human learning and memory and problem solving; this research helped shape the “cognitive revolution” in psychology. An author of seven books and hundreds of articles and presentations, Bransford’s work focuses on the areas of cognition and technology. He served as cochair of the National Research Council (NRC) committee that authored How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School. He received a Ph.D. in cognitive psychology from the University of Minnesota.

Susan Carey is a professor of psychology at Harvard University. Carey’s research concerns the evolutionary and ontogenetic origins of human knowledge in a variety of domains, including number, lexical semantics, physical reasoning, and reasoning about intentional states. She studies conceptual change involving older children, and focuses on three domains of knowledge: number, intuitive biology, and intuitive physics. She received a Ph.D. from Harvard University.

Jennifer L. Cartier is an assistant professor in the Department of Instruction and Learning at the University of Pittsburgh. Her research interests include student learning in classrooms where modeling is a focus and teacher education—particularly the ways in which hands-on curriculum materials can be implemented to engage elementary school students in realistic scientific practices. She has published articles describing students’ reasoning in genetics in Science and Education and BioQUEST Notes and she has coauthored a book chapter describing the use of black-box activities to introduce students to aspects of scientific argumentation.

M. Suzanne Donovan (Study Director) is also director of the NRC’s Strategic Education Research Partnership (SERP) and coeditor of the project’s two reports, Strategic Education Research Partnership and Learning and Instruction: A SERP Research Agenda. At the NRC, she served as director of the previous study that produced How People Learn: Bridging Research and Practice, and she was coeditor for the NRC reports Minority Students in Special and Gifted Education and Eager to Learn: Educating Our Preschoolers. Previously, she was on the faculty of Columbia University. She has a Ph.D. in public policy from the University of California at Berkeley.

Kieran Egan is a professor in the Faculty of Education at Simon Fraser University in Burnaby, Canada. Dr. Egan was the 1991 winner of the Grawemeyer Award in Education for his analyses of children’s imaginations. His recent books include The Educated Mind: How Cognitive Tools Shape Our Understanding (University of Chicago Press) and Getting It Wrong from the Beginning: Our Progressivist Inheritance from Herbert Spencer, John Dewey, and Jean Piaget (Yale University Press).

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