FIGURE 2.1 The Younger Dryas (YD) climate event, as recorded in an ice core from central Greenland and a sediment core from offshore Venezuela. The upper-most curve is the gray-scale (light or dark appearance) of the Cariaco Basin core, and probably records changes in windiness and rainfall (Hughen et al., 1998). The other curves are from the GISP2, Greenland ice core. The rate of snow accumulation and the temperature in central Greenland were calculated by Cuffey and Clow (1997), using the layer-thickness data from Alley et al. (1993) and the ice-isotopic ratios from Grootes and Stuiver (1997), respectively. The independent Severinghaus et al. (1998) temperature estimate is shown by the circle near the end of the Younger Dryas. Methane data are from Brook et al. (1996) (squares) and Severinghaus et al. (1998) (x), and probably record changes in global wetland area. Changes in the d15N values as measured by Severinghaus et al. (1998) record the temperature difference between the surface of the Greenland ice sheet and the depth at which bubbles were trapped; abrupt warmings caused the short-lived spikes in this value near the end of the Younger Dryas and near 14.7 thousand years. Highs in sea-salt sodium indicate windy conditions from beyond Greenland, and even larger changes in calcium from continental dust indicate windy and dry or low-vegetation conditions in the Asian source regions (Mayewski et al., 1997; Biscaye et al., 1997). Calcium and sodium concentrations measured in the ice have been converted to concentrations in the air over Greenland, and are displayed by dividing by the estimated average atmospheric concentrations over Greenland in the millennium before the Little Ice Age, following Alley et al. (1997). Most of the ice-core data, and many related data sets, are available on The Greenland Summit Ice Cores CD-ROM, 1997, National Snow and Ice Data Center, University of Colorado at Boulder, and the World Data Center-A for Paleoclimatology, National Geophysical Data Center, Boulder, Colorado, www.ngdc.noaa.gov/paleo/icecore/greenland/summit/index.html. Figure is modified from Alley (2000).