this chapter. I benefited greatly from their generous support and valuable comments. Suzanne Wilson, in particular, provided me with timely and important criticism throughout the project. Greg Deegan and Bonnie Morosi also provided important help at an early stage in this work.

NOTES

1.  

Hall, 1883, p. vii.

2.  

Ibid, p. viii.

3.  

Wineburg, 2001.

4.  

Jonassen, 2000. Jonassen uses the word “mindtools” in relationship to computers and technological learning environments, seeing these as “intellectual partners with the learner in order to engage and facilitate critical thinking and higher learning.” The tools I discuss in this chapter, while not electronic, serve as supports to help students engage in historical thinking, and thus fit the spirit of Jonassen’s description.

5.  

Winks, 1969.

6.  

National Research Council, 1999, pp. 29-30; Levstik and Barton, 1997.

7.  

Collingwood, 1944.

8.  

Wineburg, 2001; Davis et al., 2001; Lowenthal, 1985; Shemilt, 1984.

9.  

McCullough, 2001; Ginzburg et al., 1980.

10.  

Lowenthal 1996, p. 116.

11.  

Initially, I gave these accounts to students without references to reinforce the need for attention to the content presented in the source. If no student asked for reference information, I provided it later. However, if a student requested this information, I gave that student the fully referenced handout shown in Box 4-1. When I taught this lesson recently, only 2 of 55 students asked about who had produced the accounts.

12.  

Bushman, 1992; Crosby, 1987; Russell, 1991; Sales, 1990; Schlereth, 1992.

13.  

Boorstin, 1990, p. 146.

14.  

National Research Council, 1999, p. 120.

15.  

Wineburg, 2001; Lee and Ashby, 2000; Leinhardt, 2000; Levstik, 2000; Barton, 1997; Seixas, 1994.

16.  

Wineburg, 2001.

17.  

Bruner, 1977.

18.  

Tharp and Gallimore, 1998, p. 20.

19.  

Wineburg, 2001.

20.  

Palinscar and Brown, 1984.

21.  

National Research Council, 1999, p. 55; Wineburg, 2001; Bain, 2000.

22.  

Cole, 1996.

23.  

Schwartz and Bransford, 1998.

24.  

Bushman, 1992; Crosby, 1987; Russell, 1991; Schlereth, 1992.

25.  

Irving, 1830.

26.  

Sales, 1990.

27.  

Stearns, 1998.



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