The learner-centered lens encourages attention to preconceptions, and begins instruction with what students think and know.
The knowledge-centered lens focuses on what is to be taught, why it is taught, and what mastery looks like.
The assessment-centered lens emphasizes the need to provide frequent opportunities to make students’ thinking and learning visible as a guide for both the teacher and the student in learning and instruction.
The community-centered lens encourages a culture of questioning, respect, and risk taking.
These aspects of the classroom environment are illustrated in Figure 1-1 and are discussed below.