are anencephaly (absence of the cranial vault and absence of most or all of the cerebral hemispheres of the brain) and spina bifida (an opening in the vertebral column protecting the spinal cord), sometimes with a meningomyelocele (protrusion of the meningeal membranes that cover the spinal cord).

Neurocysticercosis (NCC):

Cysts found in the brain (and other parts of the body) as a result of ingestion of the pork tapeworm, Taenia solium. The most common symptoms include seizures, headaches, confusion, lack of attention to surroundings, difficulty with balance, and hydrocephalus.


Originating, taking place, or acquired in a hospital.


Also known as river blindness, a disease caused by a parasitic worm (Onchocerca volvulus) which is transmitted to persons by biting blackflies (buffalo gnats) that breed in fast-flowing rivers. The adult worms can live for up to 15 years in nodules beneath the skin and in the muscles of infected persons, where they produce millions of worm embryos (microfilariae) that invade the skin and other tissues, including the eyes.

Otitis media:

Infection and inflammation of the middle ear space and ear drum. Symptoms include earache, fever and in some cases, diminished hearing.


Pertaining to the period immediately before and after birth. The perinatal period is defined in diverse ways. Depending on the definition, it starts at the 20th to 28th week of gestation and ends 1 to 4 weeks after birth.

Phenylketonuria (PKU):

A rare, inherited metabolic disease that causes mental retardation due to an absence of phenylalanine hydroxylase—the enzyme that converts phenylalanine to tyrosine. The build-up of phenylalanine is toxic but can be controlled by diet.

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD):

A psychiatric disorder associated with a traumatic event (war, rape, tragic accident, etc.) resulting in the patient reliving the event through nightmares and disturbing recollections during the day.


Relating social conditions to mental health.


An antipsychotic medication that works on nerves throughout the body and brain by blocking several of the receptors on nerves (dopamine type 2, serotonin type 2, and alpha 2 adrenergic receptors). This alters the chemical messages which nerves transmit to each other.

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