References

Adelman, C. (1999). Answers in a toolbox: Academics, intensity, attendance patterns, and bachelor’s degree attainment. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Research and Improvement.

Alaiyemola, F.F., Jegede, O.J., & Okebukola, P.A.O. (1990). The effect of a metacognitive strategy of instruction on the anxiety level of students in science classes. International Journal of Science Education, 12(1), 95-99.

Alexopoulou, E., & Driver, R. (1996). Small group discussion in physics: Peer interaction modes in pairs and fours. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 33(10), 1099-1114.

American Association for the Advancement of Science. (1989). Science for all Americans: A Project 2061 report on literacy goals in science, mathematics, and technology. New York: Oxford University Press.

American Association for the Advancement of Science. (1993). Benchmarks for science literacy. New York: Oxford University Press.

American Association for the Advancement of Science. (2000). Atlas of scientific literacy. Washington, DC: Author.

American Association for the Advancement of Science. (2001). Atlas of scientific literacy. Washington, DC: American Association for the Advancement of Science, Project 2061, and National Science Teachers Association.

American Chemical Society. (1997). Chemistry in the national science education standards: A reader and resource manual for high school teachers. Washington, DC: Author.

American Educational Research Association. (1999). Class size: Issues and new findings [Special Issue]. Education Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 21(2).

American Educational Research Association, American Psychological Association, & National Council on Measurement in Education. (1999). Standards for educational and psychological testing. Washington, DC: American Educational Research Association.

American Federation of Teachers. (1999). Making standards matter. Washington, DC: Author.

American Federation of Teachers. (2000). Doing what works: Improving big city school districts. Washington, DC: Author.



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 206
Learning and Understanding: Improving Advanced Study of Mathematics and Science in U.S. High Schools References Adelman, C. (1999). Answers in a toolbox: Academics, intensity, attendance patterns, and bachelor’s degree attainment. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Research and Improvement. Alaiyemola, F.F., Jegede, O.J., & Okebukola, P.A.O. (1990). The effect of a metacognitive strategy of instruction on the anxiety level of students in science classes. International Journal of Science Education, 12(1), 95-99. Alexopoulou, E., & Driver, R. (1996). Small group discussion in physics: Peer interaction modes in pairs and fours. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 33(10), 1099-1114. American Association for the Advancement of Science. (1989). Science for all Americans: A Project 2061 report on literacy goals in science, mathematics, and technology. New York: Oxford University Press. American Association for the Advancement of Science. (1993). Benchmarks for science literacy. New York: Oxford University Press. American Association for the Advancement of Science. (2000). Atlas of scientific literacy. Washington, DC: Author. American Association for the Advancement of Science. (2001). Atlas of scientific literacy. Washington, DC: American Association for the Advancement of Science, Project 2061, and National Science Teachers Association. American Chemical Society. (1997). Chemistry in the national science education standards: A reader and resource manual for high school teachers. Washington, DC: Author. American Educational Research Association. (1999). Class size: Issues and new findings [Special Issue]. Education Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 21(2). American Educational Research Association, American Psychological Association, & National Council on Measurement in Education. (1999). Standards for educational and psychological testing. Washington, DC: American Educational Research Association. American Federation of Teachers. (1999). Making standards matter. Washington, DC: Author. American Federation of Teachers. (2000). Doing what works: Improving big city school districts. Washington, DC: Author.

OCR for page 206
Learning and Understanding: Improving Advanced Study of Mathematics and Science in U.S. High Schools American Federation of Teachers. (2001). Survey and analysis of teacher salary trends 1999. Washington, DC: Author. American Youth Policy Forum. (2000). High schools of the millennium. Washington, DC: Author. Anderson, J.R., Greeno, J.G., Reder, L.M., & Simon, H.A. (1997). Perspectives on learning, thinking, and activity. Educational Researcher, 29(4), 11-13. Association of the Gifted and Talented. (1989). Standards for programs involving the gifted and talented. Reston, VA: The Council for Exceptional Children. Atanda, R. (1999). Do gatekeeper courses expand education options? Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. Attewell, G. (2001). The winner-take-all high school: Organizational adaptations to educational stratification. Sociology of Education, 74(4), 267-296. Au, K.H., & Jordan, C. (1981). Teaching reading to Hawaiian children: Finding a culturally appropriate solution. In H. Trueba, G.P. Guthrie, & K.H. Au (Eds.), Culture in the bilingual classroom: Studies in classroom ethnography (pp. 139-152). Rowley, MA: Newbury House. Bachman, J.G., & Schulenberg, J. (1993). How part-time work intensity relates to drug use, problem behavior, time use, and satisfaction among high school seniors: Are these consequences or merely correlates? Developmental Psychology, 29(2), 220-235. Ballou, D. (1996). Do public schools hire the best applicants? The Quarterly Journal of Economics, III(1), 97-133. Basham, P. (2001). Home schooling: From the extreme to the mainstream. Public Policy Sources, The Fraser Institute, (51). Benbow, C.P., & Minor, L.L. (1986). Mathematically talented males and females and achievement in the high school sciences. American Educational Research Journal, (23), 425-436. Benbow, C.P., & Stanley, J.C. (1982). Consequences in high school and college of sex differences in mathematical reasoning abilities: A longitudinal perspective. American Educational Researcher, 19, 598-622. Berger, S.L. (1991). Differentiating curriculum for gifted students. (ERIC Digest Number E510). Reston, VA: Clearinghouse on Handicapped and Gifted Children. Berliner, D., & Biddle, B. (1996). The manufactured crisis: Myths, fraud, and the attack on America’s public schools. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. Blumenfeld, P.C., Marx, R.W., Patrick, H., Krajcik, J., & Soloway, E. (1997). Teaching for understanding. In B.J. Biddle, T.L. Good, & I.F. Goodson (Eds.), The international handbook of teachers and teaching, volume II (pp. 819-878). Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer. Borko, H., Peressini, D., Romagnano, L., Knuth, E., Yorker, C., Wooley, C., Hovermill, J., & Masarik, K. (2000). Teacher education does matter: A situative view of learning to teach secondary mathematics. Educational Psychologist, 35, 193-206. Bottoms, G. (1998). Things that matter most in improving student learning. Atlanta, GA: Southern Regional Education Board.

OCR for page 206
Learning and Understanding: Improving Advanced Study of Mathematics and Science in U.S. High Schools Boyce, L.N., Bailey, J.M., Sher, B.T., Johnson, D.T., Van Tassel-Baska, J., & Gallagher, S.A. (1993). Curriculum assessment guide to science materials. Williamsburg, VA: College of William and Mary, Center for Gifted Education. Bransford, J.D., & Schwartz, D.L. (2000). Rethinking transfer: A simple proposal with multiple implications. In A. Iran-Nejad, & P. D. Pearson (Eds.), Review of research in education (volume 24, pp. 61-101). Washington, DC: American Educational Research Association. Breland, H.M., & Oltman, P.K. (2001). An analysis of Advanced Placement (AP) examinations in economics and comparative government and politics. College Board Research Report 2001-4; ETS RR-01-17. New York: College Entrance Examination Board. Brown, A.L. (1994). The advancement of learning. Educational Researcher, 23(8), 4-12. Brown, A.L., Ash, D., Rutherford, M., Nakagawa, K., Gordon, A., & Campion, J.C. (1993). Distributed expertise in the classroom. In G. Salomon (Ed.), Distributed cognitions: Psychological and educational considerations (pp. 188-228). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Brown, J.S., Collins, A., & Duguid, P. (1989). Situated cognition and the culture of learning. Educational Researcher, 18(1), 32-42. Bryk, A.S., Lee, V.E., & Holland, P.B. (1993). Catholic schools and the common good. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Bureau of Labor Statistics. (1999). Occupational outlook handbook. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Labor. Burgess, R.G. (1983). Experiencing comprehensive education: A study of Bishop McGregor School. London: Methuen. Burgess, R.G. (1984). It’s not a proper subject: It’s just Newsom. In I. Goodson & S. Ball, Defining the curriculum. London: Falmer Press. Burnett, G. (1995). Alternatives to ability grouping: Still unanswered questions. ERIC Digest Number 111. New York: Clearinghouse on Urban Education. Burton, N.W., Bruschi, B., Kindig, L., & Courtney, R. (2000). Draft interim report of advanced placement research project—Documentation and evaluation of advanced placement summer institutes: Advanced placement new teacher needs study. New York: College Entrance Examination Board. Callahan, C. (2000). The historical role of Advanced Placement and International Baccalaureate programs for talented students in American high schools. Paper presented at Committee on Programs for Advanced Study of Mathematics and Science in American High Schools meeting, March 26, Irvine, CA. Campbell, P. (2000). International Baccalaureate Programme. Paper presented to the Committee on Programs for Advanced Study of Math and Science in American High Schools, March 26, Irvine, CA. Canas, A., Ford, K., Novak, J., Hayes, P., & Reichherzer, T. (2001). Online concept maps: Enhancing collaborative learning by using technology with concept maps. The Science Teacher, 68(2), 49-51. Caravita, S., & Hallden, O. (1994). Re-framing the problem of conceptual change. Learning and Instruction, 4, 89-111.

OCR for page 206
Learning and Understanding: Improving Advanced Study of Mathematics and Science in U.S. High Schools Carnevule, D. (1999). ACLU sues California over unequal access to Advanced Placement courses. Chronicle of Higher Education, 45(48). Carpenter, T.P., & Lehrer, R. (1999). Teaching and learning mathematics with understanding. In E. Fennema, & T.A. Romberg (Eds.), Classrooms that promote mathematical understanding (p. 1932). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. Carr, M., Kurtz, B.E., Schneider, W., Turner, L.A., & Borkowski, J.G. (1989). Strategy acquisition and transfer among German and American children: Environmental influences on metacognitive development. Developmental Psychology, 25, 765-771. Carr, S. (2000). More states create virtual high schools. The Chronicle of Higher Education, 47(3), A40. Carr, S. (2001). South Dakota finds mixed results with online AP courses. The Chronicle of Higher Education, 47(37), A40, May. Cavallo, A.M.L. (1996). Meaningful learning, reasoning ability, and students’ understanding and problem solving of topics in genetics. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 33(6), 625-656. Chi, M.T.H., Feltovich, P.J., & Glaser, R. (1981). Categorization and representation of physics problems by experts and novices. Cognitive Science, (5), 121-152. Choy, S.P., Bobbitt, S.A., Henke, R.R., Medrich, E.A., Horn, L.J., & Lieberman, J. (1993). America’s teachers: Profile of a profession. (NCES 93-025). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. Cobb, P., Wood, T., & Yackel, E. (1993). Discourse, mathematical thinking, and classroom practice. Contexts for learning: Social cultural dynamics in children’s development. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. Cohen, D.K., & Ball, D.L. (1990). Relations between policy and practice: A commentary. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 12, 331-338. College Board. (2000). Advanced placement program, workshop consultant endorsement policy. New York: Author. College Board. (2001). Advanced placement program, institute endorsement policy. New York: Author. College Entrance Examination Board. (1997). A guide for the recommended laboratory program for Advanced Placement chemistry. New York: Author. College Entrance Examination Board. (1999a). Advanced placement course description, biology, 2000, 2001. New York: Author. College Entrance Examination Board. (1999b). Advanced placement course description, calculus, 2000, 2001. New York: Author. College Entrance Examination Board. (1999c). Advanced placement course description, physics, 2000, 2001. New York: Author. College Entrance Examination Board. (1999d). Advanced placement technical manual 2000. New York: Author. College Entrance Examination Board. (2000a). College and university guide to the Advanced Placement Program. New York: Author. College Entrance Examination Board. (2000b). Released exam 1999, AP chemistry. New York: Author. College Entrance Examination Board. (2000c). 2000 National summary reports. New York: Author.

OCR for page 206
Learning and Understanding: Improving Advanced Study of Mathematics and Science in U.S. High Schools College Entrance Examination Board. (2000d). Unpublished responses from student questionnaire administered in May 2000. New York: Author. College Entrance Examination Board. (2001a). Advanced placement course description, biology, May 2002, 2003. New York: Author. College Entrance Examination Board. (2001b). Advanced placement course description, calculus, 2002, 2003. New York: Author. College Entrance Examination Board. (2001c). Advanced placement course description, chemistry, 2002, 2003. New York: Author. College Entrance Examination Board. (2001d). Advanced placement course description, physics, 2002, 2003. New York: Author. Collins, A. (1988). Cognitive apprenticeship and instructional technology. (Technical Report No. 6899). Cambridge, MA: BBN Labs. Collins, A., & Smith, E. (1982). Teaching the process of reading comprehension. In D.K. Detterman, & R.J. Sternberg (Eds.), How and how much can intelligence be increased? Norwood, NJ: Ablex. Commission on the Future of the Advanced Placement Program. (2001). Access to excellence: A report of the Commission on the Future of the Advanced Placement Program. New York: College Entrance Examination Board. Council of Chief State School Officers. (1998). Key state policies on K-12 education: Standards, graduation, assessment, teacher licensure, time and attendance. Washington, DC: Author. Council of Chief State School Officers. (1999). State indicators of science and mathematics 1999: State trends and new indicators from the 1997-98 school year. Washington, DC: Author. Cronbach, L.J. (1971). Test validation. In R.L. Thorndike (Ed.), Educational measurement (2nd ed.). Washington, DC: American Council on Education. Damon, W., & Eisenberg, N. (1998). Handbook of child psychology (5th ed.). New York: Wiley. Dark, V.J., and Benbow, C.P. (1993). Cognitive differences among the gifted: A review and new data. In D.K. Detterman (Ed.), Current topics in human intelligence (vol. 3, pp. 85-120). New York: Ablex. Darling-Hammond, L. (1996). What matters most: A competent teacher for every child. Phi Delta Kappan, (78), 193-201. Darling-Hammond, L. (1999a). Educating teachers for the next century: Rethinking practice and policy. In G.A. Griffin (Ed.), The education of teachers: 98th yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education (pp. 221-256). Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Darling-Hammond, L. (1999b). Target time toward teachers. Journal of Staff Development, 20(2). Darling-Hammond, L. (2000). Teacher quality and student achievement: A review of state policy evidence. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 8(1). Darling-Hammond, L., Wise, A.E., & Klein, S.P. (1999). A license to teach. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Dirkes, M.A. (1985). Metacognition: Students in charge of their thinking. Roeper Review, 8(2), 96-100.

OCR for page 206
Learning and Understanding: Improving Advanced Study of Mathematics and Science in U.S. High Schools Doran, B.J., Dugan, T., & Weffer, R. (1998). Language minority students in high school: The role of language in learning biology concepts. Science Education, 82(3), 311-331. Dornbusch, S.M. (1994). Off the track. Presidential address at the biennial meeting of the Society for Research on Adolescence, San Diego, CA. Dossey, J. (1998). Making algebra dynamic and motivating: A national challenge (keynote address). In National Research Council, The nature and role of algebra in the k-14 curriculum, proceedings of a national symposium (pp. 17-22). Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Driver, R., Squires, A. Rushworth, P., & Wood-Robinson, V. (1994). Making sense of secondary science: Research into children’s ideas. New York: Routledge. Dunbar, K. (1995). How scientists really reason: Scientific reasoning in real-world laboratories. In R.J. Sternberg, & J.E. Davidson (Eds.), The nature of insight (pp. 365-395). Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press. Dweck, C.S. (1989). Motivation. In A. Lesgold, & R. Glaser (Eds.), Foundations for a psychology of education. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Eccles, J.S. (1987). Gender roles and women’s achievement related decisions. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 11, 135-172. Eccles, J.S. (1994). Understanding women’s educational and occupational choices. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 18, 585-610. Eccles, J.S., & Harold, R. (1996). Family involvement in children’s and adolescents’ schooling. In B. Booth, & J. Dunn (Eds.), Family-school links: How do they affect educational outcomes. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Eccles, J.S., Wigfield, A., & Schiefele, U. (1998). Motivation to succeed. In W. Damon, & N. Eisenberg (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology, Vol. IV: Social and personality development (pp. 1017-1095). New York: Wiley. Edmondson, K. (2000). Assessing science understanding through concept maps. In J. Mintzes, J. Wandersee, & J. Novak (Eds.), Assessing science understanding (pp. 19-40). San Diego: Academic Press. Education Commission to the President of the United States. (2000). Report of the Web-based Education Commission to the President of the United States. Washington, DC: Author. Education Week. (1999). Quality counts 1999. Rewarding results, punishing failure. [Special issue, January]. Education Week. (2000). Quality counts 2000: Who should teach? [Special issue, January]. Education Week. (2001). Quality counts 2001 A better balance: Standards, tests, and the tools to succeed. [Special issue, January]. Ekstrom, R.B., Goertz, M., & Rock, D.A. (1988). Education and American youth. Philadelphia: Falmer Press. Eubanks, S.C. (1996). The urban teacher challenge: A report on teacher recruitment and demand in selected great city schools. Belmont, MA: Recruiting New Teachers, Inc. Falk, B. (2000). The heart of the matter: Using standards and assessment to learn. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

OCR for page 206
Learning and Understanding: Improving Advanced Study of Mathematics and Science in U.S. High Schools Feldhusen, J., Hansen, J., & Kennedy, D. (1989). Curriculum development for GCT teachers. GCT, 12(6), 12-19. Feldt, L.S., & Brennan, R.L. (1993). Reliability. In R.L. Linn ( Ed.), Educational measurement (3rd ed., pp. 105-147). Washington, DC: American Council on Education. Ferguson, R.F. (1991). Paying for public education. Harvard Journal on Legislation, (28), 465-498. Ferguson, R.F. (1998). Can schools narrow the black-white test score gap? In C. Jencks, & M. Phillips (Eds.), The black-white test score gap. Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution. Ferguson, R.F., & Ladd, H.F. (1996). How and why money matters: An analysis of Alabama schools. In H.F. Ladd (Ed.), Holding schools accountable: Performance-based reform in education. Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution. Ferrari, M., & Sternberg, R.J. (1998). The development of mental abilities and styles. In D. Kuhn, & R. Siegler (Eds.), The handbook of child psychology (5 ed., vol. 2: Cognition, Perception, and Language, pp. 899-946). New York: Wiley. Flavell, J.H. (1979). Metacognition and cognitive monitoring: A new area of cognitive-developmental inquiry. American Psychologist, 34, 906-911. Frome, P. (2001). High schools that work: Findings from the 1996 and 1998 assessments. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Planning and Evaluation Service. Fuchs, L.S., Fuchs, D., Hamlett, C.L., & Karns, K. (1998). High achieving students’ interactions and performance on complex mathematical tasks as a function of homogeneous and heterogeneous pairings. American Educational Research Journal, 35, 227-268. Fullan, M.G. (1991). The new meaning of educational change. New York: Teachers College Press. Gabel, D. (Ed.). (1994). Handbook of research on science teaching and learning. New York: MacMillan. Gamoran, A. (1987). The stratification of high school learning opportunities. Sociology of Education, 60(3), 135-155. Gamoran, A. (1992). The variable effects of high school tracking. Sociology of Education, 57(4), 812-828. Gamoran, A., & Hannigan, E.C. (2000). Algebra for everyone? Benefits of college-preparatory mathematics for students with diverse abilities in early secondary school. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 22(3). Gamoran, A., & Nystrand, M. (1990). Tracking, instruction, and achievement. Paper presented at the World Congress of Sociology, Madrid, Spain. Gamoran, A., Nystrand, M., Berends, M., & LePore, P.C. (1995). An organizational analysis of the effects of ability grouping. American Educational Research Journal, 32(4), 687-715. Gandal, M. (1997). Making standards matter 1997: An annual fifty-state report on efforts to raise academic standards. Washington, DC: American Federation of Teachers. Garcia, T., & Pintrich, P.R. (1994). Regulating motivation and cognition in the classroom: The role of self-schemas and self-regulatory strategies. In D. Schunk, & B.

OCR for page 206
Learning and Understanding: Improving Advanced Study of Mathematics and Science in U.S. High Schools Zimmerman (Eds.), Self-regulation of learning and performance: Issues and educational application (pp. 127-154). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Garner, R. (1987). Metacognition and reading comprehension. Norwood, NJ: Ablex. Garner, R., & Alexander, P. (1989). Metacognition: Answered and unanswered questions. Educational Psychologist, 24, 143-158. Glaser, R. (1992). Expert knowledge and processes of thinking. In D. F. Halpern (Ed.), Enhancing thinking skills in the sciences and mathematics (pp. 63-75). Hillsdale, NJ : Erlbaum. Gobert, J.D., & Clement, J.J. (1999). Effects of student-generated diagrams versus student-generated summaries on conceptual understanding of casual and dynamic knowledge in plate tectonics. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 36(1), 39-53. Goertzel, M., Goertzel, V., & Goertzel, T. (1978). 300 eminent personalities. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Gonzalez, E.J., O’Connor, K.M., & Miles, J.A. (2001). How well do advanced placement students perform on the TIMSS advanced mathematics and physics tests? Chestnut Hill, MA: Boston College, Lynch School of Education, International Study Center. Goodlad, J.I. (1984). A place called school: Promise for the future. New York: McGraw-Hill. Gourman, J. (1999). The Gourman report: A rating of undergraduate programs in American and international universities. New York: Random House. Graham, S., & Weiner, B. (1996). Theories and principles of motivation. In D.C. Berliner, & R.C. Calfee (Eds.), Handbook of educational psychology (pp. 63-84). New York: Macmillan. Gratz, D.B. (2000). High standards for whom? Phi Delta Kappan. May 2000. 81(9). Graue, M.E. (1993). Integrating theory and practice through instructional assessment. Educational Assessment, 1, 293-309. Greenberg, K.H. (1992). Research and mediated learning: Implications for program implementation. Paper presented at the conference on Mediated Learning in Health and Education: Forging a New Alliance, St. Petersburg, FL. Greeno, J.G. (1993). Number sense as situated knowing in a conceptual domain. Journal in Research in Mathematics Education, (22), 170-218. Greeno, J.G., Collins, A.M., & Resnick, L.B. (1996). Cognition and learning. In D. Berliner, & R. Calfree (Eds.), Handbook of educational psychology (pp.15-46). New York: Macmillan. Greenwald, R., Hedges, L.V., & Laine, R.D. (1996). The effects of school resources on student achievement. Review of Educational Research, 66(3), 361-396. Grissmer, D. (1999). Class size: Issues and new findings [Special Issue]. Education Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 21(2). Haidar, A.H. (1997). Prospective chemistry teacher’s conceptions of the conservation of matter and related concepts. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 34(2), 181-197. Hanushek, E. (1996). A more complete picture of school resource policies. Review of Educational Research, 66(3), 397-409.

OCR for page 206
Learning and Understanding: Improving Advanced Study of Mathematics and Science in U.S. High Schools Hart, P.D. Research Associates. (1999). Shell Education Survey. Study #5487. Washington, DC: Author. Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Science Education Department (1987). A private universe (Video). Cambridge, MA: Science Media Group. Heath, S.B. (1983). Ways with words: Language, life, and work in communities and classrooms. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Hebel, S. (1999). AP courses are new target in struggle over access to college in California. Chronicle of Higher Education, 46(14). Herr, N.E. (1993). The relationship between advanced placement and honors science courses. School Science and Mathematics, 93, 183-187. Hoffman, L. (1998). Overview of public elementary and secondary schools and districts: School year 1996-97. Education Statistics Quarterly, NCES No. 98204, September 29. Hong, L.K. (2001). Too many intrusions on instructional time. Phi Delta Kappan, 82(9). Horn, L., Hafner, A., & Owings, J. (1992). A profile of American eighth-grade mathematics and science instruction. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. Horn, L., Nunez, A., & Bobbitt, L. (2000). Mapping the road to college: First generation students’ math track, planning strategies, and context of support. (NCES 2000-153). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. Hoz, R., Bowman, D., & Chacham, T. (1997). Psychometric and edumetric validity of geomorphological knowledge which are tapped by concept mapping. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 34(9), 925-947. Hunt, J.M. (1961). Intelligence and experience. New York: Ronald Press. Ingersoll, R.M. (1999). The problem of underqualified teachers in American secondary schools. Educational Researcher, 28(2), 26-37. International Baccalaureate North American. (2000). International Baccalaureate North American statistical summary—May 2000 examination session. New York: Author. International Baccalaureate Organisation. (1997a). IB guide to the diploma programme, 1997. Geneva, Switzerland: Author. International Baccalaureate Organisation. (1997b). Mathematical methods standard level. Geneva, Switzerland: Author. International Baccalaureate Organisation. (1998a). IB experimental sciences internal assessment clarifications . Geneva, Switzerland: Author. International Baccalaureate Organisation. (1998b). IB mathematics HL diploma programme guide 1998. Geneva, Switzerland: Author. International Baccalaureate Organisation. (1998c). IB mathematics HL. Geneva, Switzerland: Author. International Baccalaureate Organisation. (1998d). Mathematical methods standard level. Geneva, Switzerland: Author. International Baccalaureate Organisation. (1998e). IB further mathematics standard level. Geneva, Switzerland: Author.

OCR for page 206
Learning and Understanding: Improving Advanced Study of Mathematics and Science in U.S. High Schools International Baccalaureate Organisation. (1999a). 1999 IB chemistry subject report. Geneva, Switzerland: Author. International Baccalaureate Organisation. (1999b). IB coordinator notes. Geneva, Switzerland: Author. International Baccalaureate Organisation. (1999c). IB diploma grade descriptors group 4. Geneva, Switzerland: Author. International Baccalaureate Organisation. (1999d). IB experimental sciences course revisions. Geneva, Switzerland: Author. International Baccalaureate Organisation. (1999e). Teacher support material: Experimental sciences—internal assessment. Geneva, Switzerland: Author. International Baccalaureate Organisation. (2000a). Experimental sciences chemistry curriculum review report. Geneva, Switzerland: Author. International Baccalaureate Organisation. (2000b). IB theory of knowledge. Geneva, Switzerland: Author. International Baccalaureate Organisation. (2000c). May 2000 chemistry subject report. Geneva, Switzerland: Author. International Baccalaureate Organisation. (2000d). Vade mecum. Geneva, Switzerland: Author. International Baccalaureate Organisation. (2001a). IB diploma programme guide: Biology, 2001. Geneva, Switzerland: Author. International Baccalaureate Organisation. (2001b). IB diploma programme guide: Chemistry, 2001. Geneva, Switzerland: Author. International Baccalaureate Organisation. (2001c). IB diploma programme guide: Physics, 2001. Geneva, Switzerland: Author. Johnson, D.T., & Sher, B.T. (1997). Resource guide to mathematics curriculum materials for high-ability learners in grades k-8. Williamsburg, VA: College of William and Mary, Center for Gifted Education. Johnston, R.C. (2000). Rochester plan adds flexibility to high school. Education Week, 19(43), 18-19. Johnstone, D.B. (1993). Enhancing the productivity of learning. AAHE Bulletin, 46(4), 3-8. Johnstone, D.B., & Del Genio, B. (2001). College-level learning in high school: Purposes, policies, and practical implications. Washington, DC: Association of American Colleges and Universities. Jones, L.R., Mullis, I.V.S., Raizen, S.A., Weiss, I.R., and Weston, E.A. (1992). The 1990 science report card: NAEP’s assessment of fourth, eighth, and twelfth graders. Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service. Jones, L.V., Davenport, E.C., Bryson, A., Bekhuis, T., & Zwick, R. (1986). Mathematics and science test scores as related to courses taken in high school and other factors. Journal of Educational Measurement, 23(3), 197-208. Jones, M.G., Rua, M.J., & Carter, G. (1998). Science teacher’s conceptual growth within Vygotsky’s zone of proximal development. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 35(9), 967-985. Jordan, H., Mendro, R., & Weerasinghe, D. (1997). Teacher effects on longitudinal student achievement: A report on research in progress. Paper presented at the annual CREATE meeting, Indianapolis, IN.

OCR for page 206
Learning and Understanding: Improving Advanced Study of Mathematics and Science in U.S. High Schools Kaufman, P., Bradby, D., & Teitelbaum, P. (2000). High schools that work and whole school reform: Raising academic achievement of vocational completers through the reform of school practice. Southern Regional Education Board. Berkeley, CA: University of California at Berkeley, National Center for Research in Vocational Education. Kaufmann, F., Harrel, G., Milam, C.P., Woolverton, N., & Miller, J. (1986). The nature, role, and influence of mentors in the lives of gifted adults. Journal of Counseling and Development, 64, 576-578. Kennedy, D. (1997). Teachers guide, AP calculus. New York: College Entrance Examination Board. Kirst, M.W. (1998). Improving and aligning k-16 standards, admissions, and freshman placement policies. Stanford, CA: Stanford University, National Center for Postsecondary Improvement. Kobayashi, Y. (1994). Conceptual acquisition and change through social interaction. Human Development, 37, 233-241. Koretz, D. (1988). Arriving in Lake Wobegon: Are standardized tests exaggerating achievement and distorting instruction? American Educator, 12(2), 8-15, 46-52. Koretz, D. (1996). Using student assessments for educational accountability. In E.A. Hanushek & D.W. Jorgenson (Eds.), Improving the performance of America’s schools (pp. 171-196). Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Koretz, D., Linn, R.L., Dunbar, S.B., & Shepard, L.A. (1991). The effects of high-stakes testing: Preliminary evidence about generalization across tests. Presented at The Effects of High Stakes Testing symposium annual meetings of the American Educational Research Association and the National Council on Measurement in Education, Chicago, April. Kozma, R.B., & Russell, J. (1997). Multimedia and understanding: Expert and novice responses to different representation of chemical phenomena. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 34(9), 949-968. Kuehn, P. (2001). Online AP courses are not the answer. California Star News, November 15, 2000. Available at www.californiastar.com/courses.html (February 11, 2002). Kulm, G. (1990). Assessing higher order thinking in mathematics. Washington, DC: American Association for the Advancement of Science. Lave, J. (1991). Situating learning in communities of practice. In L. Resnick, J. Levine, & S. Teasley (Eds.), Perspectives on socially shared cognition (pp. 63-83). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. Lee, V.E. (2001). Restructuring high schools for equity and excellence: What works. New York: Teachers College Press. Lee, V.E., & Bryk, A.S. (1989). A multilevel model of the social distribution of high school achievement. Sociology of Education, 62(3), 172-192. Lee, V.E., Bryk, A.S., & Smith, J.B. (1993). The organization of effective secondary schools. Review of Research in Education, 19, 171-268. Lee, V.E., Croninger, R.G., & Smith, J.B. (1997). Course-taking, equity, and mathematics learning: Testing the constrained curriculum hypothesis in U.S. secondary schools. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 19(2), 99-121.

OCR for page 206
Learning and Understanding: Improving Advanced Study of Mathematics and Science in U.S. High Schools Marks, H.M., Doane, K.B., & Secada, W.B. (1996). Support for student achievement. In F.M. Newmann & Associates (Ed.), Authentic achievement: Restructuring schools for intellectual quality. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Markus, H., & Wurf, E. (1987). The dynamic self-concept: A social psychological perspective. Annual Review of Psychology, 38, 299-337. Marsh, H.W. (1990). A multidimensional, hierarchical model of self-concept: Theoretical and empirical justification. Educational Psychology Review, (2), 77-172. Mathews, J. (1998a). 100 best high schools in America. Newsweek, March 30. Mathews, J. (1998b). Class struggle: What’s wrong (and right) with America’s best public high schools. New York: Times Books. McKnight, C.C., Crosswhite, F.J., Dossey, J.A., Kifer, E., Swafford, J A., Travers, K.J., & Cooney, T.J. (1987). The underachieving curriculum: Assessing U.S. school mathematics from an international perspective. Champaign, IL: Stipes. McLaughlin, M., & Talbert, J.E. (1993). Contexts that matter for teaching and learning: Strategic opportunities for meeting the nation’s educational goals. Stanford, CA: Stanford University, Center for Research on the Context of Secondary School Teaching. McLellan, H. (1996). Being digital: Implications for education. Educational Technology, 36(6), 5-20. Messick, S. (1993). Validity. In R.L. Linn (Ed.), Educational measurement (3 ed., pp. 13-103). Washington, DC: American Council on Education. Mestre, J. (1994). Cognitive aspects of learning and teaching science. In S. Fitzsimmons, & L. Kerpelman (Eds.), Teacher enhancement for elementary science and mathematics: Status, issues, and problems. Washington, DC: National Science Foundation. Milgram, R.M. (1989). Teaching gifted and talented learners in regular classrooms. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas. Millman, J., & Greene, J. (1993). The specification and development of tests of achievement and ability. In R.L. Linn (Ed.), Educational measurement (3 ed., pp. 335-366). New York: American Council on Education. Minstrell, J. (2000a). The role of the teacher in making sense of classroom experiences and effecting better learning. In D. Klahr, & S. Carver (Eds.), Cognition and instruction: 25 years of progress. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. Minstrell, J. (2000b). Student thinking and related assessment: Creating a facet-based learning environment. In Committee on the Evaluation of National and State Assessments of Educational Progress. N.S. Raju, J.W. Pellegrino, M.W. Bertenthal, K.J. Mitchell, and L.R. Jones (Eds.) Grading the nation’s report card: Research from the evaluation of NAEP (pp 44-73). Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education, National Research Council. Washington, DC: National Academy Press Mintzes, J., Wandersee, J., & Novak, J.D. (1998). Teaching science for understanding. San Diego: Academic Press. Mintzes, J., Wandersee, J., & Novak, J.D. (2000). Assessing science understanding. San Diego: Academic Press. Mintzes, J.J., Wandersee, J.H., & Novak, J.D. (2001). Assessing science understanding in biology. Journal of Biological Education, 35(3), 119-124.

OCR for page 206
Learning and Understanding: Improving Advanced Study of Mathematics and Science in U.S. High Schools Morgan, R., & Maneckshana, B. (2000). Advanced placement students in college: An investigation of their course-taking patterns and college majors. New York: College Entrance Examination Board. Morgan, R., & Ramist, L. (1998). Advanced placement students in college: An investigation of course grades at 21 colleges. Unpublished Statistical Report No. SR-98-13. Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service. Mullins, J. (1994). Teachers guide, AP chemistry. New York: College Entrance Examination Board. Murnane, R.J. (1996). Staffing the nation’s schools with skilled teachers. In E.A. Hanushek, & D.W. Jorgenson (Eds.), Improving America’s schools: The role of incentives (pp. 241-258). Washington, DC: National Academy Press. National Association of Secondary School Principals. (1996). Breaking ranks: Changing an American institution. Reston, VA: Author. National Board for Professional Teaching Standards. (1994). What teachers should know and be able to do. Detroit, MI: Author. National Center for Education Statistics. (1992a). The 1990 science report: NAEP’s assessment of fourth, eight, and twelfth graders. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education. National Center for Education Statistics. (1992b). A profile of American eight-grade mathematics and science instruction. (NCES 92-486). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education. National Center for Education Statistics. (1998). Pursuing excellence: A study of U.S. twelfth-grade mathematics and science achievement in international context. (NCES 98049). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education. National Center for Education Statistics. (2000a). The condition of education 2000. (NCES 2000-62). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Research and Improvement. National Center for Education Statistics. (2000b). Monitoring school quality: An indicators report. (NCES 2001-30). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education. National Center for Education Statistics. (2001a). Digest of education statistics 2000. (NCES 2001-034. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Research and Improvement. National Center for Education Statistics. (2001b). 1998 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) high school transcript study. (NCES 2001477). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education. National Commission on Excellence in Education. (1983). A nation at risk: The imperative for educational reform. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. National Commission on Mathematics and Science Teaching for the 21st Century. (2000). Before it’s too late: A report to the nation from the National Commission on Mathematics and Science Teaching for the 21st century. Jessup, MD: Education Publications Center. National Commission on Teaching and America’s Future. (1996). What matters most: Teaching for America’s future. New York: National Commission on Teaching and America’s Future, Teachers College, Columbia University.

OCR for page 206
Learning and Understanding: Improving Advanced Study of Mathematics and Science in U.S. High Schools National Commission on the High School Senior Year. (2001a). The lost opportunity of senior year: Finding a better way (preliminary report). Washington, DC: Author. National Commission on the High School Senior Year. (2001b). Raising our sights: No high school senior left behind. Washington, DC: Author. National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. (1989). Curriculum and evaluation standards for school mathematics. Reston, VA: Author. National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. (1991). Professional standards for teaching mathematics. Reston, VA: Author. National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. (1995). Assessment standards for school mathematics. Reston, VA: Author. National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. (2000). Principles and standards for school mathematics. Reston, VA: Author. National Education Goals Panel. (2001). Promising practices: Progress toward the goals, 2000. Washington, DC: Author. National Research Council. (1996). National science education standards. National Committee on Science Education Standards and Assessment. Coordinating Council for Education. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. National Research Council. (1998). The nature and role of algebra in the k-14 curriculum: Proceedings of a national symposium. National Council of Teachers of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences Education Board. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. National Research Council. (1999a). Equity and adequacy in education finance: Issues and perspectives. Committee on Education Finance. H.F. Ladd, R. Chalk, & J.S. Hansen, (Eds.). Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. National Research Council. (1999b). High stakes: Testing for tracking, promotion, and graduation. Committee on Appropriate Test Use. J.P. Heubert & R.M. Hauser, (Eds.). Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. National Research Council. (1999c). Making money matter: Financing America’s schools. Committee on Education Finance. H.F. Ladd & J.S. Hansen, (Eds.). Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. National Research Council. (1999d). Transforming undergraduate education in science, mathematics, engineering, and technology. Committee on Undergraduate Science Education. Center for Science, Mathematics, and Engineering Education. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. National Research Council. (2000a). Educating teachers of science, mathematics, and technology: New practices for the new millennium. Committee on Science and Mathematics Teacher Preparation. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. National Research Council. (2000b). How people learn: Brain, mind, experience, and school (Expanded ed.). Committee on Developments in the Science of Learning. J.D. Bransford, A.L. Brown, & R.R. Cocking, (Eds.). Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

OCR for page 206
Learning and Understanding: Improving Advanced Study of Mathematics and Science in U.S. High Schools National Research Council. (2001a). Knowing what students know: The science and design of educational assessment. Committee on the Foundation of Assessment. J. Pellegrino, N. Chudowsky, & R. Glaser, (Eds.). Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. National Research Council. (2001b). Testing teacher candidates: The role of licensure tests in improving teacher quality. Committee on Assessment and Teacher Quality. K.J. Mitchell, D.Z. Robinson, B.S. Plake, & K.T. Knowles, (Eds.). Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. National Research Council. (2002a). Learning and understanding: Improving advanced study of mathematics and science in U.S. high schools—Report of the content panel for biology. Available at www.nap.edu/catalog/10365html. National Research Council. (2002b). Learning and understanding: Improving advanced study of mathematics and science in U.S. high schools—Report of the content panel for chemistry. Available at www.nap.edu/catalog/10364html. National Research Council. (2002c). Learning and understanding: Improving advanced study of mathematics and science in U.S. high schools—Report of the content panel for physics. Available at www.nap.edu/catalog/10361html. National Research Council. (2002d). Learning and understanding: Improving advanced study of mathematics and science in U.S. high schools—Report of the content panel for mathematics. Available at www.nap.edu/catalog/10380html. National Science Foundation. (1999). Women, minorities, and persons with disabilities in science and engineering: 1998. (NSF 99-338). Arlington, VA: Author. National Science Teachers Association. (1996). NSTA pathways to the science standards (high school). Arlington, VA: Author. National Science Teachers Association. (2000). Science teacher credentials, assignments, and job satisfaction: Results of a survey. Arlington, VA: Author. Newman, F.M., & Wehlage, G.G. (1995). Successful school restructuring: A report to the public and educators by the Center on Organization and Restructuring of Schools. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin-Madison, School of Education, Wisconsin Center for Education Research, Center on Organization and Restructuring of Schools. Niyogi, N.S. (1995). The intersection of instruction and assessment: The classroom. Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service. Noonan, D., Sieder, J.J. & Peraino, K. (2001). Stop stressing me. Newsweek, January 29, 137(5). Novak, J. D. (1985). Metalearning and metaknowledge strategies to help students learn how to learn. In L.H.T. West, & A.L. Pines (Eds.), Cognitive structure and conceptual change (pp. 189-209). Orlando, FL: Academic Press. Novak, J.D. (1991). Clarify with concept maps. The Science Teacher, 58(7), 45-49. Novak, J.D. (1998). Learning, creating, and using knowledge: Concept maps as facilitative tools in schools and corporations. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. Novak, J.D. (2002). Meaningful learning: The essential factor for conceptual change in limited or in appropriate propositional hierarchies leading to empowerment of learners. Science Education, 86(4), 548-571.

OCR for page 206
Learning and Understanding: Improving Advanced Study of Mathematics and Science in U.S. High Schools Novak, J.D., & Gowin, D.B. (1984). Learning how to learn. New York: Cambridge University Press. Novak, J.D., & Musonda, D. (1991). A twelve-year longitudinal study of science concept learning. American Educational Research Journal, 28(1), 117-153. Nystrand, M., & Gamoran, A. (1988). A study of instruction as discourse. Madison: University of Wisconsin-Madison, Wisconsin Center for Education Research. O’Neil, Jr., H.F., & Brown, R.S. (1997). Differential effects of question formats in math assessments on metacognition and affect. (CSE Technical Report 449). Los Angeles: University of California at Los Angeles, Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards, and Student Testing, Center for the Study of Evaluation. Oakes, J. (1985). Keeping track: How schools structure inequality. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. Oakes, J. (1990). Multiplying inequalities: Race, social class, and tracking on students’ opportunities to learn mathematics and science. Santa Monica, CA: RAND. Oakes, J., Gamoran, A., & Page, R.N. (1992). Curriculum differentiation: Opportunities, outcomes, and meanings. In P. Jackson (Ed.), Handbook of research on curriculum (pp. 570-608). New York: Macmillan. Oakes, J., & Guiton, G. (1995). Matchmaking: Tracking decisions in comprehensive high schools. American Educational Research Journal, 32(1), 3-34. Oakes, J., Rogers, J., McDonough, P., Solorzano, D., Mehan, H., & Noguera, P. (2000). Remedying unequal opportunities for successful participation in advanced placement courses in California high schools. Unpublished paper prepared for the American Civil Liberties Union of Southern California. Oakes, J., & Wells, A.S. (2001). The comprehensive high school, detracking, and the persistence of social stratification. Draft manuscript, UCLA. Office of Educational Research and Improvement. (1999). The education system in the United States: Case study findings. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education. Orfield, G., & Paul, F. (1995). High hopes and long odds: A major report on Hoosier teens and the American dream. Indianapolis, IN: Indiana Youth Institute. Paris, S.G., & Ayers, L.R. (1994). Becoming reflective students and teachers with portfolios and authentic assessment. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. Paul, F. (1995). Academic programs in a democratic society: Structured choices and their consequences. Advances in Educational Policy, 2. Pearsall, N.R., Skipper, J., & Mintzes, J.J. (1997). Knowledge restructuring in the life sciences: A longitudinal study of conceptual change in biology. Science Education, 81, 193-215. Perkins, D.N. (1992). Smart schools: From training memories to educating minds. New York: Free Press. Pintrich, P.R., & Schrauben, B. (1992). Students’ motivational beliefs and their cognitive engagement in classroom academic tasks. In D. Schunk, & J. Meece (Eds.), Student perceptions in the classroom: Causes and consequences (pp. 149-183). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Porter, A.C., Kirst, M.W., Osthoff, E.J., Smithson, J.L., & Schneider, S.A. (1993). Reform up close: An analysis of high school mathematics and science classrooms.

OCR for page 206
Learning and Understanding: Improving Advanced Study of Mathematics and Science in U.S. High Schools Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin-Madison, School of Education, Wisconsin Center for Education Research, Center on Organization and Restructuring of Schools. Powell, A.G., Farrar, E., & Cohen, D.K. (1985). The shopping mall high school: Winners and losers in the educational marketplace. Boston, MA: Houghton-Mifflin. Prawat, R.S. (1992). Teachers’ beliefs about teaching and learning: A constructivist perspective. American Journal of Education, 100, 354-395. Putnam, R.T., & Borko, H. (1997). Teacher learning: Implications of new views of cognition. In B.J. Biddle, T.L. Good, & I.F. Goodson (Eds.), The international handbook of teachers and teaching (vol. II, pp. 1223-1296). Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer. Raudenbush, S.W. (1984). Magnitude of teacher expectant effects on pupil IQ as a function of the credibility of expectancy induction: A synthesis of findings from 18 experiments. Journal of Educational Psychology, 76(1), 85-97. Raudenbush, S.W., Rowan, B., & Cheong, Y.F. (1993). Higher order instructional goals in secondary schools: Class, teacher, and school influences. American Educational Research Journal, 30(3), 523-553. Raywid, M.A. (1995). Alternatives and marginal students. In M.C. Wang, & M.C. Reynolds (Eds.), Making a difference for students at risk: Trends and alternatives (pp. 119-155). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press. Reisberg, L. (1998). Some professors question programs that allow high-school students to earn college credits: Proliferation of dual enrollment and increase in Advanced Placement raise doubts about rigor. The Chronicle of Higher Education, 44(42). Resnick, L. (1994). Situated rationalism: Biological and social preparation for mapping. In L. Hirschfeld, & S. Gelman (Eds.), Mapping the mind: Domain specificity in cognition and culture. New York: Cambridge University Press. Resnick, L.B., & Klopfer, L.E. (1989). Toward the thinking curriculum: Current cognitive research. Washington, DC: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Rice, D.C., Ryan, J.M., & Samson, S.M. (1998). Using concept maps to assess student learning outcomes in the science classroom: Must different methods compete? Journal of Research in Science Education, 35(10), 1103-1127. Riley, R.W. (1999). Annual back-to-school address: Changing the American high school to fit modern times. The National Press Club, Washington, DC (September 15). Romo, H., & Falbo, T. (1996). Hispanic high school graduation: Defying the odds. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press. Rosenthal, R., Baratz, S.S., & Hall, C.M. (1974). Teacher behavior, teacher expectations, and gains in pupils’ rated creativity. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 124, 115-121. Rosenthal, R. (1987). Pygmalion effects: Existence, magnitude, and social importance. Educational Researcher, 16(9), 37-41. Rosenthal, R., & Jacobson, L. (1968). Pygmalion in the classroom. New York: Holt, Rinehart, & Winston. Rosenthal, R., & Rubin, D.B. (1978). Interpersonal expectancy effects: The first 345 studies. Behavior and Brain Science, 3, 377-415.

OCR for page 206
Learning and Understanding: Improving Advanced Study of Mathematics and Science in U.S. High Schools Roth, K.J. (1986). Conceptual-change learning, and student procession of science texts. (The Institute for Research on Teaching, Research Series No. 167.) East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University. Rothman, F., & Narum, J. (1999). Then, now, and in the next decade: A commentary on strengthening undergraduate science, mathematics, engineering, and technology education. Washington, DC: Project Kaleidoscope. Roy, K.R. (2001). A district that puts physics first: A Connecticut school district puts Lederman’s vision to the test. In New Horizons in Mathematics and Science Education, ENC Focus Magazine, 8(4). [Available at Eisenhower National Clearinghouse, http://www.enc.org]. Rubenstein, R. (1998). Resource equity in the Chicago public schools: A school-level approach. Journal of Education Finance, 23(4), 468-489. Russell, A.B. (1998). Statewide college admissions, Student preparation, and remediation. Policies and programs: Summary of a 1997 SHEEO survey . Denver, CO: State Higher Education Executive Officers. Rutter, M. (1983). School effects on pupil progress: Research findings and policy implications. Journal of Child Development, 54, 1-29. Rutter, M., McNaughan, B., Mortimore, P., & Ouston, J. (1979). Fifteen thousand hours: Secondary schools and their effects on children. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Ryder, J., Leach, J., & Driver, R. (1999). Undergraduate science student’s images of science. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 36(2), 201-219. Sanders, W.L., & Rivers, J.C. (1996). Cumulative and residual effects of teachers on future student academic achievement: Research progress report. Knoxville, TN: University of Tennessee, Value-Added Research and Assessment Center. Schmidt, B.J., Finch, C.R., & Faulkner, S.L. (1992). Helping teachers to understand their roles in integrating vocational and academic education: A practitioner’s guide. (MDS-276). Berkeley, CA: University of California at Berkeley, National Center for Research in Vocational Education. Schmidt, W.H., McKnight, C.C., Cogan, L.S., Jakewerth, P.M., & Hourang, R.T. (1999). Facing the consequences: Using TIMSS for a closer look at U.S. mathematics and science education. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer. Schneider, B. (1999). The ambitious generation. Education Week. April 14, 18(31). Schoenfeld, A.H. (1983). Problem solving in the mathematics curriculum: A report, recommendation and annotated bibliography. Mathematical Association of America Notes, (1). Schoenfeld, A.H. (1984). Episodes and executive decisions in mathematical problem solving. In R. Lesh, & M. Landau (Eds.), Acquisition of mathematics concepts and processes. New York: Academic Press. Schoenfeld, A.H. (1985). Mathematical problem solving. Orlando, FL: Academic Press. Schoenfeld, A.H. (1987). What’s all the fuss about metacognition? In A.H. Schoenfeld (Ed.), Cognitive science and mathematics education. Hillside, NJ: Erlbaum. Schoenfeld, A.H. (1991). On pure and applied research in mathematics education. Journal of Mathematical Behavior, 10, 263-276. Schofield, C. (2000). Teacher’s guide, AP biology. New York: College Entrance Examination Board.

OCR for page 206
Learning and Understanding: Improving Advanced Study of Mathematics and Science in U.S. High Schools Schoon, K.J., & Boone, W.J. (1998). Self-efficacy and alternative conceptions of science preservice elementary teachers. Science Education, 82(5), 553-568. Schulman, L.S. (1986). Those who understand: Knowledge growth in teaching. Educational Researcher, 15(2), 4-14. Shaughnessy, M.F. (1998). An interview with Rita Dunn about learning styles. The Clearing House, 71(3), 141-145. Shavelson, R.J., Baxter, G.P., & Pine, J. (1992). Performance assessments: Political rhetoric and measurement reality. Educational Researcher, 21(4), 22-27. Shepard, L., & Cutts-Dougherty, K. (1991). Effects of high-stakes testing on instruction. Paper presented at the annual joint meeting of the American Educational research Association and the National Council on Measurement in Education, Chicago, IL. Shepard, L.A. (1990). Inflated test score gains: Is the problem old norms or teaching the test? Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice, 9(3), 15-22. Shepard, L.A. (2000). The role of assessment in a learning culture. Educational Researcher, 29(7), 4-14. Silver, E.A., & Smith, M.S. (1996). Building discourse communities in mathematics classrooms. Communication in mathematics. Reston, VA: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. Simon, H.A. (1980). Problem solving and education. In D. T. Tuma, & R. Reif (Eds.), Problem solving and education: Issues in teaching and research. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Sizer, T. (1992). Horace’s compromise: The dilemma of the American high school. Boston: Houghton-Mifflin. Skemp, R. (1978). Relational understanding and instrumental understanding. Arithmetic Teacher, 26(3), 9-15. Skemp, R. (1979). Intelligence, learning, and action. New York: Wiley. Sneider, C.I., & Ohadi, M.M. (1998). Unraveling students’ misconceptions about earth’s shape and gravity. Science Education, 82(2):265-284. Southerland, S.A., & Gess-Newsom, J. (1999). Preservice teachers’ views of inclusive science teaching as shaped by images of teaching, learning, and knowledge. Science Education, 83(2), 131-150. Springer, K. & Peyser, M. (1998). The rat race begins at 14: Stressed-out kids aiming for top colleges refuse to slow down. Newsweek. March 30, 131(13). Steen, L.A. (Ed.). (1998). Calculus for a new century: A pump, not a filter, a national colloquium, October 28–29, 1987. (MAA Notes Series #8). Washington, DC: Mathematical Association of America. Steinberg, L., & Dornbusch, S.M. (1991). Negative correlates of part-time employment during adolescence: Replication and elaboration. Developmental Psychology, 27(2), 304-313. Stipek, D.J. (1998). Motivation to learn: From theory to practice (2 ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon. Sugrue, B., Valdes, R., Schlackman, J., & Webb, N. (1996). Patterns of performance across different types of items measuring knowledge of Ohm’s Law. (CSE technical report 405.) Los Angeles: University of California at Los Angeles, Center for

OCR for page 206
Learning and Understanding: Improving Advanced Study of Mathematics and Science in U.S. High Schools Research on Evaluation, Standards, and Student Testing, Center for the Study of Evaluation. Sykes, G. (1996). Reform of and as professional development. Phi Delta Kappan, 77, 465-467. Tafel, J., & Eberhart, N. (1999). Statewide school-college (K-16) partnerships to improve student performance. Denver, CO: State Higher Education Executive Officers. Tharp, R.G., & Gallimore, R. (1988). Rousing minds to life: Teaching, learning, and schooling in social context. New York: Cambridge University Press. Tomlinson, C.A. (1995). How to differentiate instruction in mixed-ability classrooms. Alexandria VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Torrance, E.P. (1984). Mentor relationships: How they aid creative achievement, endure change and die. New York: Bearly. Townes, M.H., & Grant, E.R. (1997). “I believe I will go out of this class actually knowing something”: Cooperative learning activities in physical chemistry. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 34(8), 819-835. Useem, E. (1992). Middle school and math groups: Parent’s involvement in children’s placement. Sociology of Education, 65(4), 263-279. Van Zile-Tamsen, C.M. (1996). Metacognitive self-regulation and the daily academic activities of college students. Buffalo, NY: State University of New York at Buffalo, unpublished doctoral dissertation. VanTassel-Baska, J. (1998). Characteristics and needs of talented learners. In J. VanTassel-Baska (Ed.), Excellence in educating gifted and talented learners (3rd ed., pp.173-192). Denver: CO: Love. VanTassel-Baska, J., Feldhusen, J., Seely, K., Wheatly, G., Silverman, L., & Foster, W. (1988). Comprehensive curriculum for gifted learners. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn and Bacon. Viadero, D. (2001). AP program assumes larger role. Education Week, 20(32), April 25. Vosniadou, S. & Brewer, W.F. (1992). Mental models of the earth: A study of conceptual change in childhood. Cognitive Psychology, 24(4), 535–85. Wallach, M.A. (1978). Care and feeding of the gifted. Contemporary Psychology, 23, 616-617. Wandersee, J.H., Mintzes, J J., & Novak, J.D. (1994). Research on alternative conceptions in science. In D. Gabel (Ed.), Handbook of research on science teaching and learning: A project of the National Science Teachers Association (pp. 177-210). New York: Macmillan. Weiner, B. (1985). An attributional theory of achievement, motivation and emotion. Psychological Review, 92(4), 548-573. Weiss, I. (1994). A profile of science and mathematics education in the United States: 1993. Chapel Hill, NC: Horizon Research. Welner, K.G. (2001). Legal rights, local wrongs: When community control collides with educational equity. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press. White, B.Y., & Frederickson, J.R. (1998). Inquiry, modeling, and metacognition: Making science accessible to all students. Cognition and Instruction, 16(1), 3-118. White, R.W. (1959). Motivation reconsidered: The concept of competence. Psychological Review, 66, 297-333.

OCR for page 206
Learning and Understanding: Improving Advanced Study of Mathematics and Science in U.S. High Schools Wiggins, G. (1998). Educative assessment: Designing assessments to inform and improve student performance. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Wood, T., Cobb, P., & Yackel, E. (1991). Change in teaching mathematics: A case study. American Educational Research Journal, 28(3), 587-616. Wright, S.P., Horn, S.P., & Sanders, W.L. (1997). Teacher and classroom context effects on student achievement: Implications for teacher evaluation. Journal of Personnel Evaluation in Education, 11, 57-67. Zimmerman, B. (1989). A social cognitive view of self-regulated academic learning. Journal of Educational Psychology, 23, 614-628.

OCR for page 206
Learning and Understanding: Improving Advanced Study of Mathematics and Science in U.S. High Schools This page intentionally left blank.