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  • Russia has a total of about 600,000,000 m3 of waste at its defense sites, mainly Mayak, of which more than 25,000 m3 is designated HLW and stored in tanks (Laverov, 1999a). 2

The worldwide inventory is expected to grow significantly during at least the next 30 years, especially the SNF inventory. For example, the SNF inventory in the United States will nearly double to about 83,800 mt by 2035 (DOE, 2000). Although some countries are planning to phase out nuclear power, there are 36 power reactors currently under construction. China, for example, has seven reactors under construction. China expects to have accumulated 1000 mt of SNF by 2010 and 2000 mt by 2015 (Parizek et al., 2000). The 1996 and expected future SNF inventories in several other countries are summarized in Table 4.1 (IAEA, 2000a).

Reprocessing of commercial SNF is practiced in some countries; for example, France and the United Kingdom reprocess domestic SNF and, under contract, provide reprocessing services to other countries. HLW from reprocessing is returned to the country of origin. Inventories of vitrified waste from reprocessing accumulated through 1996 and projected to 2014 by countries reporting these data to the International Atomic Energy Agency are summarized in Table 4.2 . The HLW inventory in these countries will more than triple between 1996 and 2014.

EXAMPLES OF NATIONAL WASTE MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS

The information in this section has been taken mainly from Radioactive Waste Management Programmes in OECD/NEA Member Countries (NEA, 1998), and from the European Union Web site ( http://www.rwmeu.org). Members of the advisory committee have contributed to and verified the information.

Belgium

Belgium has one candidate site for a deep geological repository, the deep clay formation (referred to as Boom clay) beneath the area of its nuclear research center in Mol. Studies of the Boom clay have been conducted for 25 years. Since 1984, these studies have included the construction and operation of an underground research laboratory (URL), the High Activity Disposal Experimental Site (HADES). HADES includes an access shaft and two galleries at a depth of 230 meters where in situ

2 Russia designates waste as high-level if its activity exceeds 1 curie per liter. In the United States, most tank waste at Hanford and Savannah River is designated as HLW although its average activity is well below 1 curie per liter. Most of the tank waste is composed of crystalline salts and thick sludges.



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