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Neurological, Psychiatric, and Developmental Disorders: Meeting the Challenge in the Developing World
Autism is classified as a Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD), which is part of a broad spectrum of developmental disorders affecting young children and adults.
Among the best known and most widely prescribed drugs in the world, benzodiazepines are used mainly as tranquilizers for the control of symptoms due to anxiety or stress.
A psychiatric disorder also known as manic-depressive illness involving dramatic mood swings from periods of excessive activity and rapid thought (manic phase) to periods of hopelessness and depression (depressive phase).
A term describing a group of chronic conditions affecting body movement and muscle coordination. It is a non-communicable, non-progressive disorder that is a result of injury to the motor areas of the brain that occurred during pregnancy, birth, or early childhood. The condition may present with a combination of different symptoms, including: spasticity (stiff and difficult movement), hypotonia (muscle weakness), ataxia (inability to coordinate voluntary movement, unsteadiness), dyskinesia (inability to coordinate smooth movements resulting in fragmented or jerky movements), or dystonia (involuntary muscle contractions and spasm).
Community-Based Rehabilitation (CBR):
A strategy to use and build on resources of the community in order to equalize opportunities for impaired, disabled, and handicapped persons, their families, and the community.
Down's Syndrome (Trisomy 21):
A chromosomal abnormality which manifests itself in a set of common physical and mental characteristics, including: extra fold over the eyes, floppy muscles, loose joints, mental retardation, hearing loss, and visual problems. This abnormality is due to the presence of an extra chromosome and has an increased incident related to maternal age.
A specific developmental disability affecting a person's ability to conceptualize and perform mathematics. Mild cases can often be compensated for with use of a calculator, but those with severe dyscalculia will need special education services.
The presence of involuntary movements, such as the choreaform movements seen in some cases of rheumatic fever or the characteristic movements of tardive dyskensia. Some forms of dyskensia are a side effect of using certain medications, particularly L-Dopa and, in the case of tardive dyskensia, the anti-psychotics.