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American Geophysical Union. Dr. Hansen received his Ph.D. from the University of Iowa.

Mr. Thomas R.Karl is Director of the National Climatic Data Center of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Before this he served as the senior scientist where his research interests included global climate change, extreme weather events, and trends in global and U.S. climate over the past 100 years. Mr. Karl is a fellow of the American Meteorological Society and the American Geophysical Union and served as the chair of the National Research Council's Climate Research Committee. He was a coordinating lead author for the IPCC Working Group I Third Assessment Report. Mr. Karl received his M.S. from the University of Wisconsin.

Dr. Richard S.Lindzen is the Alfred P.Sloan Professor of Meteorology in the Department of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. His research interests include dynamic meteorology and climatology, specifically upper atmosphere dynamics, waves and instability, climate sensitivity, regional and interannual variability of weather, tropical meteorology, monsoons, mesoscale systems, clear air turbulence, climate dynamics, and general circulation. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences and a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. He was a lead author for the IPCC Working Group I Third Assessment Report. Dr. Lindzen received his Ph.D. from Harvard University.

Dr. James C.McWilliams is the Slichter Professor of Earth Sciences in the Department of Atmospheric Sciences and the Institute for Geophysics and Planetary Physics at the University of California at Los Angeles. His research focuses on the fluid dynamics of Earth's oceans and atmosphere, both their theory and computational modeling. Particular subjects of interest include the maintenance of general circulations; climate dynamics; geostrophically and cyclo-strophically balanced dynamics in rotating, stratified fluids; vortex dynamics; the planetary boundary layers; planetary-scale thermohaline convection, the roles of coherent structures of turbulent flows in geophysical and astrophysical regimes; numerical methods; coastal ocean modeling and statistical estimation theory. He is a fellow of the American Geophysical Union and has served on the National Research Council's Climate Research Committee and Board on Atmospheric and Sciences. Dr. McWilliams received his Ph.D. from Harvard University.

Dr. F.Sherwood Rowland is the Donald Bren Research Professor of Chemistry and Earth System Science at the University of California at Irvine. His research interests include atmospheric chemistry (stratospheric ozone, trace compounds in the troposphere on a global basis); chemical kinetics, in particular, gas phase reactions of chlorine, fluorine, and hydrogen; and radiochemistry, specifically tracer studies with radioactive isotopes. Dr. Rowland is a member of the National Academy of Sciences where he currently serves as Foreign Secretary. He is also a member of the Institute of Medicine. He has received numerous awards including the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1995 and the Revelle medal of the American Geophysical Union. Dr. Rowland received his Ph.D. from the University of Chicago.

Dr. Edward S.Sarachik is a professor in the Department of Atmospheric Sciences and an adjunct professor in the School of Oceanography at the University of Washington. His research interests focus on large-scale atmosphere-ocean interactions, seasonal variations in the tropical oceans, the role of the ocean in climate change, and biogeochemical cycles in the global ocean. Dr. Sarachik is a fellow of the American Geophysical Union, the American Meteorological Society, and the American Association for the Advancement of Science. He has served on numerous National Research Council committees including the Climate Research Committee, the Tropical Ocean/Global Atmosphere (TOGA) Advisory Panel (chair), and the Panel on Improving U.S. Climate Modeling (chair). Dr. Sarachik received his Ph.D. from Brandeis University.

Dr. John M.Wallace is a professor of atmospheric sciences and co-director of the University of Washington Program on the Environment. From 1981–98 he served as director of the (University of Washington/NOAA) Joint Institute for the Study of the Atmosphere and the Ocean. His research specialties include the study of atmospheric general circulation, El Niño, and global climate. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences; a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the American Geophysical Union (AGU), and the American Meteorological Society (AMS); and the recipient of the Rossby medal of the AMS and Revelle medal of the AGU. Dr. Wallace received his Ph.D. from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Dr. Vaughan C.Turekian (Study Director) is a Program Officer with the Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate. He received his B.S. from Yale University, where he specialized in Geology and Geophysics and International Studies. He received his Ph.D. in Environmental Sciences from the University of Virginia in 2000 where he used stable bulk and compound-specific isotope analyses to characterize the sources and processing of aerosols in marine air.



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