sample exam question, and consistency between models, 557

Assessment systems DIAGNOSER, 513

Assessments. See also Self-assessment formative, 16–17, 193

preinstruction, 495

“reflective,” 412

Assumptions

substantive, 127

Atlas Farnese, 194, 196

Authority, 135

Award cards, 293

Awareness of how you are thinking, 135

B

Bain, Robert B., 23, 179–213, 591

Balzac, Honoré de, 236

Barry, Tr., 578

Barton, Keith, 45, 160

Beakers

a new approach to rational-number learning, 322–324

Bede, St., 58

Bell jar experiment, 484, 489

Benchmark lessons, 493–501, 512n

weighing in a vacuum, 480–483

Black box approaches, 519–520

“Blastoff!”, 298

Boorstin, Daniel, 198

Bradford, William, 84–88, 96, 108–111

Bransford, John D., 1–28, 217–256, 397–419, 569–592

Brendan, St., 71, 82–83, 128–164, 171

believing historical films when people in them behave as we would, 151

the deficit past, 154–155

explanation of words in the story, 132–133

finding out what kind of story it is, 150–164

grid for evidence on, 173–174

the question, 128

the shrinking past, 160–161

the story, 128–133

thinking from inside the story, 144–150

thinking from outside the story, 138–144

voyage of, 130–132

working things out for ourselves, 133–138

Bridging

from understanding magnetic action at a distance to understanding gravitational action at a distance, 508–510

“Bridging context,” 324, 359

Briefing sheets, 87, 91

and textbook claims and the nature of sources, 88–89

Building conceptual understanding, procedural fluency, and connected knowledge, 364–369

3-slot schema for graphing a line, 370–371

developmental model for learning functions, 365–366

level 0, 364, 367

level 1, 367–368

level 2, 368

level 3, 369

Building on children’s current understandings, 267–279, 359–364

administering and scoring the Number Knowledge Test, 271

mental counting line structure, 276

Number Knowledge Test, 268–269

understandings of 4-year-olds, 270–273

understandings of 5-year-olds, 273–274

understandings of 6-year-olds, 274–277

understandings of 7-year-olds, 277–278

understandings of 8-year-olds, 278–279

Building resourceful, self-regulating problem solvers, 371–373

an integrated understanding of functions, 372

C

Cambridge History Project, 177n

Canada

teaching history in, 151

“Candles” (unit), 456

Card games, 335–337



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