FIGURE 1-1 Perspectives on learning environments.

  • The learner-centered lens encourages attention to preconceptions, and begins instruction with what students think and know.

  • The knowledge-centered lens focuses on what is to be taught, why it is taught, and what mastery looks like.

  • The assessment-centered lens emphasizes the need to provide frequent opportunities to make students’ thinking and learning visible as a guide for both the teacher and the student in learning and instruction.

  • The community-centered lens encourages a culture of questioning, respect, and risk taking.

These aspects of the classroom environment are illustrated in Figure 1-1 and are discussed below.

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