BOX 6-1 International Classification of Epilepsies and Epileptic Syndromes

  1. Localization-related (focal, local, partial) epilepsies and syndromes.

1.1 Idiopathic (with age-related onset)

At present, the following syndromes are established, but more may be identified in the future:

  • Benign childhood epilepsy with centro-temporal spike;

  • Childhood epilepsy with occipital paroxysms; and

  • Primary reading epilepsy.

1.2 Symptomatic: This category comprises syndromes of individual variability, based mainly on anatomical localization, clinical features, seizure types, and etiological factors (if known).

1.2.1 Epilepsy is characterized by simple partial seizures with the characteristics of seizures:

  • Arising from frontal lobes;

  • Arising from parietal lobes;

  • Arising from temporal lobes;

  • Arising from occipital lobes;

  • Arising from multiple lobes; and

  • Locus of onset unknown.

1.2.2 Characterized by complex partial seizures, that is, attacks with alteration of consciousness, often with automatisms; characterized by seizures:

  • Arising from frontal lobes;

  • Arising from parietal lobes;

  • Arising from temporal lobes;

  • Arising from occipital lobes;

  • Arising from multiple lobes; and

  • Locus of onset unknown.

1.2.3 Characterized by secondarily generalized seizures with seizures:

  • Arising from frontal lobes;

  • Arising from parietal lobes;

  • Arising from temporal lobes;

  • Arising from occipital lobes;

  • Arising from multiple lobes; and

  • Locus of onset unknown.

1.3 Unknown as to whether the syndrome is idiopathic or symptomatic.

  1. Generalized epilepsies and syndromes

2.1 Idiopathic (with age-related onset—listed in order of age)

  • Benign neonatal familial convulsions;

  • Benign neonatal convulsions;

  • Benign myoclonic epilepsy in infancy;

  • Childhood absence epilepsy (pyknolepsy);

  • Juvenile absence epilepsy;

  • Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (impulsive petit mal); and

  • Epilepsy with GTCS on awakening.

Other generalized idiopathic epilepsies, if they do not belong to one of the above syndromes, can still be classified as generalized idiopathic epilepsies.



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement