Index

AAMR. See American Association on Mental Retardation

Abecedarian Project, 145, 148-150

Acceleration, 342-344

Accountability, 31-33, 310

Achievement, school social, cultural, and contextual issues influencing, 371-372

Acquired inability to read. See Alexia

Adaptive behavior dimension, 257-259

ADD. See Auditory Discrimination in Depth program

Alcohol exposure, during pregnancy, 102-104

Alexia

acquired, 250

neuroanatomical lesions implicated in, 250

Alternative approaches to assessment, 279-320

alternatives to traditional classification and placement, 291-311

early screening and intervention for behavior problems, 296-299

early screening and intervention in reading, 293-296

eligibility decisions and system reform, 303-310

first step to success, 299

gifted and talented identification, 310-311

Incredible Years Series for training parent, teacher, and child, 300

interventions and referral decisions, 299-303

Linking the Interests of Families and Teachers, 30

recommendations, 311-320

special education without IQ in Iowa, 304-305

the Texas Primary Reading Inventory, 294-295

universal assessment, 298

universal screening, prevention, and early intervention, 292-293

American Association on Mental Deficiency, 252

American Association on Mental Retardation (AAMR), 253-254, 258

Aptitude by ethnic group, comparison of classification as MR, LD, and ineligible using FSIQ and PIQ to estimate, 257



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Minority Students in Special and Gifted Education Index AAMR. See American Association on Mental Retardation Abecedarian Project, 145, 148-150 Acceleration, 342-344 Accountability, 31-33, 310 Achievement, school social, cultural, and contextual issues influencing, 371-372 Acquired inability to read. See Alexia Adaptive behavior dimension, 257-259 ADD. See Auditory Discrimination in Depth program Alcohol exposure, during pregnancy, 102-104 Alexia acquired, 250 neuroanatomical lesions implicated in, 250 Alternative approaches to assessment, 279-320 alternatives to traditional classification and placement, 291-311 early screening and intervention for behavior problems, 296-299 early screening and intervention in reading, 293-296 eligibility decisions and system reform, 303-310 first step to success, 299 gifted and talented identification, 310-311 Incredible Years Series for training parent, teacher, and child, 300 interventions and referral decisions, 299-303 Linking the Interests of Families and Teachers, 30 recommendations, 311-320 special education without IQ in Iowa, 304-305 the Texas Primary Reading Inventory, 294-295 universal assessment, 298 universal screening, prevention, and early intervention, 292-293 American Association on Mental Deficiency, 252 American Association on Mental Retardation (AAMR), 253-254, 258 Aptitude by ethnic group, comparison of classification as MR, LD, and ineligible using FSIQ and PIQ to estimate, 257

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Minority Students in Special and Gifted Education Assessment, 243-291, 305-306, 312-313, 363-364. See also Alternative approaches to assessment context, culture, and assessment, 279-291 cross-cultural psychological research on cognitive and intellectual ability, 280-282 disability assessment practices, 270-271 of emotional disturbance, 261-270 functional, and IEP relevance, 218 of gifted and talented, 271-278 of mental retardation, 251-261 psychometric views of culture and context, 282-291 research on test bias, 282-291 of specific learning disabilities, 243-251 Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, 59 Auditory Discrimination in Depth (ADD) program, 333-334 Authentic questions, 183 Autism, 60 Behavior, school social, cultural, and contextual issues influencing, 371-372 Behavior disorder (BD), 324, 327-328, 336-337, 340 perspectives on, 262-264 Behavior management, 367-369 recommendations, 316-318 teacher quality, 318 Behavior problem profiles, 109 Behavioral adjustment, universal assessment and multiple gating, 298 Behavioral development. See Cognitive and behavioral development Behavioral deviance, and reading skills, 201 Behavioral dimensions defining MR, 253-259 adaptive behavior, 257-259 comparison of classification as MR, LD, and ineligible using FSIQ and PIQ to estimate aptitude by ethnic group, 257 intellectual, 253-257 proportion of the population falling below certain IQ cutoffs and falling within certain IQ intervals, 254 “Behavioral earthquakes,” 229 Behavioral interventions in general education, 202-203 bullying prevention program, 202-203 through PATHS, 203 Benefits from special education intervention, 323-340 current classroom practice, 337-338 dropout rate among students with disability label by age, 341 evidence of effectiveness, 329-333 features of effective interventions, 324-328 minority students in special education, 338-340 number with disability label dropping out by age, 341 numbers of children who appear to benefit, 333-337 A Better Chance program, 351 Bias in referral and assessment, in terms of race or ethnicity, 5 Bias in the design and delivery of schooling, 181-188 cultural differences, 182-185 role of parents, 185-188 teacher judgments, expectations, and potential self-fulfilling prophecies, 181-182 Biological contributors to cognition and behavior, 97-117 contributors to early brain development, 98 exposure to alcohol during pregnancy, 102-104 exposure to lead, 111-117 Infant Health and Development Program, 103 low birthweight, 98-102 nutrition and development, 106-111 tobacco use and drug abuse, 104-106 Biological risk factors in early childhood, 11-13, 375-378 federal-level recommendations, 12-13 Biosocial developmental contextualism, 95 Biracial children, 38 Black students “acting white,” 185 in the category of emotional disturbance, 69, 88 in the category of gifted and talented, 71, 89 in the category of learning disabilities, 68, 87 in the category of mental retardation, 66, 86

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Minority Students in Special and Gifted Education Blood lead levels, prevalence of elevated, 113-114 Book awareness, 294 Bower, Eli, 25 Brain development, contributors to early, 98 Brain morphometry, 249 Brookline Early Education Project, 146, 149 Bully/Victim Questionnaire, 202 Bullying prevention program, 202-203 Bureau of Labor Statistics, 31, 339 Calculations, 42-43 composition index, 43 odds ratio, 43 risk index, 42-43 California Achievement Test, 111 Capacity of educational personnel, 30-31 CEI. See Critical Events Index Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 103, 112-113 Change in accountability, 31-33 challenge of, 207-209 in education policies, 31-33 in the MMR construct, 260-261 in participation rates in judgmental categories, 83 Chicago Child-Parent Center Program, 151 Child Behavior Checklist, 262, 269, 297 Child care quality, 126-128 Child development programs, 144-151 benefits varying with type and level of risk, 149-150 comprehensive service provision, 149 developmental timing, 145 direct provision of learning experiences, 148 effect of early intervention on special education placement, 150-151 intellectual performance of children in the Abecedarian Project during the preschool years, 148 longitudinal studies of, 146-147 planned curriculum, 149 program intensity, 145-147 sustained cognitive, social, and school achievement benefits, 150 Child find procedures, 40 Child poverty, 120 Child psychiatric disorder, 129, 264 CI. See Composition index Cigarettes, mothers who smoked during pregnancy, 106 Class size, 176-179 Classification decisions, 306-309 Classroom behavior, cultural differences and, 197-199 Classroom management, 199-204, 268 Cocaine exposure, 105-106 Cognitive and behavioral development, 93-140 biological contributors, 97-117 changing perspectives, 93-97 social and environmental influences, 118-140 Coleman Report, 179 Committee on Education Finance, 209, 372 Common Core of Data, 84, 380 Community-wide interventions, 206-207 Compacting, 345-346 Composition index (CI), 43, 57-59, 66-71, 86-89 Comprehension development, 193 Comprehensive School Reform Demonstration Program, 205 Comprehensive service provision, 149 Conceptual framework, 27-29 Context, 170-172, 279-291 cross-cultural psychological research on cognitive and intellectual ability, 280-282 psychometric views of culture and context, 282-291 research on test bias, 282-291 school delinquency rates in relation to expected level, 171 theories and definitions of, 173 Context of special and gifted education, 17-34 current education context, 30-33 intersection of general and specialized education, 21-27 Contextual model of student achievement, 29 Contributors to early brain development, 98 Cooperative learning, 349-350 Cost of reform, 383-385 Council of State Directors of Gifted Education, 272 Critical Events Index (CEI), 229-230 Cross-cultural psychological research, on cognitive and intellectual ability, 280-282

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Minority Students in Special and Gifted Education Cultural differences, 182-185, 279-291 and classroom behavior, 197-199 psychometric views of culture and context, 282-291 Current classroom practice, 337-338 Current context, 2-3 Current education context, 30-33 capacity of educational personnel, 30-31 changing education policies, 31-33 Current educational practices with ED students, 267-269 classroom management practices, 268 curricular content, 267-268 screening and assessment practices, 269-270 Current identification procedures, 250-251 Current referral and assessment process, reliably identifying special needs or giftedness, 5 Curricula, 199-204 Curricular content, 267-268 Curriculum models, 343-345 acceleration, 343-344 Integrated Curriculum Model, 345 school-wide enrichment model, 344 Triarchic Componential Model, 344-345 Cutoffs, IQ, proportion of the population falling below certain, 254 Data analysis controversial, 15 factors compromising, 41-42 Data collection (DC), 7, 83, 378-382 Data on state-to-state variability, 62-72 emotional disturbance, 69-70 gifted and talented category, 70-72 learning disabilities, 67-69 mental retardation, 65-67 Datasets, inadequacy of, 37-39 DC. See Data collection “Dead-end programs,” 288-289 Deaf-blindness, 60 Decontextualized intelligence, 279 Deficiencies, iron, among 1- to 2-year-old children by race and poverty status, 110 Denominators, 39 Depression, maternal, 125-126 Developmental delay, 6 Developmental disorders, 23 Developmental outcomes, for children by race, 98 Developmental timing, 145 Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th ed. (DSM-IV), 262 Dialogue, interactive, between teacher and student and among students, 326 Diana consent decree, 226, 255 Diet changes, national ranking of New York City public schools before and after, 112 “Difficult-to-teach” (DTT) students, 228 Diffusion tensor MRI imaging, 249 Dinosaur Social Skills and Problem-Solving Curriculum, 300 Direct Instruction, 205 Direct instruction and inquiry development, 346 Direct provision of learning experiences, 148 Disability, defining, 3, 32 Disability categories of concern, 36-39 assessment practices, 270-271 distribution of, 221 factors compromising interpretation of data, 41-42 gender breakdown by, 73 inadequacy of datasets, 37-39 legal classification requirements, 219-224 nonjudgmental, 54-61 state-to-state variations, 39-41 status, 38 Dropout rates, among students with disability label by age, 341 Drug abuse. See Tobacco use and drug abuse DSM-IV. See Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th ed. DTT. See “Difficult-to-teach” students Durrell Oral Reading Test, 206 Dyslexia, 246-250 developmental, 250 phonological model of, 247-248 Eager to Learn: Educating Our Preschoolers, 120, 164, 377 Early brain development, contributors to, 98 Early childhood (EC) risk factors, 7 biological, 11-13, 375-378 social, 11-13, 375-378 Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS), 125, 131, 190 Early Head Start, 160, 162, 164

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Minority Students in Special and Gifted Education Early home visitation programs, 142-143 Early intervention, effect on special education placement, 150-151 Early Intervention Program for Infants and Toddlers with Disabilities, 151, 158 Early intervention programs, 141-166, 365-367 child development programs, 144-151 Early Head Start, 162 existing federal early intervention programs, 151-162 federal spending on education and care of children under age 5, 152 Head Start, 159-162 household income and race/ethnicity for children receiving early intervention, 157 under IDEA, 151-159 parenting programs, 142-144 recommendations, 162-166 services for infants and toddlers, 151-158 services for preschoolers, 158-159 Early screening, 314-316 and intervention for behavior problems, 296-299 and intervention in reading, 293-296 EC. See Early childhood risk factors ECLS. See Early Childhood Longitudinal Study ED. See Emotional disturbance Educable mentally retarded (EMR) children, 22-23, 307-308 Education ability-appropriate, 23 current context, 30-33 Education of All Handicapped Children Act (EHA), 214-216, 244, 262, 310 Education personnel, 172-176 capacity of, 175-176 teacher quality, 172-175 Educational resources, 172-180 class size, 176-179 funding, 179-180 Effective interventions basic elements of reading and writing, 326 explicit instruction, 325-326 features of, 324-328 general and special education successful for students with LD, 324-32 interactive dialogue between teacher and student and among students, 326 motivation to learn, task difficulty, and task persistence, 327-328 procedural facilitators or strategies, 328 small-group instruction and pairs, 326-327 Effectiveness measures, 329-333 minority students with learning disabilities and behavior disorders, 329-330 special education settings versus the general education classroom, 330-333 EHA. See Education of All Handicapped Children Act Elementary and Secondary Education Act, Title I, 31, 33, 205 Eligibility decisions, 218-219, 236-237, 312, 361-371 accountability, 310 assessment, 305-306 classification decisions, 306-309 “determinant factor” restrictions, 217 gifted and talented eligibility, 369-371 problem-solving approach, 303-305 special education eligibility, 361-369 and system reform, 303-310 Embedded Phonics (EP) program, 333-334 Emotional disturbance (ED), 1, 36-37, 40, 42, 44, 48-51, 62, 64, 69-70, 72-74, 76, 82-83, 222, 232, 261-271, 284, 324-328, 336-337, 340 black students, 69, 88 current educational practices, 267-269 definitional dilemma, 25, 262-264 educating students with, 266-270 ethnicity and gender breakdown for, 73 Hispanic students, 70, 88 indices of placement by race/ethnicity, 50 and learning disabilities, 23 perspectives on, 262-264 by race/ethnicity, 52 reactive school practices in identifying, 266-267 recent surveys, 48-50 risk indices for, 52-53 students’ characteristics, 265-266 trends over time, 51-53 variation in state-level risk indices for, 64 EMR. See Educable mentally retarded children English as a Second Language programs, 195

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Minority Students in Special and Gifted Education English language learners, instruction for, 195-196 EP. See Embedded Phonics program Equality of Educational Opportunity, 179 Evaluation data needed, 235-236 “fairness” of, 217, 226, 289 full and individual, 215 initial, 234 procedures for, 234-235 Expectations, and potential self-fulfilling prophecies, 181-182 Explicit instruction, 325-326 Exposure to alcohol during pregnancy, 102-104 alcohol consumption after finding out about pregnancy, among expectant mothers in the United States, 104 Exposure to lead, 111-117 lead levels and measured behavior, 116 prevalence of elevated blood lead levels, 113-114 Fairness, of evaluation, 217, 226, 289 False negatives, 38, 225 False positives, 38 Family adversity, and reading skills, 201 Family and Child Experiences Survey, 161 FAS. See Fetal alcohol syndrome Federal data sets, 36-42 disability categories of concern, 36-39 Federal disability legal requirements, 213-215 Federal-level change recommendations, 7-8, 11-14, 211-212, 312-314, 354-356, 362-364, 375 assessment, 312-313, 363-364 eligibility, 312, 363 reporting and monitoring, 313-314, 364 Federal Office of Special Education Programs, 364 Federal support of education and care of children under age 5, 152 of state reform efforts, 9, 319, 369 Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), 102 “Flynn effect,” 27 Focus of instruction, 331-333 From Neurons to Neighborhoods: The Science of Early Childhood Development, 120 Full evaluation, 215 Full-scale IQ (FSIQ), 255-256 Functional assessment, and IEP relevance, 218 Functional imaging, 249 Funding, 179-180 idiosyncratic, 223 for reform, 383-385 Gardner, Howard, 278 Gating, multiple, 298 Gender comparisons, 72-76, 229 by disability, 73 for ED, 73 for MR, 74-75 Gender influence on referrals, 227-230 General education context, 169-212 bias in the design and delivery of schooling, 181-188 educational resources, 172-180 lessons from tested interventions, 188-204 recommendations, 209-212 successful for students with LD, 324-325 Genetic expression, 94 Gifted and talented (GT) eligibility, 7, 9, 369-371 IQ tests and, 290-291 recommendations, 319-320 Gifted and talented (GT) programs, 23-25 indices of placement in, by race/ethnicity, 53 Gifted and talented (GT) students, 70-72, 78-80, 196-197, 271-278, 340-354 benefits of gifted and talented assignment, 352-354 black students, 71, 89 data monitored by OCR, 51-54 grouping arrangements, 347-352 Hispanic students, 71, 89 identification of, 273-274, 310-311 odds ratios for, 54 percentage of students in gifted and nongifted programs who are assigned to algebra in grade 8, 353 percentage of students with specified grades and test scores by ethnicity for 8th grade gifted and talented students NELS 88 database, 353 percentages of 1st grade and 3rd grade cohorts in prospects study who scored at or above the 50th and 75th percentiles in reading and mathematics, 79

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Minority Students in Special and Gifted Education percentages of 4th grade students who scored within the proficient and advanced ranges on the reading, math, science, and writing tests of the NAEP, 79 recent surveys, 51, 53 referral and identification procedures, 274-276 research on curriculum models, 343-345 risk indices for, 54-55 screening and identification in underserved populations, 276-278 specific instructional practices, 345-347 trends over time, 51-55 variation in state-level risk indices for, 65 Giftedness, 38-39 incidence of among racial/ethnic groups, 4 Goals 2000: Educate America Act, 32 Graphophonemic knowledge, 294 Group size, 331 Grouping arrangements, 347-352 cooperative learning, 349-350 for minority and low-income students, 350-352 mixed results of within-class grouping, 347-349 GT. See Gifted and talented eligibility Guadalupe consent decree, 255 Head Start, 14, 128, 150, 159-162, 201, 351, 377 fiscal year 2000 data, 161 Head Start Impact Study, 160 Health Center Program, 112 Hearing impairment, 56 High Schools that Work, 205 Hispanic students in the category of emotional disturbance, 70, 88 in the category of gifted and talented, 71, 89 in the category of learning disabilities, 68, 88 in the category of mental retardation, 67, 87 History scores for 12th graders, average NAEP, by race/ethnicity and parent education level, 80 Home environment, parenting style and child development, 124 Household income and race/ethnicity, for children receiving early intervention, 157 Hyperactivity, 59 I Have a Dream program, 351 IDEA. See Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Identification of giftedness, 273-274 procedures for, 250-251 reactive school practices in, 266-267 IEP. See Individualized education program IHDP. See Infant Health and Development Program Immigrants, 21 Improving America’s Schools Act, 32 Improving and expanding the research base, 13-14, 378-383 data collection, 378-382 expanding the research base, 382-383 federal-level recommendations, 13-14 Improving mother-infant attachment, 143 Improving outcomes, 321-385 recommendations, 357-385 weighing the benefits of placement, 323-356 Inadequacy of datasets, 37-39 denominators, 39 disability status, 38 giftedness, 38-39 race/ethnicity, 37-38 Inauthentic questions, 183 Incidence, versus prevalence, 38 Income-to-needs ratios and child cognitive ability deep poverty and IQ scores, age 5, 121 deep poverty and math ability, 122 Incredible Years Series, parent, teacher, and child training, 300 Individual evaluation, 215 Individualized education program (IEP), 32, 186, 215-216, 219, 235, 302, 308, 313, 318, 339, 364, 366 functional assessment and relevance to, 218 Individualized evaluation, 215 Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), 2, 18-19, 36, 41, 44, 84, 151, 214-217, 219-220, 222, 226, 244, 279, 308-310, 314, 335, 337, 364-365, 379

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Minority Students in Special and Gifted Education additional team members, 238 amendments to, 31 criteria for determining the existence of a specific learning disability, 238 definition of a child with a disability, 240-242 determination of eligibility, 236-237 determination of needed evaluation data, 235-236 evaluation procedures, 234-235 initial evaluation, 234 interconnectedness of regulations, 219 observation, 239 procedures for evaluation and determination of eligibility, 234-239 reevaluation, 237 services for infants and toddlers, 151-158 services for preschoolers, 158-159 written report, 239 Infant competence, relation to competence and IQ scores at 4 years of age, 132 Infant Health and Development Program (IHDP), 103, 147, 149 Infants, receiving early intervention services, 154-155 Instruction, 199-204 for English language learners, 195-196 focus on, 331-333 interventions in, 204-206 Integrated Curriculum Model, 345, 351 Intellectual dimension of behavior, 253-257 Intelligence. See also IQ tests decontextualized, 279 “practical,” 281 Interactive dialogue, between teacher and student and among students, 326 Interpretation of data, factors compromising, 41-42 Interrelationship between general and specialized education, 21-27 emotional disturbance and learning disabilities, 23 gifted and talented programs, 23-25 mental retardation, 22-23 student characteristics and school services and settings, 26 Interventions behavioral, 202-203 explicit instruction, 325-326 instructional, 204-206 interactive dialogue between teacher and student and among students, 326 motivation to learn, task difficulty, and task persistence, 327-328 procedural facilitators or strategies, 328 in reading and writing, 326 and referral decisions, 299-303 small-group instruction and pairs, 326-327 for students with LD, 324-325 successful, 324-328 Iowa Problem Solving Rules, 304 IQ-based disability determinations LD classification criteria, 285 misuse and racism, 284-285 misuse of, 284-285 problems with, 283-285, 289 problems with abandoning, 287-290 treatment validity, 284 IQ cutoffs full-scale, 255-256 performance, 255-256 proportion of the population falling below certain, 254 IQ tests, 28, 41, 233, 275, 284-291, 313 and gifted and talented determination, 290-291 Iron deficiency, among 1- to 2-year-old children by race and poverty status, 110 Isle of Wight study, 200 Jacob K. Javits Gifted and Talented Students Education Act, 24-25, 311, 319, 351, 369 Juniper Gardens Children’s Project, 206 Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, 41 Kindergartners’ reading mean scale scores, by mother’s education, 138 Kirk, Samuel, 244 Labeling, 18 Language development, poverty and, 124-125 Larry P. decision, 72, 226, 233, 288-289 Lasting Benefits Study, 177-178 Lead, 11 exposure to, 111-117 levels of, and measured behavior, 114, 116 Learning Disabilities Act, 244

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Minority Students in Special and Gifted Education Learning disabilities (LD), 1-2, 36-38, 42- 44, 47-50, 59, 62-63, 67-69, 72, 76, 82-83, 222, 226-227, 243- 251, 256, 270-271, 284-287, 308, 324-326, 330, 337-338, 340 black students, 68, 87 classification criteria, 285 concept of, 244 current identification procedures, 250-251 domain-specific definitions, 245-246 Hispanic students, 68, 88 indices of placement for, 48 legal context, 244-245 “marker variables” for, 330 odds ratios for, 49 by race/ethnicity, 48-49 reading disability, 246-250 recent surveys, 47-48 risk indices for, 49-50 specific, 238, 243-251 trends over time, 47-50 variation in state-level risk indices for, 63 LEAs, 40, 240 Legal context, 213-224, 244-245 IDEA definitions of disabilities, 240-242 IDEA procedures for evaluation and determination of eligibility, 234-239 integration of PEDE with other IDEA regulations, 219 new regulations, 216-219 and the referral process, 213-242 Legal requirements for disability classification, 219-224 continuing, 215-216 disability classification policy, 222 distribution of disabilities by category, 221 federal, 213-215 state, discretionary, 223-224 Linking the Interests of Families and Teachers (LIFT), 301 Locke, John, 288 Longitudinal studies, of child development programs, 146-147 Longitudinal Study of American Youth, 178 Low birthweight infants, 98-102 percentage by detailed race and Hispanic origin, 101-102 Low-income students, grouping arrangements for, 350-352 Magnetoencephalography, 249 Marland Report, 24, 274 Maternal depression, 125-126 Mathematics skills, 188-190, 281-282 Matthew effects, 332 Medicaid, 112, 117 Medical models, of disability classification, 220-222 Mental retardation (MR), 19, 22-23, 36-37, 43-47, 63, 65-67, 74-76, 82-83, 251-261, 270-271 in Alabama, ethnicity and gender breakdown for, 75 behavioral dimensions defining, 253-259 black students, 66, 86 changes in the MMR construct, 260-261 ethnicity and gender breakdown for, 74-75 Hispanic students, 67, 87 indices of placement by race/ethnicity, 45 in New Jersey, ethnicity and gender breakdown for, 75 odds ratios for, 46 recent surveys, 44-45 risk indices for, 46-47 screening for, 233 special classification problem with, 220 trends over time, 45-47 variation in state-level risk indices for, 63 Mercer’s analysis influence of, 225-226 of the “normal” student, 224 Meta-analysis, of the effects of phonological awareness training, 334 Mild mental retardation (MMR), 1, 36-37, 222, 225, 227, 251-252, 255-258, 260, 284, 287-288, 324 Milwaukee Project, 149 Minority students, 76-81 gifted and talented, 78-80 grouping arrangements for, 350-352 with learning disabilities and behavior disorders, 329-330 overrepresentation of, 233, 254, 289 Minority students in special and gifted education, 35-89, 338-340 black students in the category of emotional disturbance, 88 black students in the category of gifted and talented, 89

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Minority Students in Special and Gifted Education black students in the category of learning disabilities, 87 black students in the category of mental retardation, 86 data on state-to-state variability, 62-72 explaining minority representation, 76-81 federal data sets, 36-42 gender comparisons, 72-76 gifted and talented data monitored by OCR, 51-54 Hispanic students in the category of emotional disturbance, 88 Hispanic students in the category of gifted and talented, 89 Hispanic students in the category of learning disability, 88 Hispanic students in the category of mental retardation, 87 nonjudgmental disability categories, 54-61 recommendations, 81-86 review of the data, 42-51 summary of national data on racial and ethnic representation, 61-62 Mislabeling, 18 Misuse of IQ-based disability determinations, 284-285 MMR. See Mild mental retardation Mnemonic strategies, training in, 347 Mobil Unit for Child Health, 149 Monitoring, 313-314, 364 Mothers who smoked cigarettes during pregnancy, according to mother’s detailed race, Hispanic origin, educational attainment, and age, 106 Motivation to learn, 327-328 MR. See Mental retardation MRI imaging, diffusion tensor, 249 Multiple disabilities, 60 Multiple domains, 216 Multiple gating, 298 Multiple Option Observation System for Experimental Studies, 269 Multiple risk factors, 128-140 adding and subtracting, 139 and child psychiatric disorder, 129 effects of SES on school readiness, 130-131 first-time kindergartners’ reading mean scale scores, by mother’s education, 138 frequency with which teachers say children exhibit antisocial behavior, 136-137 frequency with which teachers say children persist at a task, are eager to learn new things, and pay attention well, 134-135 multiplicity of risk factors and child psychiatric disorder, 129 print familiarity scores, 133 recognizing words by sight, 139 relation of infant competence to competence and IQ scores, 132 school readiness differences, 132-140 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), 77, 190-191, 272, 292 students scoring within the proficient and advanced ranges on the reading, math, science, and writing tests, 79 National Assessment of Title I, 174 National Association of State Directors of Special Education, 39 National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), 39, 84, 125, 130 Common Core of Data, 84, 380 National Center for Learning Disabilities, 324 National Early Intervention Longitudinal Study (NEILS), 153, 156, 158, 167 National Education Longitudinal Study (NELS), 179, 352 National Excellence, 24 National Institute for Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), 191, 285-286, 315, 319, 365, 369 National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 128 National Longitudinal Transition Study of Students in Special Education, 340 National Maternal and Infant Health Survey, 102 National Research Council (NRC), 1-2, 18-20, 36, 113, 120, 164, 191, 225, 261, 282, 305-306, 311, 359 Committee on Education Finance, 209, 372

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Minority Students in Special and Gifted Education National Teacher Examinations, 174 Native language considerations, 217 NCES. See National Center for Education Statistics Negatives, false, 38, 225 NEILS. See National Early Intervention Longitudinal Study NELS. See National Education Longitudinal Study Neurobiological studies, 249-250 Neurological damage, 99 New regulations, 216-219 determination of eligibility, 218-219 disproportionality and nondiscrimination, 217 functional assessment and IEP relevance, 218 NICHD. See National Institute for Child Health and Human Development Non-Western schooling, 280 Nondiscrimination, 217 Nonjudgmental disability categories, 54-61 autism, 60 deaf-blindness, 60 developmental delay, 6 hearing impairment, 56 multiple disabilities, 60 orthopedic impairment, 56 OSEP data by disability and ethnic group: composition index, risk index, and odds ratio, 57-59 speech and language impairments, 55-56 traumatic brain injury, 60 visual impairment, 56 NRC. See National Research Council Number Worlds, 189 Nutrition and development, 106-111 and behavior problem profiles, 109 iron deficiency by race and poverty status, 110 national ranking of New York City public schools before and after diet changes, 112 standard test score differences at 11 to 14 years old, 110 Observation, 239 Odds ratio (OR), 43-44, 46, 48-49, 51, 56-61 Office for Civil Rights (OCR), 2, 13, 19, 36-39, 42, 44-55, 69, 72-77, 81, 83-85, 198, 379-380 Office for Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP), 300 Office of Gifted and Talented, 24 Office of Management and Budget, Statistical Directive 15, 37 Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP), 13, 36-39, 42, 44-45, 47-50, 53-54, 57-59, 61, 81, 83-84, 222, 324, 379-380 data by disability and ethnic group, 57-59 OJJDP. See Office for Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Open Court, 194 Oppositional culture, 184 OR. See Odds ratio Orthopedic impairment, 56 OSEP. See Office of Special Education Programs Outcomes auditory discrimination in-depth, 334 embedded phonics, 335 improving, 321-385 Overrepresentation, of minority students, 233, 254, 289 Pairing, 326-327 Panel Study of Income Dynamics, 162 Paperwork Reduction Act, 84 Parent advocacy, 338-339 Parental referral, versus teacher, 230-232 Parenting interactions, 185-188 parenting style and child development, 124 Parenting programs, 142-144 with children ages 3 to 5, 143-144 from pregnancy through the first two years, 142-143 PATHS. See Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies Patient disability, versus mental retardation, 62 Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT) math scores, 119, 122 Peckham, Robert, 233, 288-289 PEDE. See Procedures for Evaluation and Determination of Eligibility Peer tutoring, 346-347 PEP. See Protection in Evaluation Procedures Provisions Percentage of children in auditory discrimination in-depth program, 336 in embedded phonics program, 336

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Minority Students in Special and Gifted Education Percentage of first-time kindergartners adding and subtracting, 139 by the frequency with which teachers say they exhibit antisocial behavior, 136-137 by the frequency with which teachers say they persist at a task, are eager to learn new things, and pay attention well, 134-135 by print familiarity scores, by child and family characteristics, 133 recognizing the words by sight, 139 Percentage of low-birthweight births, by detailed race and Hispanic origin, 101-102 Percentage of students in gifted and nongifted programs who are assigned to algebra in grade 8, 353 with specified grades and test scores by ethnicity for 8th grade gifted and talented students, 353 Percentages of 1st grade and 3rd grade cohorts in prospects study, who scored at or above the 50th and 75th percentiles in reading and mathematics, 79 Percentages of 4th grade students, who scored within the proficient and advanced ranges on the reading, math, science, and writing tests of the NAEP, 79 Performance, defining, 39 Performance IQ (PIQ), 255-256 Perry Preschool project, 150, 166 Persistent poverty, 122 Phenomenological Variant of Ecological Systems Theory, 173 Phonemic awareness, 294 Phonological awareness, 192 meta-analysis of the effects of training in, 334 Phonological deficit in adolescence and adult life, 248-249 Phonological model of dyslexia, 247-248 PIAT. See Peabody Individual Achievement Test math scores PIQ. See Performance IQ Placement in special education as a benefit or a risk, 5-6 for emotional disturbance by race/ethnicity, 50 in gifted and talented programs by race/ethnicity, 53 for learning disabilities by race/ethnicity, 48 for mental retardation by race/ethnicity, 45 outcome differences by race or ethnicity, 5-6 Placing Children in Special Education: A Strategy for Equity, 359 Planned curriculum, 149 Positives, false, 38 Poverty correlation with single-parent status, 122 and language development, 124-125 persistent, 122 Practical intelligence, 281 Pregnancy through the first two years, 142-143 early home visitation programs, 142-143 early influences on cognition and behavior, 91-166 early intervention programs, 141-166 improving mother-infant attachment, 143 influences on cognitive and behavioral development, 93-140 Prenatal and Infancy Home Visitation by Nurses, 166 Preschool children with disabilities, served under IDEA, by age and year, 159 Preschool Grants Program for Children with Disabilities, 158 President’s Task Force on Environmental Health Risks and Safety Risks to Children, 11, 117, 163, 376 Preventing Reading Difficulties in Young Children, 164, 377 Print awareness, 294 Problem-solving approach, to eligibility decisions, 303-305 Procedural facilitators, 328 Procedures for current identification, 250-251 for determining eligibility and placement, 237 for evaluation, 234-235 for finding disabled children, 40 for referral and identification, 274-276

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Minority Students in Special and Gifted Education Procedures for Evaluation and Determination of Eligibility (PEDE), 214-215, 239n integration with other IDEA regulations, 219 Program intensity, 145-147 Project CARE, 149 Project Student/Teacher Achievement Ratio (STAR), 175, 177-178, 208 Projective instruments, 271 Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies (PATHS), 203 Protection in Evaluation Procedures Provisions (PEP), 214-215 Psychiatric disorders, in children, 129, 264 Psychoeducational assessment, 226, 228 Psychometric views of culture and context, 282-291 IQ tests and gifted and talented determination, 290-291 problems with abandoning IQ-based disability determination, 287-290 problems with IQ-based disability determinations, 283-285 validity of LD discrepancies, 285-287 Psychometrics, 254 Public Law 94-142, 17, 23, 36 Puente project, 352 Race/ethnicity, 37-38 national versus Part C percentages, 156 of preschoolers receiving special education and of the general preschool population, 160 proper use of categories, 37 variability within, 37-38 Racism in IQ-based disability determinations, 284-285 in referrals, 227-230 Raven’s Progressive Matrices, 276-277 RD. See Research and development base Reactive school practices in identification, 266-267 Readiness testing, 310 Reading, 190-195 accuracy of, 294 basic elements of, 326 comprehension of, 295 fluency in, 192, 295 Reading disability, 246-250 neurobiological studies, 249-250 phonological deficit in adolescence and adult life, 248-249 the phonological model of dyslexia, 247-248 useful accommodations in, 249 Reading instruction components of effective, 192-193 comprehension and vocabulary development, 193 phonological awareness, 192 word study, 193 Reading Recovery, 194, 331, 334-335 Reading scores, average NAEP, by race/ethnicity and parent education level, 80 Reading skills, and family adversity and behavioral deviance, 201 Recommendations, 6-14, 81-86, 162-166, 209-212, 311-320, 354-385 behavior management, 316-318 biological and social risk factors in early childhood, 11-13, 375-378 changes in participation rates in judgmental categories, 83 cost of reform, 383-385 federal-level changes, 211-212, 312-314, 354-356 federal support of state reform efforts, 9, 319, 369 gifted and talented eligibility, 9, 319-320 improving and expanding the research base, 13-14, 378-383 referral and eligibility determination, 361-371 school context and student performance, 9-11 school social, cultural, and contextual issues influencing achievement and behavior, 371-372 special education eligibility, 7-9 state-level changes, 314-316, 372-375 teacher quality, 210-211, 372-375 vision for change, 359-361 Referral and identification procedures, 5, 274-276 Referral decisions, 361-371 gifted and talented eligibility, 369-371 interventions and, 299-303 special education eligibility, 361-369

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Minority Students in Special and Gifted Education Referral process, 224-234 influence of Mercer’s analysis, 225-226 race and gender influences on referrals, 227-230 referrals by classroom teachers, 226-227 referred and not referred students, 232-233 subjectivity of, 5 teacher versus parent referral, 230-232 “watch list,” 233 Reform, cost of, 383-385 Regulations. See also Legal requirements for disability classification interconnectedness of IDEA, 219 new, 216-219 Research and development (RD) base, 7 expanding, 382-383 Resolving Conflict Creatively Program, 201 Review of the data, 42-51 calculations, 42-43 emotional disturbance, 48-51 learning disabilities, 47-48 mental retardation, 44-47 Revised Behavior Problem Checklist, 262 Rightstart curriculum, 189-190 Risk index (RI), 42-44, 48-49, 51, 55-61, 65-71, 86-89 Riverside Desegregation Study, 233, 257 Rochester Adaptive Behavior Inventory, 130 SAGE. See Student Achievement Guarantee in Education program SCHOOL. See Supporting Your Child’s Education School Archival Records Search, 269 School context and student performance, 9-11 federal-level recommendations, 11 state-level recommendations, 10-11 School delinquency rates, in relation to expected level, 171 School readiness differences in, 132-140 SES effects on, 130-131 School-wide enrichment model, 344 School-wide interventions, 204-206 Schools’ contributions to incidence of special needs or giftedness among racial/ethnic groups, 4-5 Science Advisory Board, 113 Screening practices, 269-270 in underserved populations, 276-278 SE. See Special education Self-concept improvements, 326 Self-fulfilling prophecies, and teacher judgments and expectations, 181-182 SES. See Socioeconomic status effects SFA. See Success for All Single-parent status, correlation with poverty, 122 SLI. See Speech and language impairments SM. See Socially maladjusted Small-group instruction, 326-327 SMART. See Start Making a Reader Today program Social and environmental influences on development, 118-140 child care quality, 126-128 children under 18 living in poverty, 118 maternal depression, 125-126 multiple risks, 128-140 parenting style and child development, 124 poverty and language development, 124-125 understanding SES effects, 119-122 Social risk factors in early childhood, 11-13, 375-378 federal-level recommendations, 12-13 Social Security Income Maintenance benefits, 287 Social Skills Rating System, 262, 269 Social system models, of disability classification, 220-222 Socially maladjusted (SM), 263 Socioeconomic status (SES) effects, 119-122 child poverty, 120 income-to-needs ratios, and child cognitive ability, 121-122 school readiness, 130-131 understanding, 119-122 Special education (SE), 17-34, 76-78 conceptual framework, 27-29 criticisms direct at, 217 current education context, 30-33 disproportionate representation of minority students and males in, 18-21 intersection of general and specialized education, 21-27

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Minority Students in Special and Gifted Education paradox of, 20 successful for students with LD, 324-325 without IQ in Iowa, 304-305 Special education (SE) eligibility, 7-9, 361-369 federal-level recommendations, 7-8, 362-364 federal support of state reform efforts, 9, 369 state-level recommendations, 8-9, 365-369 Special education (SE) interventions maintenance of effects of training, 333 numbers of children who appear to benefit from, 333-337 outcomes for auditory discrimination in-depth, 334, 336 outcomes for embedded phonics, 335-336 Special education (SE) settings versus the general education classroom, 330-333 focus of instruction, 331-333 group size, 331 Special Strategies, 206 Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC), 112-113 Specific instructional practices, 345-347 compacting, 345-346 direct instruction and inquiry development, 346 peer tutoring, 346-347 training in mnemonic strategies, 347 Specific learning disabilities, 243-251 criteria for determining the existence of, 238 Speech composition of, 247 decoding, 247-248 Speech and language impairments (SLI), 36-37, 55-56, 222 SSBD. See Systematic Screening for Behavior Disorders Stanford-Binet, 41 STAR. See Project Student/Teacher Achievement Ratio Start Making a Reader Today (SMART) program, 207 State Departments of Education, Special Education Rules, 224 State-level recommendations, 8-11, 314-316, 365-369 behavior management, 367-369 early intervention, 365-367 early screening, 314-316 teacher quality, 10-11 State-to-state variability, 39-41, 62-72 emotional disturbance, 69-70 gifted and talented category, 70-72 learning disabilities, 67-69 mental retardation, 65-67 Statistical Directive 15, 37 Stereotype vulnerability, 181 Student Achievement Guarantee in Education (SAGE) program, 177-178 Student behavior, 197-204 behavioral interventions in general education, 202-203 culture and classroom behavior, 197-199 instruction, curricula, and classroom management, 199-204 reading skills, family adversity, and behavioral deviance, 201 Student characteristics, 265-266 and school services and settings, 26 Success for All (SFA), 194-196, 205 Supporting Your Child’s Education (SCHOOL), 300 Surgeon General’s Report on Youth Violence, 301 Systematic Screening for Behavior Disorders (SSBD), 297 Talented students. See Gifted and talented students Task difficulty and persistence, 327-328 Task Force on Effective Psychosocial Interventions, 300 Teacher judgments and potential self-fulfilling prophecies, 181-182 “teachers as tests,” 229 Teacher Observation of Child Adjustment (TOCA), 297-298 Teacher quality (TQ), 7, 10-11, 172-175, 318, 372-375 federal-level recommendation, 375 state-level recommendations, 210-211, 372-375

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Minority Students in Special and Gifted Education Teacher referral most important factor in assignment, 226 versus parental, 230-232 subjectivity of, 227 and teacher tolerance for misbehavior, 233 Team decision making, 216 Team members, 238 Test bias IQ tests and gifted and talented determination, 290-291 problems with abandoning IQ-based disability determination, 287-290 problems with IQ-based disability determinations, 283-285 research on, 282-291 validity of LD discrepancies, 285-287 Test-taking skills, 291 Tested interventions challenge of change, 207-209 community-wide, 206-207 components of effective reading instruction, 192-193 with gifted students, 196-197 instruction for English language learners, 195-196 lessons from, 188-204 in mathematics, 188-190 in reading, 190-195 school-wide, 204-206 with student behaviors, 197-204 Texas Primary Reading Inventory (TPRI), 293-295, 384 Title I, 31, 33, 196 National Assessment of, 174 Tobacco use and drug abuse, 104-106 cocaine exposure, 105-106 mothers who smoked cigarettes during pregnancy, according to mother’s detailed race, Hispanic origin, educational attainment, and age, 106 tobacco exposure rates, 105 TOCA. See Teacher Observation of Child Adjustment Toddlers, receiving early intervention services, 154-155 TPRI. See Texas Primary Reading Inventory TQ. See Teacher quality Tracking, 347 Traumatic brain injury, 60 Treatment validity, 284 Trends over time, 45-55 Triarchic Componential Model, 278, 344-345 Universal assessment, 292-293, 298 behavioral adjustment, 298 Universal K-12 education, assumptions underlying, 17 Upward Bound program, 351 U.S. Department of Education, 84, 250, 319, 324, 369, 380, 382, 384 Office for Civil Rights, 2, 13, 19, 36-39, 42, 44-55, 69, 72-77, 81, 84-85, 198, 379-380 Office of Gifted and Talented, 24 Office of Special Education Programs, 13, 36-39, 42, 44-45, 47-50, 53-54, 57-59, 61, 81, 84, 222, 324, 379-380 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 112 Head Start Impact Study, 160 U.S. Department of Labor, 31 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Science Advisory Board, 113 Validity of LD discrepancies, 285-287 Variability. See Race/ethnicity; State-to-state variability Vision for change, 359-361 Visual impairment, 56 Vocabulary development, 193 Vocabulary size, 124-125 Wechsler scales, 41, 129-130, 233, 255 Weighing the benefits of placement, 323-356 benefits for gifted students, 340-354 recommendations, 354-356 student benefits from special education intervention, 323-340 WIC. See Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children Wisconsin Car Sorting Test, 115 “Within-child” problems, 6 Within-class grouping, mixed results from, 347-349 Word study, 193 Writing, basic elements of, 326 Written reports, 239