Page 295

Index

A


Activities of daily living , 21 , 272

Africa

see also North Africa ;

Sub-Saharan Africa life expectancy , 48
median age, workforce , 40
Aging index , 40
AHEAD ,
see Asset and Health Dynamics Among the Oldest Old Survey
AIDS , 15 , 49-50 , 58
Argentina , 71 , 72 , 73 , 75 , 76
Arthritis , 206
Asia
see also specific countries
bequests , 156
data standards , 8
intergenerational transfers , 190
labor force and median age , 40
life expectancy , 48
multidisciplinary approaches , 3
old-age mortality , 57
population projections , 32 , 34
researcher access to data , 282
speed of population aging , 39
tax incentives , 19
Asset and Health Dynamics Among the Oldest Old Survey (AHEAD) , 113-116 (passim) , 119-120 , 191
Australia , 38 , 48 , 55 , 147 , 148
health status and care , 210 , 228
labor force participation , 69-77 (passim)
pensions , 78 , 79 , 80 , 81 , 87 , 147 , 148
Austria , 48 , 210
Azerbaijan , 38

B


Basic Survey of Japanese Living Conditions , 125
Belgium , 32 , 48 , 50 , 94
health care , 210
labor force participation , 69-76 (passim) , 85
pensions , 84 , 85,
Bequests , 103 , 106-107 , 108 , 115 , 155 , 156 , 158 , 166
tax on , 131 , 156-157 , 158 , 160
Bereavement , 14 , 264 , 271 , 272
Birth rate ,
see Fertility
Brazil , 38 , 55
British Household Panel Study , 113, 118(n.3) , 125 , 127
Bulgaria , 55
Bureau of the Census , 31(n.2) , 59 , 60


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Page 295 Index A Activities of daily living , 21 , 272 Africa see also North Africa ; Sub-Saharan Africa life expectancy , 48 median age, workforce , 40 Aging index , 40 AHEAD , see Asset and Health Dynamics Among the Oldest Old Survey AIDS , 15 , 49-50 , 58 Argentina , 71 , 72 , 73 , 75 , 76 Arthritis , 206 Asia see also specific countries bequests , 156 data standards , 8 intergenerational transfers , 190 labor force and median age , 40 life expectancy , 48 multidisciplinary approaches , 3 old-age mortality , 57 population projections , 32 , 34 researcher access to data , 282 speed of population aging , 39 tax incentives , 19 Asset and Health Dynamics Among the Oldest Old Survey (AHEAD) , 113-116 (passim) , 119-120 , 191 Australia , 38 , 48 , 55 , 147 , 148 health status and care , 210 , 228 labor force participation , 69-77 (passim) pensions , 78 , 79 , 80 , 81 , 87 , 147 , 148 Austria , 48 , 210 Azerbaijan , 38 B Basic Survey of Japanese Living Conditions , 125 Belgium , 32 , 48 , 50 , 94 health care , 210 labor force participation , 69-76 (passim) , 85 pensions , 84 , 85, Bequests , 103 , 106-107 , 108 , 115 , 155 , 156 , 158 , 166 tax on , 131 , 156-157 , 158 , 160 Bereavement , 14 , 264 , 271 , 272 Birth rate , see Fertility Brazil , 38 , 55 British Household Panel Study , 113, 118(n.3) , 125 , 127 Bulgaria , 55 Bureau of the Census , 31(n.2) , 59 , 60

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Page 296 C Canada , 38 , 43 , 55 health status and care , 210 , 228 labor force participation , 71 , 72 , 75 , 76 , 85 pensions , 78 , 80 , 84-88 (passim) , 94 , 147 , 148 wealth , 137 , 147 , 148 Cancer , 55-56 Capital gains , 110 , 118(n.3) , 123 Cardiovascular disease , 55-57 , 206 , 228 , 250 Caribbean , see Latin America/Caribbean Causes of death , see Diseases and disorders ; Life expectancy ; Mortality CentER Savings Survey (CSS) , 113 , 122 , 129 , 130 , 151 Chile , 38 , 45 labor force participation , 71 , 72 , 73 , 75 , 76 pensions , 87 China cardiovascular disease , 228 elderly support ratios , 43 fertility , 45 life expectancy , 55 population projections , 38 , 39 Chronic diseases , 1 , 237 see also Disabled persons life expectancy and , 56 , 206 Cognitive impairments , 12 , 23 , 91 , 93 , 178 , 208 , 213 , 230 , 231-232 , 233 , 259 , 260 , 271 , 273 , 277 Cohort studies , 4 , 25 , 142-144, 278, 282 Health and Retirement Survey (HRS) , 7 , 86 , 93-94 , 113-120 (passim) , 127(n.6) , 150 , 149 , 191 , 216 , 281 health status and care, general , 207 , 214 intergenerational transfers , 192 mortality estimations , 58-59 Colombia , 22 Community supports , 172 health care , 204 , 207-208 , 211 , 213 , 217 well-being , 253 , 256-257 , 258 , 272 Comorbidity , 212 , 216 , 227 , 228 , 264 , 270 Computer applications at-home work , 95 CentER Savings Survey , 122 interviewing , 115 , 151 , 174(n.7) Computer databases , see Databases Confidentiality , see Privacy and confidentiality Consumers and consumption , 105-110 (passim) , 122 , 123 , 128 , 220 cost of surveys , 105 disabled persons , 107-108 family factors , 106-107 , 108 , 161-162 , 163 , 166 , 169-170 , 189 housing wealth , 111-112 intergenerational transfers and , 106-107 , 108 , 161-162 , 163 , 166 , 169-170 , 189 retirement, consumption following , 105-110 (passim) well-being , 257 Contraception , 16 Controlled studies , 20 , 280 wealth , 129-131 Cost factors , 19-20 , 155 childrearing and education , 166 , 170 , 177 consumption surveys , 105 cross-sectional studies , 20 health care , 2 , 17 , 155 , 158-159 , 166 , 168-169 , 181 , 200 , 201 , 203 , 208 , 210 , 217 , 220 longitudinal studies , 4 . 19-20 panel studies , 19-20 public pension systems , 19 , 155 retirement , 95 , 103 , 160 sampling, research , 20 Cross-sectional studies , 4 , 278 , 282 cost of , 20 health and socioeconomic status , 111 intergenerational transfers , 179 wealth , 111 , 142 Cultural factors , 18 , 21 , 250-251 , 287 elderly, definition of , 30 health status and care , 204 , 211 , 217 , 220 human capital investment , 159 intergenerational transfers , 12-13 , 157 , 159 , 174 kin networks , 174 retirement age , 97 well-being , 262 Czech Republic , 48 D Databases Asset and Health Dynamics Among the Oldest Old Survey (AHEAD) , 113-116 (passim) , 119-120 , 191

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Page 297 CentER Savings Survey (CSS) , 113 , 122 , 129 , 130 , 151 cost studies , 19-20 Health and Retirement Survey (HRS) , 7 , 86 , 93-94 , 113-120 (passim) , 127(n.6) , 149 , 150 , 191 , 216 , 281 health status and care , 207 , 214-216 linked , 7 , 25 , 96 , 115(n.2) , 191 , 216-217 , 220 , 239 , 281 morbidity , 212 , 214 , 225 , 226-229 , 233 , 252 multidisciplinary approaches , 3 , 277 retirement , 91 Survey of Consumer Finances (SCF) , 113-118 (passim) , 129 Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) , 113-117 (passim) Definitional issues see also Standards aging index , 40 demographic transition , 41 developed vs developing countries , 24 elderly , 2(n.1) , 25 , 30 fertility , 39(n.6) health, general , 225-226 , 230 , 252 intergenerational transfers , 171-172 morbidity , 226-229 signs , 225-226 symptoms , 225 syndromes , 226 wealth , 117 , 118-119 , 149-150 well-being , 13 , 258-259 , 262 Denmark , 48 health care , 210 labor force participation , 70-76 (passim) wealth , 137 Depression , 21 , 206 , 225 , 243 , 244 Developing countries see also Latin America/Caribbean ; North Africa ; Sub-Saharan Africa ; specific countries defined , 24 fertility , 45 , 47 intergenerational transfers , 164 , 165 , 190 , 193 labor force participation , 40 , 69 , 74 life expectancy , 48 , 49 , 53-55 median age , 39 , 40 old-age mortality , 53-55 oldest old , 35 pension programs , 9 , 87 population by age and sex, chart , 46 population projections , 33-34 , 35 Diet , see Nutrition Disabled persons , 2 , 9 , 16 , 17 , 23 , 27-28 , 206 , 209 , 212 , 220 , 230-231 , 235-237 , 256 , 258 , 276 , 279 see also Functional health status ; Institutional care cognitive impairments , 12 , 23 , 91 , 93 , 178 , 208 , 213 , 230 , 231-232 , 233 , 259 , 260 , 271 , 273 , 277 consumption by , 107-108 elderly support ratios , 42 employment and , 9 , 24-25 life expectancy and , 55 oldest old , 37 retirement , 9 , 67 , 69 , 77 , 86 , 91 , 94-95 , 97 , 203 social factors, general , 230-231 , 232 Diseases and disorders , 206 , 221 , 240-241 , 250 , 279 see also Disabled persons ; Health status and health care ; Medical care ; Mental health and illness ; Morbidity ; Mortality AIDS , 15 , 49-50 , 58 arthritis , 206 cancer , 55-56 cardiovascular disease , 55-57 , 206 , 228 , 250 chronic diseases , 1 , 56 , 206 , 237 cognitive impairments , 12 , 23 , 91 , 93 , 178 , 208 , 213 , 230 , 231-232 , 233 , 259 , 260 , 271 , 273 , 277 demographic transition , 41-42 , 44 , 47 old-age mortality , 54-57 oldest old , 37 research standards , 5 , 219-220 E Economic factors , 2 , 3 , 5 , 6 , 8 , 30 , 161 see Consumers and consumption ; Cost factors ; Developing countries ; Employment issues ; Funding ; Income ; Intergenerational relations and transfers ; Pensions ; Savings ; Socioeconomic status ; Taxation ; Wealth capital gains , 110 , 118(n.3) , 123

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Page 298 elderly support ratios , 42 Flow of Funds (FOF) , 13 , 26 , 28 , 116 , 118 , 123 , 125 , 126 , 129 , 156 health care , 168-169 Gross National Product (GNP) , 18 , 254-256 , 257 , 258 , 273 health status and care , 200 , 202-203 , 204 , 208 , 209 , 220 cost factors , 2 , 17 , 155 , 158-159 , 166 , 168-169 , 181 , 200 , 201 , 203 , 208 , 210 , 217 , 220 life expectancy , 18 , 47 , 51 macroeconomic factors , 6 , 11 , 23 , 27 , 30 , 68 , 96 , 157 , 280 well-being , 253 , 254-256 , 257 , 258 , 273 Educational attainment , 16 , 149 , 250 health status and care , 203 , 205 , 222 intergenerational transfers , 165 , 192 Education, professional , see Professional education Education, public , see Public education Egypt , 55 Elderly support ratios , 40 , 42 , 43 Emigration , see Immigration and emigration Emotional factors , see Mental health and illness Employment issues , 2 , 3 , 4 , 8-9 , 23 , 27 , 66-98 , 250 see also Pensions ; Retirement Africa , 40 age when still employed, rates of , 69 aging index , 40 disabilities , 9 , 24-25 elderly support ratios , 42 emigration of workers , 44 health status and care, general , 24-25 , 201-202 , 204 , 205 , 222-223 , 224 immigration , 15 labor force participation , 3 , 6 , 8 , 9 , 19 , 23 , 40 , 42 , 66 , 67 , 68-77 , 83 , 95-96 , 202 ; see also Retirement gender factors , 69 , 71-77 , 78 , 88 older persons, working , 67 part-time and temporary , 14 self-employment , 77 , 121 , 125 , 126 transfer systems , 11 unemployment and health status , 205 , 224 unemployment insurance , 9 , 86 , 94-95 , 97 well-being , 13-14 , 264-265 , 273 worker-to-retiree ratios , 1 , 16 , 103 Estates , see Bequests Ethical issues , 202 , 213-214 see also Privacy and confidentiality Ethnicity , see Race/ethnicity Europe see also specific countries aging index , 40 cardiovascular disease , 228 data standards , 8 fertility , 15 , 44-45 health status and care , 217 , 228 income security , 103-104 intergenerational transfers , 155 , 191 labor force participation , 70 life expectancy , 48 , 49 multidisciplinary approaches , 3 oldest old , 36 , 59 pensions , 86 , 103-104 , 146 population projections , 31-33 , 34 , 36 , 40 researcher access to data , 282 speed of population aging , 38 , 39 wealth , 103-104 , 121-125 , 126-131 , 134-135 , 146 , 149-150 well-being , 254 EVS , see German Income and Expenditure Survey F Family factors , 1-2 , 3 , 4 , 13 , 17 , 26 , 27 , 155-193 (passim) see also Fertility ; Intergenerational relations and transfers ; Marital status ; Wealth bequests , 103 , 106-107 , 108 , 115 , 155 , 156 , 158 , 166 tax on , 131 , 156-157 , 158 , 160 bereavement , 14 , 264 , 271 , 272 care of elderly by , 157 , 158-159 , 166 , 171 , 172-174 , 178 , 180-181 , 192-193 , 203 , 220 coresidence , 19 , 166 , 174 , 177 , 180 , 183 , 184 emotional support , 156 , 171 , 176 , 179 , 181 time transfers , 2 , 16 , 24 , 158 , 166 , 172 , 175 , 178-179 consumption and , 106-107 , 108 , 161-162 , 163 , 166 , 169-170 , 189

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Page 299 elderly support ratios , 42 health status of elderly , 203 , 220 , 221 ; see also “care of...” supra kin networks , 172-176 , 179 , 180-184 (passim) life-cycle model , 107 life expectancy , 47 retirement , 77 , 93 , 159 siblings , 159 , 174 , 175-176 tax incentives , 19 well-being , 156 , 158 , 258 , 264 , 268 Family Saving Survey , 125 Federal Reserve , 116 , 118 Females , see Fertility ; Gender factors Fertility , 1 , 15-16 , 30 , 39 , 41 , 45 , 47 , 57 , 181 defined , 39(n.6) demographic transition , 41-42 , 44 , 47 developing countries, general , 45 , 47 extended family , 156 historical perspectives , 15-16 , 30 , 39 , 44-45 intergenerational transfers , 156 , 162-163 , 165 , 183 , 184 , 189-190 migration and , 44-45 oldest old and , 36 research standards , 5 , 279 Financial Research Survey , 113 , 124-125 , 127 Finland , 210 Flow of Funds (FOF) , 13 , 26 , 28 , 116 , 118 , 123 , 125 , 126 , 129 , 156 health care , 168-169 France , 38 , 39 , 43 , 48 , 55 , 94 health care , 210 labor force participation , 70-76 (passim) , 85 pensions , 78-82 (passim) , 84 , 85 , 87 , 146 wealth , 135 , 136 , 137 , 146 Functional health status , 5 , 26 , 27-28 , 91 , 93 , 201 , 203 , 207 , 208 , 212 , 220 , 221 , 224-234 (passim) , 237 , 243 , 258 , 259 , 262 , 271 , 279 see also Chronic diseases ; Disabled persons ; Institutional care cognitive , 12 , 23 , 91 , 93 , 178 , 208 , 213 , 230 , 231-232 , 233 , 259 , 260 , 271 , 273 , 277 Funding health care services , 208 , 211 research harmonization , 5 , 278-279 G Gender factors , 25-26 see also Fertility health status and care , 220 , 223 , 228 labor force participation , 69 , 71-77 , 78 , 88 life expectancy , 48-55 (passim) living arrangements of elderly persons , 188 mortality rates , 52 , 53 , 54 , 55-56 , 241-243 pensions , 80 , 82 , 88 , 91 , 92 old-age mortality , 52 , 54 , 55-56 oldest old , 47 , 50 population by age and sex, chart , 46 retirement , 91 , 92 ; see also “pensions” supra well-being , 26 German Income and Expenditure Survey (EVS) , 123-124 , 130-131 German Socio-Economic Panel , 124 Germany , 43 , 55 , 94 health care , 210 labor force participation , 69-76 (passim) , 85 living arrangements of elderly persons , 188 pensions , 78-82 (passim) , 84 , 85 , 86 , 87 , 146 , 147 , 148 wealth , 113 , 123-124 , 129 , 130-131 , 135-140 (passim) , 146 , 147 Graduated minimum data set , 215-216 , 220 Greece , 32 , 48 Gross national product (GNP) , 254-256 , 257 , 258 , 273 life expectancy , 18 H Handicapped persons , see Disabled persons Harmonization , see Standards Head-count ratios , 40-41 Health and Retirement Survey (HRS) , 7 , 86 , 93-94 , 113-120 (passim) , 127(n.6) , 149 , 150 , 191 , 216 , 281 Health status and health care , 1 , 5 , 16 , 23 , 27-28 , 200-244 , 256 , 258 , 276 see also Disabled persons ; Diseases and disorders ; Functional health status ; Life expectancy ; Medical care ; Mental health ; Morbidity ; Mortality ; Well-being

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Page 300 committee methodology , 3 community supports , 204 , 207-208 , 211 , 213 , 217 contraception , 16 cost of health care , 2 , 17 , 155 , 158-159 , 166 , 168-169 , 181 , 200 , 201 , 203 , 208 , 210 , 217 , 220 cultural factors , 204 , 211 , 217 , 220 defined , 225-226 , 230 , 252 educational attainment and , 203 , 205 , 222 education of public , 207 elderly, definition of , 30 employment and, general , 24-25 , 201-202 , 204 , 205 , 222-223 , 224 family factors , 203 , 220 , 221 ; see also “care of...” under Family factors funding , 208 , 211 ; see also Medicaid ; Medicare gender factors , 220 , 223 , 228 home care , 158 , 175 , 181 , 211 , 213 , 220 , 232 income security , 102 institutional care , 42 , 121 , 181 , 209 , 210 , 218-219 intergenerational transfers , 13 , 17 , 155 , 158-159 , 166 , 168-169 longitudinal research, general , 4 , 206-207 , 214 , 220-221 , 224 nutrition , 47 , 202 , 203 , 205 , 207 , 224 , 250 , 271 oldest old , 37 pain and pain management , 225 , 253 , 265 , 266 , 267 , 269 , 273 preventive care , 12 , 201 , 202 , 203 , 207-208 , 209 , 210 , 213 , 220 , 227 , 228 , 230 , 231 , 238 , 240 , 244 professional training , 201 , 202 public health services , 1 , 47 , 202 , 205 , 207 , 208 , 209 , 211 , 250 retirement , 9 , 67 , 69 , 77 , 86 , 91 , 93 , 94-95 , 98 , 203 self-care , 209 , 211 , 212 , 213 , 220 , 231 , 232 , 233 , 237 self-rated health status , 129 , 206 , 207 , 225 , 229-230 , 232 , 253 , 260 , 261-262 , 263 , 265 , 266 , 273 social factors, general , 200 , 201 , 203 , 204 , 206 , 212 , 220 , 221 , 224 socioeconomic status , 26 , 110-111 , 203 , 208 , 220 , 221-225 standards , 207 , 213 , 215-216 technology , 201 , 202 , 208 wealth and income security , 10 , 110-111 , 128 , 129 , 203 Heart disease , see Cardiovascular disease Historical perspectives , ix , 1 , 15-16 , 18 , 30 capital gains and savings , 110 employer-provided pensions , 102 employment , 66 fertility , 15-16 , 30 , 39 , 44-45 life expectancy , 47 , 48 , 49 , 52 , 53 , 55 , 56 , 205-206 , 250 living standards , 102 OECD labor force , 8 oldest old , 59 pensions/retirement income , 66 , 102 savings , 102 , 110 , 116 speed of population aging , 38-39 wealth , 114-116 , 123 Home health care , 158 , 175 , 181 , 211 , 213 , 218 , 220 , 232 self-care , 209 , 211 , 212 , 213 , 220 , 231 , 232 , 233 , 237 Housing , 155 , 158 , 202 , 203 , 205 , 256-257 coresidence of elderly and children , 19 , 166 , 174 , 177 , 180 , 183 , 184 institutional care , 42 , 121 , 181 , 209 , 210 , 218-219 living arrangements of elderly persons , 180 , 188 , 212 , 253 wealth, home ownership as , 111-112 , 121 , 128 , 131 , 132 , 140-141 , 142 , 158 , 175 HRS , see Health and Retirement Survey Hungary , 38 , 48 I Immigration and emigration , 15 , 44-45 Income , 16 , 23 , 91 , 98 , 102-151 (passim) see also Pensions ; Socioeconomic status consumption and , 105 health status , 222 intergenerational transfers , 166 , 178 multidisciplinary approaches , 3 replacement income , 19 , 78 , 80 , 81 , 85 , 104 , 142 , 146 , 148 well-being , 253 , 254-256 , 258 , 260-261 , 264 Income Panel Survey (IPS) , 129 , 130

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Page 301 India , 55 Indonesia , 71-76 (passim) , 190 Inheritance , see Bequests Institutional care , 121 , 181 , 209 , 210 , 218-219 elderly support ratios , 42 Institutional factors , 5-7 elderly, definition of , 30 health care , 217 , 219 Insurance , 140 see also Social security systems disability , 9 health, general , 103 , 171 , 200 , 211 , 220 life insurance , 121-122 , 131 Medicaid and Medicare , 15 , 155 , 169 , 216 unemployment , 9 , 86 , 94-95 , 97 Interdisciplinary approaches , see Multidisciplinary approaches Intergenerational relations and transfers , 3 , 4 , 11-12 , 17 , 24 , 27 , 155-199 , 276 see also Family factors ; Pensions bequests , 103 , 106-107 , 108 , 115 , 155 , 156 , 158 , 166 tax on , 131 , 156-157 , 158 , 160 consumption and , 106-107 , 108 , 161-162 , 163 , 166 , 169-170 , 189 cultural factors , 12-13 , 157 , 159 , 174 defined , 171-172 developing countries , 164 , 165 , 190 , 193 educational attainment and , 165 , 192 fertility and , 156 , 162-163 , 165 , 183 , 184 , 189-190 health status and care , 13 , 17 , 155 , 158-159 , 166 , 168-169 human capital investment and , 159 , 165 , 178 , 190 ; see also “educational attainment” supra income and , 166 , 178 macromodels , 11 , 27 , 157 , 158 , 181 , 182 , 183 , 189-190 marital status , 176 , 181 , 183-184 micromodels , 11 , 27 , 157-158 , 181 , 182-183 , 189 , 190-191 mortality rate , 165 , 183 , 189 panel studies , 179-180 , 190-191 policy evaluation studies , 158-159 population dynamics, general , 161-162 , 165 research methodology , 160-166 , 171-193 savings and , 11 , 103 , 106-107 , 156 , 158-159 , 159-160 , 169 , 171 , 189 , 190 social factors, general , 12 , 171 taxation , 131 , 160 , 168 , 192 time transfers , 2 , 16 , 24 , 158 , 166 , 172 , 175 , 178-179 International Center for Health and Society , 224 International Classification of Diseases and Conditions , 227-228 International Data Base , 31(n.2) Interuniversity Consortium for Political and Social Research , 214 Ireland , 210 Italy , 48 , 55 , 184 health care , 210 labor force participation , 69 , 85 pensions , 78-82 (passim) , 84 , 85 , 87 , 146 population projections , 31-32 wealth , 113 , 123-133 , 136 , 137 , 138 , 139 , 141 , 144 , 146 J Jamaica , 38 Japan , 15 aging index , 40 elderly support ratios , 42 , 43 employment rates by age and pension age , 69 fertility , 44-45 health care , 210 intergenerational transfers , 155 labor force participation , 69-76 (passim) , 85 life expectancy , 47 , 48 , 49 , 52 , 55 old-age mortality , 52 pensions , 78 , 79 , 81 , 84-88 (passim) , 94 , 146 population projections , 32 , 33 , 36 , 37-38 wealth , 104 , 113 , 125-126 , 127 , 128 , 131 , 135-139 (passim) , 145 , 146 , 149-150 K Kenya , 55 Kin networks , 172-176 , 179 , 180-184 (passim)

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Page 302 L Labor force participation , 3 , 6 , 8 , 9 , 19 , 23 , 40 , 42 , 66 , 67 , 68-77 , 83 , 95-96 , 202 see also Retirement gender factors , 69 , 71-77 , 78 , 88 Latin America/Caribbean see also specific countries emigration , 44 fertility , 45 labor force participation , 70 , 72 , 74 life expectancy , 48 , 49 old-age mortality , 54 , 57 pensions , 87 population projections , 32 , 33 well-being , 255-256 Legal issues see also Privacy and confidentiality age discrimination laws , 96 Life-cycle model , 106 , 107-108 , 134 , 169-170 , 189 Life expectancy , 16 , 18 , 30 , 42 , 47-57 , 250 , 251 chronic diseases and , 56 , 206 developing countries , 48 , 49 , 53-55 disabled persons , 55 economic factors , 18 , 47 , 51 family factors , 47 gender factors , 48-55 (passim) historical perspectives , 47 , 48 , 49 , 52 , 53 , 55 , 56 , 205-206 , 250 medical care and , 2 , 18 , 47 , 59-60 oldest old , 53 , 59 political factors , 47 research methodology , 50-52 social factors, general , 47 socioeconomic status , 47 , 51 Longitudinal research , 4 , 150-151 , 278 , 283 see also Cohort studies Asset and Health Dynamics Among the Oldest Old Survey (AHEAD) , 113-116 (passim) , 119-120 , 191 cost studies , 4 , 19-20 Health and Retirement Survey (HRS) , 7 , 86 , 93-94 , 113-120 (passim) , 127(n.6) , 149 , 150 , 191 , 216 , 281 health status and care, general , 4 , 206-207 , 214 , 220-221 , 224 National Survey of Family Income and Expenditure (NSFIE) , 125 , 131 , 135(n.7) National Surveys of Families and Households , 184 retirement , 4 , 91 Survey of Consumer Finances (SCF)1 , 113-118 (passim) , 129 Survey of Household Income and Wealth , 122-123 , 130 Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) , 113-117 (passim) Lung cancer , 55 Luxembourg , 210 M Macroeconomic factors , 6 , 11 , 23 , 27 , 30 , 68 , 96 , 157 , 280 Macromodels , 16-17 health system , 209 intergenerational transfers , 11 , 27 , 157 , 158 , 181 , 182 , 183 , 189-190 Malaysia , 190 Males , see Gender factors Marital status , 77 , 82 , 88 , 91 , 223 age at marriage , 159 intergenerational transfers , 176 , 181 , 183-184 well-being , 268 Median age , 39-40 mortality , 56 Medicaid , 15 , 155 Medical care , 204-205 , 206 , 250 alternative , 13 , 209 , 220 cost of , 2 , 17 , 155 , 158-159 , 166 , 168-169 , 181 , 200 , 201 , 203 , 208 , 210 , 217 , 220 funding , 208 , 211 ; see also Medicaid ; Medicare home health care , 158 , 175 , 181 , 211 , 213 , 218 , 220 , 232 institutional care , 42 , 121 , 181 , 209 , 210 , 218-219 life expectancy and , 2 , 18 , 47 , 59-60 oldest old , 37 professional education , 201 , 202 self-care , 209 , 211 , 212 , 213 , 220 , 231 , 232 , 233 , 237 socioeconomic status , 26 , 110-111 technology , 201 , 202 , 208 utilization intensity , 207 , 209 , 211-212 , 220 , 221

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Page 303 Medicare , 15 , 155 , 169 , 216 Men , see Gender factors Mental health and illness , 28 , 206 , 207 , 220 , 223 , 224 , 243-244 , 253 , 258 , 260 , 261 , 262 , 265-267 , 268 , 270 see also Well-being bereavement , 14 , 264 , 271 , 272 cognitive impairments , 12 , 23 , 91 , 93 , 178 , 208 , 213 , 230 , 231-232 , 233 , 259 , 260 , 271 , 273 , 277 depression , 21 , 206 , 225 , 243 , 244 emotional support by kin , 156 , 171 , 176 , 179 , 181 , 182 hedonic adaptation , 253-256 , 260 institutional care , 218 moods , 14 , 28 , 206 , 253 , 254 , 260 , 261 , 265 ; see also “depression” supra resilience , 263-264 , 271-272 Methodology , see Research methodology Metrics of aging , 37-40 Mexico elderly support ratios , 43 labor force participation , 71 , 72 , 73 , 75 , 76 life expectancy , 55 Micromodels , 16-17 , 25 , 93 , 112 , 278 see also Panel studies intergenerational transfers , 11 , 27 , 157-158 , 181 , 182-183 , 189 , 190-191 longitudinal , 4 wealth , 113-131 , 150-151 Migration , see Immigration and emigration Minority groups , see Race/ethnicity Moods , 14 , 28 , 206 , 253 , 254 , 260 , 261 , 265 depression , 21 , 206 , 225 , 243 , 244 Morbidity , 24 , 26 , 207 , 209 , 261 , 270 see also Disabled persons ; Diseases and disorders ; Functional health status comorbidity , 212 , 216 , 227 , 228 , 264 , 270 data systems , 212 , 214 , 225 , 226-229 , 233 , 252 defined , 226-229 functional status vs morbidity data , 233 social inequalities , 111 , 221 Monte Carlo methods , 182 , 183 Mortality , 41 , 47 , 57 , 58-60 , 205-206 , 214 , 219 see also Life expectancy cohort studies , 58-59 demographic transition , 41-42 , 44 , 47 extended family , 156 gender factors , 52 , 53 , 54 , 55-56 , 241-243 intergenerational transfers and morality rate , 165 , 183 , 189 median age , 56 old-age , 52-57 oldest old, population projections , 35 , 36 research methodology , 5 , 58-59 , 237-243 , 279 socioeconomic status , 111 , 221 , 238 Multidisciplinary approaches , 3-4 , 16 , 22 , 24-25 , 276-277 , 282 , 283 Multinational Monitoring of Trends and Determinants in Cardiovascular Disease , 238 N National Institute on Aging , 2 , 22 , 31(n.2) National Survey of Family Income and Expenditure (NSFIE) , 125 , 131 , 135(n.7) National Surveys of Families and Households , 184 Netherlands employer-provided/private pensions , 9 , 87-90 (passim) , 94 , 109 employment rates by age and pension age , 69 health care , 210 public pensions , 78 , 80 , 82 , 84 , 85 , 86 , 89 , 146 , 147 , 148 unemployment/disability insurance , 94 wealth , 113 , 121-122 , 119 , 121-122 , 127 , 128 , 129-130 , 135 , 136-143 (passim) , 146 , 147 , 151 New Zealand health status and care , 210 , 228 labor force participation , 69-78 (passim) pensions , 78 , 79 , 81 , 82 , 87 North Africa , 32 , 34 North America labor force participation , 70 population projections , 32 , 33 , 34 see also Canada ; United States of America Norway , 48 , 210 Nutrition , 47 , 202 , 203 , 205 , 207 , 224 , 250 , 271

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Page 304 O Oceania , 32 , 33 , 34 Oldest old , 2 , 26 , 30 , 31 , 35-37 , 47 , 50 , 53 , 57 , 58 , 59 , 181 , 202 , 213 , 238 , 240 , 241 , 263 Asset and Health Dynamics Among the Oldest Old Survey (AHEAD) , 113-116 (passim) , 119-120 , 191 , 234 developing countries , 35 disabled , 37 gender factors , 47 , 50 life expectancy , 53 , 59 mortality , 35 , 36 Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD) , 8 , 78 , 82 , 87 , 135 , 140 , 148 , 220 see also member countries Overlapping generations model , 160-161 P Pain and pain management , 225 , 253 , 265 , 266 , 267 , 269 , 273 Pakistan , 71 , 72 , 73 , 75 , 76 Panel studies , 4 , 278 cost factors , 19-20 intergenerational transfers , 179-180 , 190-191 wealth , 113-120 , 121-122 , 127-131 , 151 Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) , 107 , 113 , 114 , 115 , 118 , 119 , 129 , 134 , 191 Pensions , 27 , 66 , 77-91 (passim) , 112 see also Retirement age at , 69 caregivers , 158-159 developing countries , 9 , 87 disability , 9 , 67 , 69 , 77 , 86 , 91 , 94-95 , 97 , 203 elderly support ratios , 42 employer-provided/private , 9 , 15 , 67 , 86-91 , 92 , 94-95 , 97 , 109 , 119 , 128 , 131 , 142 , 147 , 149-150 gender factors , 80 , 82 , 88 , 91 , 92 health care and , 200 historical perspectives , 66 , 102 immigration and , 15 indexation , 78 , 79 , 82-83 median age and , 40 public , 6 , 8-9 , 17 , 66-69 (passim) , 78-86 , 92 , 93-94 , 95 , 96 , 97 , 103 , 109 , 119 , 142 , 147 , 149-150 , 156 , 157 , 171 , 278 costs , 19 , 155 taxation and , 6 , 68 , 84 , 85 , 93 , 97 , 148 replacement income , 19 , 78 , 80 , 81 , 85 , 104 , 142 , 146 , 148 research methodology , 66 , 67 , 93-96 Peru , 55 Philippines , 74 Poland , 38 Policy evaluation studies , 20-21 , 279-281 , 282 elderly support ratios , 42 intergenerational transfers , 158-159 oldest old , 37 retirement , 68 speed of population aging , 39 Political factors health care , 200 , 201 , 208 , 213-214 income security and health insurance , 103 life expectancy , 47 Population dynamics , ix , 1 , 15 , 22 , 23 , 31-57 , 202 , 276 see also Fertility ; Mortality intergenerational transfers and , 161-162 , 165 oldest old , 35-37 Portugal , 210 Preventive health care , 12 , 201 , 202 , 203 , 207-208 , 209 , 210 , 213 , 220 , 227 , 228 , 230 , 231 , 238 , 240 , 244 Privacy and confidentiality , 8 , 23 , 25 , 192 , 217 public in-home services , 158 Professional education, medical, 201 , 202 PSID , see Panel Study of Income Dynamics Psychological factors , see Mental health and illness ; Well-being Psychometrics , 117 , 119-120 Public education cost of childrearing , 166 , 170 , 177 health , 207 Public health services , 1 , 47 , 202 , 205 , 207 , 208 , 209 , 211 , 250 Q Quality of life , see Well-being

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Page 305 R Race/ethnicity , 185-186 , 220 Recent Social Trends , 251 Replacement income , 19 , 78 , 80 , 81 , 85 , 104 , 142 , 146 , 148 Research methodology , 18-21 , 276-287 see also Databases ; Longitudinal research ; Macromodels ; Micromodels ; Panel studies ; Sampling ; Standards access to data , 281-282 aging index , 40 committee study at hand , 2-3 , 22-28 computer-assisted interviewing , 115 , 151 , 174(n.7) consumption surveys , 105 controlled studies , 20 , 129-131 , 280 cross-sectional studies demographic projections, general , 57-58 employment , 66 , 77 functional status , 232-235 harmonization, funding , 5 , 278-279 head-count ratios , 40-41 health status and care , 204-244 intergenerational transfers , 160-166 , 171-193 kin networks , 172-176 , 179 , 181-188 (passim) life-cycle model , 106 , 107-108 , 134 , 169-170 , 189 life expectancy , 50-52 Monte Carlo methods , 182 , 183 mortality , 5 , 58-59 , 237-243 , 279 multidisciplinary approaches , 3-4 , 16 , 22 , 24-25 , 276-277 , 282 , 283 oldest old , 59 overlapping generations model , 160-161 pensions , 66 , 67 , 93-96 physiological/pathological measures , 235-237 policy evaluation studies , 20-21 psychometrics , 117 , 119-120 retirement , 4 , 66-67 , 68 , 77 , 91-98 wealth , 5 , 112-131 , 135 , 149-151 well-being , 252-270 , 272-273 Resilience , 263-264 , 271-272 Retirement , 3 , 8-9 , 16 , 23 , 27 , 66-98 (passim) , 103 , 160 , 250 , 276 see also Pensions age at , 9 , 15 , 78 , 84 cultural factors , 97 early vs normal , 6 , 67 , 68 , 69 , 70 , 83 , 85 , 86 , 91 , 96 , 102 , 112 , 155 , 160 age of offspring at parental retirement , 159 consumption following , 105-110 (passim) costs , 95 , 103 , 160 disability , 9 , 67 , 69 , 77 , 86 , 91 , 94-95 , 97 , 203 family factors , 77 , 93 , 159 gender factors , 91 , 92 health status, general , 9 , 67 , 69 , 77 , 86 , 91 , 93 , 94-95 , 98 , 203 historical perspectives , 66 , 102 incentives , 67 , 68 , 77 , 83-86 , 91 , 93 , 95 research methodology , 4 , 66-67 , 68 , 77 , 91-98 savings and , 95 , 103 , 142 social factors, general , 66 , 91 , 93 , 97 wealth , 66 , 91 , 93 , 97 , 112 well-being , 13-14 , 250 , 271 , 272 , 273 worker-to-retiree ratios , 1 , 16 , 103 Russia , 55 S Sampling , 4 cost factors , 20 kin networks , 174 wealth , 117 , 127 , 128 Savings , 2 , 10 , 23 , 26 , 27 , 116 , 118 , 121 , 125 , 129 , 131-132 , 140 , 142 , 146-147 aggregate rates , 104-106 , 130 capital gains and , 110 caregivers , 158-159 consumption surveys , 105 health services and , 201 historical perspectives , 102 , 110 , 116 human capital investment and , 159 intergenerational transfers , 11 , 103 , 106-107 , 156 , 158-160 , 169 , 171 , 189 , 190 retirement , 95 , 103 , 142 social security systems , 119 , 169 , 170 tax-preferred , 111 well-being , 257 SCF , see Survey of Consumer Finances Self-care , 209 , 211 , 212 , 213 , 220 , 231 , 232 , 233 , 237 see also Home care

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Page 306 Self-employment , 77 , 121 , 125 , 126 Self-esteem , 223 , 260 , 262 , 263 , 269 Self-rated well-being, including health status , 129 , 206 , 207 , 225 , 229-230 , 232 , 253 , 255 , 257 , 259-262 , 263 , 265 , 266 , 270-271 , 272-273 Sex differences , see Gender factors Siblings , 159 , 174 , 175-176 Singapore , 38 , 54 , 87 SIPP , see Survey of Income and Program Participation Social factors , 5 , 6 , 8 , 17 , 21 , 25 , 280 see also Community supports ; Cultural factors ; Family factors ; Political factors bereavement , 14 , 264 , 271 , 272 disabilities , 230-231 , 232 health status and care , 200 , 201 , 203 , 204 , 206 , 212 , 220 , 221 , 224 intergenerational transfer systems , 12 , 171 life expectancy , 47 median age , 39-40 retirement , 66 , 91 , 93 , 97 well-being , 251 , 252 , 253 , 260 , 267-268 , 276 Social security systems , 9 , 11 , 15 , 19 , 39 , 52 , 66 , 69 , 78 , 94 , 168 , 169 , 170 , 171 Medicare and Medicaid , 15 , 155 , 169 , 216 savings and , 119 , 169 , 170 taxes , 97 wealth , 119 , 147 , 148 , 149 , 150 welfare , 66 , 77 , 86 , 149 Socio-Economic Panel (SEP) , 113 , 121-122 , 129-130 Socioeconomic status , 2 , 3-4 , 6 , 15 , 17 , 26 , 30 , 147 , 192-193 see also Income ; Wealth health status and care , 26 , 110-111 , 203 , 208 , 220 , 221-225 inequalities , 103 , 118 , 132 , 137-139 , 147-148 , 221 life expectancy , 47 , 51 longitudinal research , 4 medical care and , 26 , 110-111 morbidity rates and , 111 , 221 mortality , 111 , 221 , 238 well-being , 251 , 253 , 254-256 , 257 , 258 , 273 Soll und Haben Survey , 124 South Africa , 43 South Korea , 43 , 45 labor force participation , 71-76 (passim) Spain , 38 , 48 , 84 , 85 , 210 Sri Lanka , 38 Standards , 3 , 8 , 21 , 279-280 , 282 see also Definitional issues activities of daily living , 21 , 272 disease research , 5 , 219-220 fertility research , 5 , 279 funding to develop , 5 , 278-279 health status and care , 207 , 213 , 215-216 living standards , 10 , 102 , 262 public transfers , 157 research harmonization, funding , 5 , 278-279 transfer systems , 13 , 157 wealth research , 5 , 116-117 , 135 well-being , 273 ; see also “living standards” supra Statistics Netherlands , 121 , 129-130 Stock market , 10 , 13 , 24 , 112 , 115 , 118 , 121 , 124 , 129 , 131 , 139 , 156 capital gains , 110 , 118(n.3) , 123 Sub-Saharan Africa see also specific countries AIDS , 15 , 49-50 life expectancy , 49 population projections , 32 , 33 , 34 Survey of Consumer Finances (SCF) , 113-118 (passim) , 129 Survey of Household Income and Wealth , 122-123 , 130 Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) , 113-117 (passim) Sweden , 32 , 38 , 48 , 53 , 55 health care , 210 labor force participation , 69-76 (passim) , 85 pensions , 84 , 85 , 86 , 146 , 147 , 148 , 149 wealth , 135 , 136 , 137 , 146 , 147 Switzerland, pensions , 87 T Taiwan , 43 , 54 , 56 , 57 , 175-176 , 190 , 191 Taxation , 155 elderly support ratios , 42 family care of elderly , 19 health care costs , 168

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Page 307 implicit tax on continuing work , 6 , 68 , 93 , 201 intergenerational transfers, general , 131 , 160 , 168 , 192 median age and , 39-40 public pensions , 6 , 68 , 84 , 85 , 93 , 97 , 148 savings, tax-preferred , 111 wealth , 131 Thailand , 38 , 45 , 55 , 74 Time transfers, intergenerational , 2 , 16 , 24 , 158 , 166 , 172 , 175 , 178-179 Time-use data , 269-270 Toward a Social Report , 251 Transfer systems , see Intergenerational relations and transfers ; Pensions ; Social security systems ; Welfare Transportation , 13 , 93 , 175 , 202 , 207 , 224 Tunisia , 38 Turkey , 55 , 210 U United Kingdom elderly support ratios , 43 employer-provided/private pensions , 9 , 86 , 87 , 88 , 89-90 , 91 , 94 , 104 employment rates by age and pension age , 69 health status and care , 210 , 223 , 224-225 , 228 intergenerational transfer of wealth , 107 labor force participation , 69-77 (passim) , 85 life expectancy , 48 , 55 pensions , 78 , 79 , 80 , 83-91 (passim) , 94 , 104 , 147 , 148-149 social security, Medicare, and Medicaid , 15 speed of population aging , 38 wealth , 113 , 118(n.3) , 124-125 , 126-129 , 131 , 135 , 136 , 138 , 147-148 United Nations , ix , 23 , 44 , 58 , 59 , 214 U.S. Census Bureau , see Bureau of the Census United States of America capital gains , 110 employer-provided/private pensions , 9 , 86 , 87 , 88-90 , 94-95 , 109 employment rates by age and pension age , 69 health care , 210 immigration , 44 intergenerational transfers , 164 , 165 , 166-168 , 184-187 , 190-191 labor force participation , 69 , 71-76 (passim) , 85 life expectancy , 48 marital status , 181 mortality , 53 multidisciplinary approaches , 3 oldest old , 35-37 pensions , 9 , 78 , 79 , 80 , 84-90 (passim) , 94-95 , 103 , 109 , 146 , 147 , 179 savings , 103 , 110 , 134 speed of population aging , 38 wealth , 113 , 114-120 , 126-129 , 132-139 (passim) , 146 , 147-148 , 149 , 179 well-being , 251 , 267 Uruguay , 33 W Wealth , 10-11 , 13 , 23 , 26 , 27 , 102-151 , 171 see also Income ; Intergenerational relations and transfers ; Pensions ; Savings ; Socioeconomic status ; Stock market capital gains , 110 , 118(n.3) , 123 committee methodology , 24 consumption and , 110 , 118(n.3) , 123 controlled studies , 129-131 cross-sectional studies , 111 , 142 defined , 117 , 118-119 , 149-150 elderly support ratios , 42 flow of funds (FOF) , 13 , 26 , 28 , 116 , 118 , 123 , 125 , 126 , 129 , 156 health care , 168-169 Gross National Product (GNP) , 18 , 254-256 , 257 , 258 , 273 health status and , 10 , 110-111 , 128 , 129 , 203 historical perspectives , 114-116 , 123 home ownership , 111-112 , 121 , 128 , 131 , 132 , 140-141 , 142 , 158 , 175 inequalities , 103 , 118 , 132 , 137-139 , 147-148 , 221 micromodels , 113-131 , 150-151 multidisciplinary approaches , 3 panel studies , 113-120 , 121-122 , 127-131 , 151 psychometrics , 117 , 119-120 research , 5 , 112-131 , 135 , 149-151 standards , 5 , 116-117 , 135

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Page 308 retirement and , 66 , 91 , 93 , 97 , 112 sampling methodologies , 117 , 127 , 128 social security systems , 119 , 147 , 148 , 149 , 150 stock market , 10 , 13 , 24 , 112 , 115 , 118 , 121 , 124 , 129 , 131 , 139 , 156 capital gains , 110 , 118(n.3) , 123 taxation , 131 unfolding brackets , 116 , 117 , 120 , 127 , 128 Welfare , 66 , 77 , 86 , 149 see also Medicaid Well-being , 13-14 , 25 , 28 , 201 , 250-273 see also Health status and care ; Mental health and illness ; Privacy and confidentiality activities of daily living , 21 , 272 bereavement , 14 , 264 , 271 , 272 committee methodology , 3 community supports , 253 , 256-257 , 258 , 272 consumption and , 257 cultural factors , 262 defined , 13 , 258-259 , 262 economic factors , 251 , 253 , 254-256 , 257 , 258 , 273 employment and , 13-14 , 264-265 , 273 family factors , 156 , 158 , 258 , 264 , 268 gender factors , 26 income and , 253 , 254-256 , 258 , 260-261 , 264 living arrangements , 180 , 188 , 212 , 253 living standards , 10 , 102 , 262 marital status , 268 pain and pain management , 225 , 253 , 265 , 266 , 267 , 269 , 273 public programs vs family efforts , 157 , 158 resilience , 263-264 , 271-272 retirement , 13-14 , 250 , 271 , 272 , 273 savings , 257 self-esteem , 223 , 260 , 262 , 263 , 269 self-rated well-being, including health status , 129 , 206 , 207 , 225 , 229-230 , 232 , 253 , 255 , 257 , 259-262 , 263 , 265 , 266 , 270-271 , 272-273 social factors, general , 251 , 252 , 253 , 260 , 267-268 , 276 socioeconomic status , 251 , 253 , 254-256 , 257 , 258 , 273 standards , 273 ; see also “living standards” supra time-use data , 269-270 transportation , 13 , 93 , 202 , 207 , 224 Women , see Gender factors Work , see Employment issues ; Labor force participation World Assembly on Aging , ix World Bank , 148 World Health Organization , 21 , 54 , 224 , 227-228 , 230 , 240 , 252 World Population Prospects , 31(n.2) Z Zimbabwe , 55