Assessment, 243-291, 305-306, 312-313, 363-364.

See also Alternative approaches to assessment context, culture, and assessment, 279-291

cross-cultural psychological research on cognitive and intellectual ability, 280-282

disability assessment practices, 270-271

of emotional disturbance, 261-270

functional, and IEP relevance, 218

of gifted and talented, 271-278

of mental retardation, 251-261

psychometric views of culture and context, 282-291

research on test bias, 282-291

of specific learning disabilities, 243-251

Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, 59

Auditory Discrimination in Depth (ADD) program, 333-334

Authentic questions, 183

Autism, 60

Behavior, school social, cultural, and contextual issues influencing, 371-372

Behavior disorder (BD), 324, 327-328, 336-337, 340

perspectives on, 262-264

Behavior management, 367-369

recommendations, 316-318

teacher quality, 318

Behavior problem profiles, 109

Behavioral adjustment, universal assessment and multiple gating, 298

Behavioral development. See Cognitive and behavioral development

Behavioral deviance, and reading skills, 201

Behavioral dimensions defining MR, 253-259

adaptive behavior, 257-259

comparison of classification as MR, LD, and ineligible using FSIQ and PIQ to estimate aptitude by ethnic group, 257

intellectual, 253-257

proportion of the population falling below certain IQ cutoffs and falling within certain IQ intervals, 254

“Behavioral earthquakes,” 229

Behavioral interventions in general education, 202-203

bullying prevention program, 202-203

through PATHS, 203

Benefits from special education intervention, 323-340

current classroom practice, 337-338

dropout rate among students with disability label by age, 341

evidence of effectiveness, 329-333

features of effective interventions, 324-328

minority students in special education, 338-340

number with disability label dropping out by age, 341

numbers of children who appear to benefit, 333-337

A Better Chance program, 351

Bias in referral and assessment, in terms of race or ethnicity, 5

Bias in the design and delivery of schooling, 181-188

cultural differences, 182-185

role of parents, 185-188

teacher judgments, expectations, and potential self-fulfilling prophecies, 181-182

Biological contributors to cognition and behavior, 97-117

contributors to early brain development, 98

exposure to alcohol during pregnancy, 102-104

exposure to lead, 111-117

Infant Health and Development Program, 103

low birthweight, 98-102

nutrition and development, 106-111

tobacco use and drug abuse, 104-106

Biological risk factors in early childhood, 11-13, 375-378

federal-level recommendations, 12-13

Biosocial developmental contextualism, 95

Biracial children, 38

Black students

“acting white,” 185

in the category of emotional disturbance, 69, 88

in the category of gifted and talented, 71, 89

in the category of learning disabilities, 68, 87

in the category of mental retardation, 66, 86



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