tices through to classroom applicability. This includes research on “scaling up” promising practices from research sites to widespread use.

In particular, the committee recommends:

  • Strengthening research on educational improvement, particularly in schools with large numbers of children from low-income families. There are some promising models, but efforts are needed to accumulate knowledge, testing the dimensions of effectiveness (for whom and under what circumstances), and to make the best of what is known systematically available to school districts and teachers.

  • Research on early interventions in general education settings.

  • Research on what works in special education offers some important principles, but too few well-tested interventions with a solid evaluation of the conditions under which they work and for whom. In particular, the research base with respect to English-language learners needs to be strengthened.

  • While there has been substantial progress on educational interventions for students who are having difficulty learning to read, little is currently known that can guide educational interventions for the non-responders to reading interventions. Research needs to attend now to this group of students.

  • For the education of gifted and talented students, we have given relatively little attention either in research or in program development of any sort. This research base needs to be strengthened substantially.

  • Features of cultural sensitivity that have an impact on learning outcomes for minority students have not been rigorously researched and evaluated in classroom settings. While a significant amount has been written about culturally appropriate accommodations, many of the recommendations have no empirical basis (such as matching learning styles) and should be avoided. Shoring up the empirical foundation for culturally sensitive teaching practice should be a research priority.

  • Development is needed of effective mechanisms for communication of research findings to practitioner, policy, and teacher educator communities.

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