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SUSTAINABLE FEDERAL FACILITIES A Guide to Integrating Value Engineering, Life-Cycle Costing, and Sustainable Development Hi: AUTHORED BY THE FEDERAL FACILITIES COUNCIL AD HOC TASK GROUP ON INTEGRATING SUSTAINABLE DESIGN, LIFE-CYCLE COSTING, AND VALUE ENGINEERING INTO FACILITIES ACQUISITION FEDERAL FACILITIES COUNCIL TECHNICAL REPORT No.142 NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 2001

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NOTICE The Federal Facilities Council (FFC) (formerly the Federal Construction Council) is a continuing activity of the Board on Infrastructure and the Constructed Environment of the National Research Council (NRC). The purpose of the FFC is to promote continuing cooperation among the sponsoring federal agencies and between the agencies and other elements of the building community in order to advance building science and technology-particularly with regard to the design, construction, acquisition, evaluation, and operation of federal facilities. The following FFC-sponsor agencies provided funding for this study: Department of the Air Force, Office of the Civil Engineer Deparknent of the Air Force, Air National Guard Department of the Army, Assistant Chief of Staff for Installation Management Department of Defense, Federal Facilities Directorate Department of Energy Department of the Interior, Office of Managing Risk and Public Safety Department of the Navy, Naval Facilities Engineering Command Department of State, Office of Foreign Buildings Operations Department of Veterans Affairs, Office of Facilities Management Federal Bureau of Prisons Food and Drug Administration General Services Administration, Public Buildings Service Indian Health Service Internal Revenue Service National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Facilities Engineering Division National Institutes of Health National Institute of Standards and Technology, Building and Fire Research Laboratory National Science Foundation Smithsonian Institution, Office of Facilities Services U.S. Postal Service, Engineering Division As part of its activities, the FFC periodically publishes reports that have been prepared by committees of government employees. Since these committees are not appointed by the NRC, they do not make recommendations, and their reports are considered FFC publications rather than NRC publications. For additional information on the FFC program and its reports, visit the website at I?ttp://www4.nationalacademies.org/cets/ffc.nsf or write to: Director, Federal Facilities Council, 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W., HA-274, Washington, D.C. 20418 Printed in the United States of America

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Ad Hoc Task Group On Integrating Sustainable Design, Life-Cycle Costing and Value Engineering Into Facilities Acquisition Chairs Stanley Hall, Standards and Criteria Coordinator, Office of Foreign Buildings Operations, U.S. Department of State (1999-2001) Terre! Emmons, Associate Director for Design Policy, Naval Facilities Engineering Command (currently with the National Park Service) (1998-1999) - Members Katherine Fisher Bethany, Value Engineering Manager, Office of Foreign Buildings Operations, U.S. Department of State Charles Blumberg, Architect, Principal, Interior Design, Design, Construction, Engineering, and Alterations Branch, National Institutes of Health Robert CarIsen, Coordinator, Sustainable Development for Navy Shore installations Base Development Directorate, Naval Facilities Engineering Command David Carter, Office of Army Chief of Staff for Installations Management Michael Chapman, Architect, Design Policy, Naval Facilities Engineering Command Lindsay Coffman, Value Engineer, U.S. Department of Energy Ron DiLustro, Program Manager, Headquarters, National Aeronautics and Space Administration David Eakin, Chief Engineer, Design Programs Center, Public Buildings Service, General Services Administration James EnIoe, Architect, Office of the Civil Engineer, U.S. Air Force Kurt A. Gernerd, Value Engineering Manacer. Office of Managing Risk and Public Safety, U.S. Department of the Interior ~ , ~ ~ Vijay Gupta, Senior Mechanical Engineer, Public Buildings Service, General Services Administration . . .

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Stephen Hagan, Project Integration and Information Technology, National Capital Region, General Services Administration Edgar HanIey, Technical Support Branch Chief, U.S. Department of State Jonathan Herz, Architect, Office of Governmentwide Policy, General Services Administration CarIos Lopez, Senior Architect/Project Manager, Goddard Space Flight Center Martin New~lorf, Construction Manager, U.S. Department of Energy Jack Staudt, Chief, Environmental Engineering Division, U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs Rich Wickman, Environmental Management Division, Headquarters, National Aeronautics and Space Administration Jon Yow, Office of the Civil Engineer, U.S. Air Force Staff Lynda Stanley, Director, Fecleral Facilities Council Gail Kelly, Research Aide, Board on Infrastructure and the Constructed Environment Nicole Longshore, Project Assistant, Board on Infrastructure and the Constructed Environment 1V

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Federal Facilities Council Chair Jack Buff~ngton, USN CEC (Retired), Director, Mack-Blackwell National Rural Transportation Study Center, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Arkansas Vice Chair William Brubaker, Director, Facilities Engineering Division, National Aeronautics and Space Administration Members Edward Ayscue, Chief, Facilities Management Branch, Federal Bureau of Prisons Roger Bell, Chief, Structures Branch, Facilities Division, Air National Guarc! John Bower, MACON Program Manager, U.S. Air Force Bruce Chelikowsky, Acting Director, Office of Environmental Health and Engineering, Indian Health Service Tony Clifford, Director, Division of Engineering Services, National :Institutes of Health Thomas Duchesne, Maintenance and Policies Programs, Engineering Division, U.S. Postal Service David Eakin, Chief Engineer, Design Programs Center, Public Buildings Service, General Services Administration John Scalzi, Program Director, Division of Civil and Mechanical Systems, National Science Foundation Peter Gurvin, Director, Building Design and Engineering, Office of Foreign Buildings Operations, U.S. Department of State James Hill, Deputy Director, Building and Fire Research Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology John Irby, Director, Federal Facilities Division, U.S. Department of Defense v

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L. Michael Kaas, Director, Office of Managing Risk and Public Safety, U.S. Department of the Interior Michael Karau, Chief, Facilities Policy Branch, Internal Revenue Service Get Moy, Chief Engineer and Director, Planning and Engineering Support, Naval Facilities Engineering Command, U.S. Navy Robert Neary, Jr., Deputy Facilities Management Officer, Office of Facilities Management, Department of Veterans Affairs Stan Nickell, Chief, Construction Division, Assistant Chief of Staff for Installation Management, U.S. Army Richard Rice, Jr., Director of Facilities Services, Smithsonian Institution William Stamper, Senior Program Manager, Facilities Engineering Division, National Aeronautics ant! Space Administration John Yates, Director, :Laboratory Infrastructure Division, Office of Science, U.S. Department of Energy Staff Richard Little, Director, Board on Infrastructure and the Constructed Environment Lynda Stanley, Director, Federal Facilities Council Michael Cohn, Program Officer, Board on Infrastructure and the Constructed Environment Kimberly Goldberg, Administrative Associate, Board on Infrastructure and the Constructed Environment Gail Kelly, Research Aide, Board on Infrastructure and the Constructed Environment Nicole Longshore, Project Assistant, Board on Infrastructure and the Constructed Environment V1

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Contents EXECUTIVE SUMMARY INTRODUCTION ................................................. Problem Statement and Study Objective, 6 Study Process, 7 Report Organization, Government-wide Guidance, ~ Using Life-Cycle Costing with Value Engineering, ~ 3 References, 14 1 FACILITY LIFE CYCLES AND THE ACQUISITION PROCESS Facility Life Cycles, 17 Facility Acquisition, 18 References, 22 4 5 - 1 / FRAMEWORK FOR ACQUIRING SUSTAINABLE FACILITIES.. Format, 23 Documenting Objectives, Decisions and Assumptions, 24 Integrated Project Team Approach, 25 Performance Measures, 26 Framework, 27 Reference, 47 ISSUES ~e ~ he ~ ee First Costs, Life-Cycle Costs and Sustainable Development, 49 Master Specifications and Guide Books, 49 Performance Standards for Sustainable Facilities, 50 Identifying Environmentally Preferable Products, 5 Lessons Learned, 52 Reference, 52 .............. 23 -.49 ONLINE RESOURCES 53 Sustainable Development and Value Engineering, 53 Performance Standards for Sustainable Facilities, 60 Environmentally Preferable Products, 62 Lessons Learned, 64 Index, 64 . . V11

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Appendixes A. Executive Order 13123 Wee B. Executive Order 1 3 1 0 1 . e ~ e ~ e e ~ ~ e - ~ e-- ~ - -e C. Executive Order 1 3 1 48 e e e - ~ e- e e ee ~ e - ~ e ~ e ~ e e D. OMB Circular A- 1 3 1 eve ~-ee~ easer eeeeeae ~eee~ eel e ~ eve ~ ee--~-~ee-~~e-------e E. Public Law 104-106, Section 4306 - Value Engineering for Federal Agencies... F. Federal Acquisition Regulation Parts 48 and 52 Re: Value Engineering. -- v~ .65 .79 .93 .109 .115 117