and of different ethnic, racial, gender, religious, socioeconomic, and regional/geographic origins. cInstitutional standards are reflected in the unit’s conceptual framework and include candidate proficiencies.
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Testing Teacher Candidates: The Role of Licensure Tests in Improving Teacher Quality from another and taking account of these differences in their practice. They adjust their practice based on observation and knowledge of their students’ interests, abilities, skills, knowledge, family circumstances, and peer relationships. Accomplished teachers understand how students develop and learn. They incorporate the prevailing theories of cognition and intelligence in their practice. They are aware of the influence of context and culture on behavior. They develop students’ cognitive capacity and their respect for learning. Equally important, they foster students’ self-esteem, motivation, character, [and] civic responsibility and their respect for individual, cultural, religious, and racial differences. Proposition #2. Teachers Know the Subjects They Teach and How to Teach Those Subjects to Students. Accomplished teachers have a rich understanding of the subject(s) they teach and appreciate how knowledge in their subject is created, organized, linked to other disciplines, and applied to real-world settings. While faithfully representing the collective wisdom of our culture and upholding the value of disciplinary knowledge, they also develop the critical and analytical capacities of their students. Accomplished teachers command specialized knowledge of how to convey and reveal subject matter to students. They are aware of the preconceptions and background knowledge that students typically bring to each subject and of strategies and instructional materials that can be of assistance. They understand where difficulties are likely to arise and modify their practice accordingly. Their instructional repertoire allows them to create multiple paths to the subjects they teach, and they are adept at teaching students how to pose and solve their own problems. Proposition #3. Teachers Are Responsible for Managing and Monitoring Student Learning. Accomplished teachers create, enrich, maintain, and alter instructional settings to capture and sustain the interest of their students and to make the most effective use of time. They also are adept at engaging students and adults to assist their teaching and at enlisting their colleagues’ knowledge and expertise to complement their own. Accomplished teachers command a range of generic instructional techniques, know when each is appropriate, and can implement them as needed. They are as aware of ineffectual or damaging practice as they are devoted to elegant practice. They know how to engage groups of students to ensure a disciplined learning environment and how to organize instruction to allow the schools’ goals for students to be met. They are adept at setting norms for social interaction among students and between students and teachers. They understand how to motivate
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Testing Teacher Candidates: The Role of Licensure Tests in Improving Teacher Quality students to learn and how to maintain their interest even in the face of temporary failure. Accomplished teachers can assess the progress of individual students as well as that of the class as a whole. They employ multiple methods for measuring student growth and understanding and can clearly explain student performance to parents. Proposition #4. Teachers Think Systematically about Their Practice and Learn from Experience. Accomplished teachers are models of educated persons, exemplifying the virtues they seek to inspire in students—curiosity, tolerance, honesty, fairness, respect for diversity, and appreciation of cultural differences—and the capacities that are prerequisites for intellectual growth: the ability to reason and take multiple perspectives, to be creative and take risks, and to adopt an experimental and problem-solving orientation. Accomplished teachers draw on their knowledge of human development, subject matter and instruction, and their understanding of their students to make principled judgments about sound practice. Their decisions are not only grounded in the literature, but also in their experience. They engage in lifelong learning, which they seek to encourage in their students. Striving to strengthen their teaching, accomplished teachers critically examine their practice, seek to expand their repertoire, deepen their knowledge, sharpen their judgment, and adapt their teaching to new findings, ideas, and theories. Proposition #5. Teachers Are Members of Learning Communities. Accomplished teachers contribute to the effectiveness of the school by working collaboratively with other professionals on instructional policy, curriculum development, and staff development. They can evaluate school progress and the allocation of school resources in light of their understanding of state and local educational objectives. They are knowledgeable about specialized school and community resources that can be engaged for their students’ benefit and are skilled at employing such resources as needed. Accomplished teachers find ways to work collaboratively and creatively with parents, engaging them productively in the work of the school.
Representative terms from entire chapter: