The learner-centered lens encourages attention to preconceptions, and begins instruction with what students think and know.
The knowledge-centered lens focuses on what is to be taught, why it is taught, and what mastery looks like.
The assessment-centered lens emphasizes the need to provide frequent opportunities to make students’ thinking and learning visible as a guide for both the teacher and the student in learning and instruction.
The community-centered lens encourages a culture of questioning, respect, and risk taking.
These aspects of the classroom environment are illustrated in Figure 1-1 and are discussed below.
The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
1 Introduction ."
How Students Learn: History, Mathematics, and Science in the Classroom . Washington, DC: The National Academies Press,
Please select a format:
As of 2013, the National Science Education Standards have been replaced by the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), available as a print book, free PDF download, and online with our OpenBook platform.
The NGSS offer a detailed description of the key scientific ideas and practices that all students should learn by the time they graduate from high school. The standards are based largely on the 2011 National Research Council report A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Core Ideas.