G
Glossary


AFBC:

Atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion greatly reduces sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions from coal-burning power plants while increasing combustion efficiency. The result is that power plant engineers can obtain more power from a given amount of coal. A key feature of Illinois coal is its high energy content. Unfortunately, it has a high sulfur content as well. Fluidized-bed combustion neutralizes the process by which sulfur is converted to SO2 then emitted into the atmosphere.

alternative fuels:

A popular term for nonconventional transportation fuels derived from natural gas (propane, compressed natural gas, methanol, etc.) or biomass materials (ethanol, methanol).

anthracite:

Highest rank of economically usable coal, almost pure carbon, with a heating value of 15,000 Btu/lb, a carbon content of 86 to 97 percent, and a moisture content of less than 15 percent. It is a hard, jet black substance with a high luster. It is primarily mined in northeastern Pennsylvania.

anthracite culm:

Waste product produced when anthracite is mined and prepared for market. Primarily rock and some coal.

appliance standards:

Standards established by Congress for energy-consuming appliances in the National Appliance Energy Conservation Act (NAECA) of 1987, as amended in the National Appliance Energy Conservation Amendments of 1988 and the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct). NAECA established minimum standards of energy efficiency for refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, freezers, room air conditioners, fluorescent lamp ballasts, incandescent reflector lamps, clothes dryers, clothes washers, dishwashers, kitchen ranges and ovens, poll heaters, television sets (withdrawn in 1995), and water heaters. The EPAct added standards for some fluorescent and incandescent reflector lamps, plumbing products, electric motors, commercial water heaters, and heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning systems. It also allowed for the future development of standards for many other products. The Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for establishing the standards and the procedures that manufacturers must use to test their models.

atmospheric pressure:

The pressure of the air at sea level; one standard atmosphere at 0°C is equal to 14.695 psi (1.033 kg/cm2).

avoided cost:

The incremental cost to an electric power producer of generating or purchasing a unit of electricity or capacity or both.


baseload:

Baseload is the minimum amount of power required during a specified period at a steady state.

battery:

An energy storage device composed of one or more electrolyte cells.

bbl:

A barrel is the standard unit of measure of liquids in the oil industry; it contains 42 U.S. standard gallons.

biomass:

Organic material of a nonfossil origin (living or recently dead plant and animal tissue), including aquatic, herbaceous, and woody plants, animal wastes, and portions of municipal wastes.

bituminous coal:

Type of coal most commonly used for electric power generation, with a heating value of 10,500 Btu per pound, a carbon content of 45 to 86 percent, and a moisture content of less than 20 percent. It is soft, dense, and black with well-defined bands of bright and dull material. It is mined chiefly east of the Mississippi River.

black liquor gasification:

Black liquor gasification offers pulp and paper mills the most efficient method for converting biomass energy to electric power, with thermal efficiencies of 74 percent compared with 64 percent in modern recovery boilers. Black liquor gasification also has environmental benefits, such as fewer CO2 emissions



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Energy Research at DOE was it Worth it?: Energy Efficiency and Fossil Energy Research 1978 to 2000 G Glossary AFBC: Atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion greatly reduces sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions from coal-burning power plants while increasing combustion efficiency. The result is that power plant engineers can obtain more power from a given amount of coal. A key feature of Illinois coal is its high energy content. Unfortunately, it has a high sulfur content as well. Fluidized-bed combustion neutralizes the process by which sulfur is converted to SO2 then emitted into the atmosphere. alternative fuels: A popular term for nonconventional transportation fuels derived from natural gas (propane, compressed natural gas, methanol, etc.) or biomass materials (ethanol, methanol). anthracite: Highest rank of economically usable coal, almost pure carbon, with a heating value of 15,000 Btu/lb, a carbon content of 86 to 97 percent, and a moisture content of less than 15 percent. It is a hard, jet black substance with a high luster. It is primarily mined in northeastern Pennsylvania. anthracite culm: Waste product produced when anthracite is mined and prepared for market. Primarily rock and some coal. appliance standards: Standards established by Congress for energy-consuming appliances in the National Appliance Energy Conservation Act (NAECA) of 1987, as amended in the National Appliance Energy Conservation Amendments of 1988 and the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct). NAECA established minimum standards of energy efficiency for refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, freezers, room air conditioners, fluorescent lamp ballasts, incandescent reflector lamps, clothes dryers, clothes washers, dishwashers, kitchen ranges and ovens, poll heaters, television sets (withdrawn in 1995), and water heaters. The EPAct added standards for some fluorescent and incandescent reflector lamps, plumbing products, electric motors, commercial water heaters, and heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning systems. It also allowed for the future development of standards for many other products. The Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for establishing the standards and the procedures that manufacturers must use to test their models. atmospheric pressure: The pressure of the air at sea level; one standard atmosphere at 0°C is equal to 14.695 psi (1.033 kg/cm2). avoided cost: The incremental cost to an electric power producer of generating or purchasing a unit of electricity or capacity or both. baseload: Baseload is the minimum amount of power required during a specified period at a steady state. battery: An energy storage device composed of one or more electrolyte cells. bbl: A barrel is the standard unit of measure of liquids in the oil industry; it contains 42 U.S. standard gallons. biomass: Organic material of a nonfossil origin (living or recently dead plant and animal tissue), including aquatic, herbaceous, and woody plants, animal wastes, and portions of municipal wastes. bituminous coal: Type of coal most commonly used for electric power generation, with a heating value of 10,500 Btu per pound, a carbon content of 45 to 86 percent, and a moisture content of less than 20 percent. It is soft, dense, and black with well-defined bands of bright and dull material. It is mined chiefly east of the Mississippi River. black liquor gasification: Black liquor gasification offers pulp and paper mills the most efficient method for converting biomass energy to electric power, with thermal efficiencies of 74 percent compared with 64 percent in modern recovery boilers. Black liquor gasification also has environmental benefits, such as fewer CO2 emissions

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Energy Research at DOE was it Worth it?: Energy Efficiency and Fossil Energy Research 1978 to 2000 and wastewater discharges, the potential for self-generation of power, and the potential for improved pulping operations. bottoming cycle: A means to increase the thermal efficiency of a steam electric generating system by converting some waste heat from the condenser into electricity. The heat engine in a bottoming cycle would be a condensing turbine similar in principle to a steam turbine but operating with a different working fluid at a much lower temperature and pressure. Btu: A British thermal unit is a standard unit for measuring the quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 lb of water by 1°F. CAFE requirements: Corporate average fuel economy is a sales-weighted average fuel mileage calculation, in terms of miles per gallon, based on city and highway fuel economy measurements performed as part of federal emissions test procedures. CAFE requirements were instituted by the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 and modified by the Automobile Fuel Efficiency Act of 1980. For major manufacturers, CAFE levels in 1996 were 27.5 miles per gallon for light-duty automobiles. CAFE standards also apply to some light trucks. The Alternative Motor Fuels Act of 1988 allowed for an adjusted calculation of the fuel economy of vehicles that can use alternative fuels, including fuel-flexible and dual-fuel vehicles. catalytic converter: An air pollution control device that removes organic contaminants by oxidizing them into carbon dioxide and water through a chemical reaction using a catalyst, which is a substance that increases (or decreases) the rate of a chemical reaction without being changed itself; required in all automobiles sold in the United States and used in some types of heating appliances. CCT: Clean coal technology is a new way to burn or use coal that significantly reduces the release of pollutants and offers greater environmental protection and, often, better economic performance than older coal technologies. CFL: Compact fluorescent lamps are four to five times more efficient than incandescent lamps. CFLs are now widely used in commercial buildings in many applications that traditionally used incandescent lamps, for example, in recessed downlights. The primary barrier to widespread penetration of the CFL in the residential sector is the cost and bulk of the ballast. Unitized lamp-ballast products minimize bulk but tend to be expensive because both the lamp and the ballast are replaced when the product wears out. CH4: Methane is a colorless, odorless gas that is the most simple of the hydrocarbons formed naturally from the decay of organic matter. Each methane molecule contains a carbon atom surrounded by four hydrogen atoms. It is the principal component of natural gas. CO: Carbon monoxide is a colorless, odorless but poisonous combustible gas. It is produced in the incomplete combustion of carbon and carbon compounds such as fossil fuels (i.e., coal and petroleum) and their products (e.g., liquefied petroleum gas and gasoline) and biomass. CO2: Carbon dioxide is a colorless, odorless gas that is produced when animals (including humans) breathe or when carbon-containing materials (including fossil fuels) are burned. coal-bed methane: In general terms, coal-bed gas is formed by biochemical and physical processes during the conversion of plant material into coal. Methane accounts for most of the gases created during the conversion process, and the term “coal-bed methane” has been used by industry for gas from this source. Coal-bed methane is similar to conventional natural gas but is produced from low-pressure underground coal formations rather than from underground sandstone or carbonate rock formations. It is mainly composed of methane but, like other conventional natural gases, it may contain very small quantities of other paraffin series hydrocarbons such as ethane and propane. Coal-bed methane has been referred to as a sweet gas because it typically contains very few impurities such as hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide normally found in natural gas. In some cases, it can be input directly into natural gas pipelines or other gathering systems with little processing. However, in other cases, the few impurities present must be removed before being input into a gathering system. coal preparation: The treatment of coal to reject waste. In its broadest sense, preparation is any processing of mined coal to prepare it for market, including crushing and screening or sieving the coal to reach a uniform size, which normally results in removal of some noncoal material. The term “coal preparation” most commonly refers to processing, including crushing and screening, passing the material through one or more processes to remove impurities, sizing the product, and loading it for shipment. Many of the processes separate rock, clay, and other minerals from coal in a liquid medium; hence the term “washing” is widely used. In some cases, coal passes through a drying step before loading. combined cycle: An electric generating technology in which electricity is produced from otherwise lost waste heat exiting from one or more gas (combustion) turbines. The exiting heat is routed to a conventional boiler or to a heat-recovery steam generator for utilization by a steam turbine in the production of electricity. Such designs increase the efficiency of the electric generating unit. combustion turbine: A gas turbine is a heat engine that uses high-temperature, high-pressure gas as the working fluid. Part of the heat supplied by the gas is converted directly

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Energy Research at DOE was it Worth it?: Energy Efficiency and Fossil Energy Research 1978 to 2000 into mechanical work—high-temperature, high-pressure gas rushes out of the combustor and pushes against the turbine blades, causing them to rotate. In most cases, hot gas is obtained by burning a fuel in air, which is why gas turbines are often referred to as combustion turbines. Because gas turbines are compact, lightweight, and simple to operate, they are widely used in jet aircraft and for electricity generation. Gas turbines are also used in university and industrial settings to produce electricity and steam. In such cases, simple-cycle gas turbines convert a portion of input energy to electricity and use the remaining energy to produce steam in a steam generator. For utility applications, which require maximum electric power, a combined-cycle steam turbine is added to convert steam to electricity. Advanced turbines being developed now use natural gas as the fuel but will later be designed for use with fuels derived from coal, biomass, and other energy resources. The ATS program goal is to produce more-fuel-efficient, cleaner, and lower-cost electricity turbines. crude oil: Unrefined petroleum that reaches the surface of the ground in a liquid state. DCS: The goal of DOE’s drilling, completion, and stimulation program is to conduct R&D that will help reduce drilling costs, minimize formation damage, lower environmental impacts, and improve federal lands. Well drilling, completion, and stimulation account for the great bulk of industry’s capital costs for developing oil and natural gas and provide a rich target for cost reductions and improved practices. direct liquefaction: In direct liquefaction, coal is liquefied by reacting it with hydrogen under pressure and temperature in a process-derived solvent. This technology has not been commercially practiced except in Germany during the Second World War to produce mostly aviation gasoline using inefficient, very-high-pressure technologies. At the end of the war, the U.S. government had a demonstration program to assess those early, first-generation direct liquefaction technologies. The fuels were found to be much too expensive, particularly in comparison to crude oil from the newly opened Middle Eastern oil fields. The U.S. government’s interest was rekindled in the 1960s, starting with limited research and development programs sponsored by the Department of the Interior (Office of Coal Research, Bureau of Mines). The program was stepped up significantly with the oil embargo of 1973. DOE-2: DOE-2 is a computer program that helps evaluate the energy performance and associated operating costs of buildings through computer simulations. The computer program can also be used to evaluate the performance of new technologies and to guide research by estimating the impact of alternative R&D. Such information helps architects and developers to design and construct energy-efficient buildings in a cost-effective manner. downstream fundamentals program: The goal of the downstream fundamentals area of research is to develop and publish fundamental scientific data on thermodynamics, crude oil characterization, and refinery process improvements. Of particular emphasis is to provide this information to companies, universities, and laboratories that do not have internal capacity to develop the data individually. DSM: Demand-side management programs are instituted by utilities. They include schemes such as rebates to customers for installation of energy-efficient appliances and reduced rates for nonpeak-load use of electricity to encourage customers to reduce electricity consumption overall or at certain periods. Eastern Gas Shales Project: The Eastern Gas Shales Project’s technology and information have achieved significant cost reductions in gas shale development and production. The reductions have helped revitalize gas shale drilling in the Appalachian Basin and foster new activity in other gas shale basins. Today, gas shales provide over 400 Bcf per year of natural gas production from numerous basins, up from 70 Bcf in 1978. Through its basic R&D, the project discovered and demonstrated that adsorption is the main gas storage mechanism and that natural fractures provide the essential flow paths in gas shales. The project also developed a series of high-value products that are now widely used by the private gas shale industry, including foam and massive hydraulic fracturing technology, oriented coring and fractigraphic analysis, and well logging in air-filled holes. electronic ballasts: A fluorescent lamp ballast is an electrical device required for starting and operating a fluorescent lamp. The ballast provides the high voltage needed to start the lamps by initiating its discharge and then limits the current to a safe value when the discharge is established. An electronic ballast improves lighting energy efficiency by 25 percent compared with conventional magnetic ballasts. Each electronic ballast saves 20 W by replacing an 80-W magnetic ballast/lamp combination consuming 60 W. In addition, electronic ballasts are lighter and easier to install. They eliminate the flicker or hum that is sometimes experienced with magnetic ballasts. emission control technologies: Combustion processes produce emissions that can be reduced by emission control technologies. These technologies are designed to adjust emissions from burning fuels by applying control factors such as electrostatic precipitators and filters, or combustion modification processes. Environmental Technology: The Environmental Technology Program sponsors research on technologies that reduce the costs of environmental compliance for the oil and natural gas industry. In addition, the program pro-

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Energy Research at DOE was it Worth it?: Energy Efficiency and Fossil Energy Research 1978 to 2000 vides scientific data for identifying lower cost options for formulating or implementing regulations. EOR: Several techniques for enhanced oil recover include the injection of steam, polymers, surfactants, carbon dioxide, and other agents into the oil-bearing formation. The objective of the Enhanced Oil Recovery Program is to develop technology that is capable of improving the recovery of oil beyond that recoverable by conventional methods. Conventional primary and secondary recovery operations often leave two-thirds of the oil in the reservoir at the time of abandonment. Enhanced oil recovery methods have the potential for recovering much of the remaining oil. However, the challenges are great because the remaining oil is often located in regions of the reservoir that are difficult to access and is also bound tightly into the pores by capillary pressures. FBC: Fluidized-bed combustion is an advanced way of burning crushed coal (or other fuels) by suspending the coal on an upward stream of hot air. In the fluid-like mixing process, limestone can be injected into the “bed” (floating layer) of coal to absorb sulfur pollutants before they can escape out of the smokestack. The mixing process also lowers the temperature of the burning coal below the point where nitrogen oxides, another pollutant, are formed. fenestration: In simplest terms, windows or glass doors. Technically fenestration is described as any transparent or translucent material plus any sash, frame, mullion, or divider. This includes windows, sliding glass doors, French doors, skylights, curtain walls, and garden windows. FGD: Flue gas desulfurization reduces the SO2 output concentration to acceptable levels. FGD technology can be used with many kinds of coal. field demonstration: The goal of the Field Demonstration Program is to accelerate the field application of technology developed by industry and DOE. In the near term, the objective is to transfer technology that will enable the industry to recover 15 billion bbl of mobile oil, using currently available and proven technologies, before these resources and fields are abandoned. The midterm objective is to prove and demonstrate advanced enhanced oil recovery (EOR) technologies that will enable the industry to recover an additional 61 million bbl. An essential feature of the program is the transfer of information and technology from specific projects to industry, particularly the independent segment of the industry. Fischer-Tropsch process: The catalytic conversion of synthesis gas into a range of hydrocarbons. flue gas: Gas that is left over after fuel is burned and which is disposed of through a pipe or stack to the atmosphere. fluorescent lamp: A tubular electric lamp that is coated on its inner surface with a phosphor and that contains mercury vapor whose bombardment by electrons from the cathode provides ultraviolet light, which causes the phosphor to emit visible light either of a selected color or closely approximating daylight. Forest Products IOF: The goal of the Forest Products Industries of the Future program is to improve the energy efficiency, productivity, and environmental performance of the forest, wood, and paper industry by better aligning R&D resources and technical assistance with industry problems and priorities. The industry itself leads the process. fossil fuel: Any naturally occurring fuel of an organic nature formed by the decomposition of plants or animals; includes coal, natural gas, and petroleum. fuel cell: A fuel cell is an electrochemical device that produces electric power from a fuel. It has some components and characteristics similar to those of a battery. But, unlike a battery, it continually produces power as long as a fuel and an oxidant are supplied to its electrodes. It does not need to be recharged. Fuel (usually a hydrogen-rich gas) is continuously supplied to the anode (negative electrode), and the oxidant (oxygen from air) is continuously supplied to the cathode (positive electrode). The electrodes are separated by an electrolyte that conducts ions. The fuel is converted directly to electrons without any intervening steps of combustion, rotary motion, or reciprocating action. gasification: A group of processes that turn coal into a combustible gas by breaking apart the coal using heat and pressure and, in many cases, hot steam. gas-to-liquids: The gas-to-liquids technology program is part of the Natural Gas Processing and Utilization Program, which has the goal of supporting the development of advanced gas upgrading and conversion processes to bring low-grade gas up to pipeline standards and to convert remote gas to more readily transportable high-value liquid fuels and feedstocks. The gas-to-liquids portion of this program has the primary objective of lowering the cost of converting natural gas to liquid hydrocarbons. greenhouse gases: Gases such as water vapor, carbon monoxide, tropospheric ozone, nitrous oxide, and methane, which are transparent to solar radiation but opaque to long-wavelength radiation; their action is similar to that of glass in a greenhouse. heat pump: An air-conditioning unit that is capable of heating by refrigeration, transferring heat from one (often cooler) medium to another (often warmer) medium, and

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Energy Research at DOE was it Worth it?: Energy Efficiency and Fossil Energy Research 1978 to 2000 which may or may not include a capability for cooling. This reverse-cycle air conditioner usually provides cooling in summer and heating in winter. hybrid vehicle: Usually a hybrid electric vehicle, a vehicle that employs a combustion engine system together with an electric propulsion system. Hybrid technologies expand the usable range of all-electric vehicles using batteries only. hydrocarbons: A class of compounds containing hydrogen and carbon formed by the decomposition of plant and animal remains. These compounds include coal, oil, natural gas, and other substances occurring in rocks. IGCC: Integrated gasification combined-cycle technology uses a coal gasifier in place of the traditional combustor, coupled with a key enabling technology—the advanced gas turbine—to produce clean, efficient electric power. In an IGCC plant, coal is combined with steam and oxygen to produce a synthesis gas that is cleaned of particulate and sulfur impurities and used to produce power in a gas turbine. Waste heat from the process is used in a steam turbine to generate more electricity. Integrating gasifier technology with a combined cycle in this way offers high system efficiencies, low costs, and ultralow pollution levels. indirect coal liquefaction: In indirect coal liquefaction, coal is first gasified to produce a synthesis gas (hydrogen and carbon monoxide), which is cleaned to remove acid gases (hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide). This synthesis gas is then converted either to oxygenates and chemicals or to a range of hydrocarbon products using Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. R&D for the production of the clean synthesis gas from coal is the responsibility of the Gasification Technologies Program. The Indirect Liquefaction Program is responsible for R&D that deals with the synthesis of the products, their characterization and testing, and their upgrading. in situ processing: The extraction of a product such as shale oil or bitumen from the ore while it is in its original location underground. life-cycle costs: The total costs of an energy device. Total costs from procurement operation, maintenance, and disposal at end of life are considered for comparison using present dollars. life extension: Life extension is achieved by maintaining or improving the operating status of an electric power plant within acceptable levels of availability and efficiency, beyond the originally anticipated retirement date. liquefaction: Processes that convert coal into a liquid fuel similar in nature to crude oil and/or refined products. longwall mining: An automated form of underground coal mining characterized by high recovery and extraction rates, feasible only in relatively flat-lying, thick, and uniform coalbeds. A high-powered cutting machine is passed across the exposed face of coal, shearing away broken coal, which is continuously hauled away by a floor-level conveyor system. Longwall mining extracts all machine-minable coal between the floor and ceiling within a contiguous block of coal, known as a panel, leaving no support pillars within the panel area. Panel dimensions vary over time and with mining conditions but currently average about 900 feet in width (coal face width) and more than 8000 feet in length (the minable extent of the panel, measured in the direction of mining). Longwall mining is done under movable roof supports that are advanced as the bed is cut. The roof in the mined-out area is allowed to fall as the mining advances. lost foam casting: Lost foam casting has significant cost and environmental advantages and enables metal casters to produce complex parts often not possible using other methods. The process allows designers to reduce the number of parts, reduce machining, and minimize assembly operations. It also allows foundries to reduce solid waste and emissions. The lost foam process consists of first making a foam pattern having the geometry of the desired finished metal part. The pattern is dipped into a water solution containing a suspended refractory. The refractory material coats the foam pattern, leaving a thin, heat-resistant layer that is air-dried. When drying is complete, the coated foam is suspended in a steel container that is vibrated while sand is added to surround the coated pattern. The sand provides mechanical support to the thin refractory layer. Molten metal is then poured into the mold, and the molten metal melts and vaporizes the foam. The solidified metal leaves a nearly exact replica of the pattern that is machined as required to produce the desired finished shape. low-e: A special coating that reduces the emissivity of a window assembly, thereby reducing the heat transfer through the assembly. low-e windows: Low-emission windows save heating and cooling loads in residential and commercial buildings. They reflect the infrared back into the room instead of absorbing and transmitting it to the outside. Mcf: One thousand cubic feet of natural gas, having an energy value of 1 million Btu. A typical home might use 6 Mcf in a month. mercury and air toxics: Mercury and other air toxics (chlorine, sulfur, ash, etc.) are defined as hazardous by-products from the combustion of fossil fuels. The DOE Mercury Measurement and Control Program developed as a result of findings from the comprehensive assessment of

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Energy Research at DOE was it Worth it?: Energy Efficiency and Fossil Energy Research 1978 to 2000 hazardous air pollutant studies conducted by DOE from 1990 through 1995, with some efforts through 1997. The overriding finding of these studies was that mercury is not effectively controlled in coal-fired utility boiler systems. EPA also concluded that a plausible link exists between these emissions and adverse health effects. The ineffective control of mercury by existing coal technologies was due to a number of factors, including variation in coal composition and resulting variability in the form of the mercury in flue gases. The volatility of mercury was the main reason for less removal. In addition, it was determined that there was no reliable mercury specification method to accurately distinguish between the elemental and oxidized forms of mercury in the flue gas, which act differently with respect to their removal by the air pollution control devices utilized by the coal-fired utility industry. MHD: Magnetohydrodynamics is a means of producing electricity directly by moving liquids or gases through a magnetic field. natural gas: A mixture of gaseous hydrocarbons, composed primarily of methane and occurring naturally in the earth, often among petroleum deposits. It is used as fuel. NOx: Oxides of nitrogen; a mix of nitrous oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). NOx control: Techniques for reducing NOx emissions from fossil-fuel-fired boilers can be classified into two categories: combustion controls and postcombustion controls. Combustion controls reduce NOx formation during the combustion process, while postcombustion controls reduce NOx after is has been formed. O3: Ozone is a bluish, toxic gas with a pungent odor. It is formed by three oxygen atoms rather than the usual two. Ozone occurs in the stratosphere and plays a role in filtering out ultraviolet radiation from the sun’s rays. At ground level, ozone is a major component of smog. OAPEC: The Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries was established in 1968 with permanent headquarters in Kuwait. It is an instrument of Arab cooperation whose objective is to provide support to the Arab oil industry. Its activities are developmental in nature, and its membership is restricted to Arab countries with oil revenues that constitute a significant part of their GNPs. OPEC: The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries, founded in 1960 to unify and coordinate the petroleum policies of the members. The headquarters is in Vienna, Austria. oxy-fueled glass furnace: The glass industry is a large user of energy in furnaces to produce glass containers, float glass for windows in construction and automobiles, fiber glass insulation, and other specialty products. The high temperatures required for glass manufacture and the raw materials used in glass result in significant emissions of NOx and particulates. The oxy-fuel furnace substitutes oxygen for air in the combustion process. This change in the process significantly reduces NOx emissions, reduces the amount of energy required per ton of glass produced, reduces levels of other gases, and reduces the capital costs for furnace regenerators and emissions control equipment. P-4: The Programmable Powdered Preform Process is a way of fabricating a preform that is essentially the fibrous skeleton of a composite structure. Chopped reinforcement fibers and resin powder are simultaneously sprayed onto a heated screen mandrel by robots that control the placement, depth, and orientation of the fibers. The resin powder melts, causing the fibers to stick together enough for the preform to be removed whole from the mandrel. The preform is placed in a mold, where it is infused with more resin, compressed, and heat-cured to form the final product. P-4 is highly automated and results in finished parts with good dimensional stability, strength, and corrosion and wear resistance. It is also much faster than most composite preform processes. peak load: Peak load (usually in reference to electrical load) is the maximum load during a specified period of time. Peak periods during the day usually occur in the morning hours from 6 to 9 A.M. and during the afternoons from 4 P.M. to about 8 or 9 P.M. The afternoon peak demand periods are usually higher, and they are highest during summer months when air-conditioning use is the highest. PEM fuel cell: A PEM (proton exchange membrane, also called polymer electrolyte membrane) fuel cell uses a simple chemical process to combine hydrogen and oxygen into water, producing electric current in the process. PFBC: Pressurized fluidized-bed combustion is one of several advanced approaches for substantially improving the efficiency of coal-fired power systems while significantly reducing emissions. In contrast to the atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion (AFBC) system, in a PFBC system, the boiler, cyclones, and other associated hardware are encapsulated in a pressure vessel. This compact “boiler in a bottle” is about one-fourth the size of a pulverized coal boiler of similar capacity. PFBC units are intended to give an efficiency value of over 40 percent and low emissions, and developments of the system using more advanced cycles are intended to achieve efficiencies of over 45 percent. PNGV: Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles was established in September 1993 as a collaboration between the federal government and the United States Council for Automotive Research (USCAR), which represents DaimlerChrysler, Ford, and General Motors. The PNGV’s goal is to develop technologies for a new generation of energy efficient and environmentally friendly vehicles.

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Energy Research at DOE was it Worth it?: Energy Efficiency and Fossil Energy Research 1978 to 2000 psi (psig): Pounds per square inch (psig indicates gauge pressure, that is, pressure above atmospheric pressure). pyrolysis: Thermal decomposition of a chemical compound or mixture of chemical compounds. rank: Variety of coal; the higher the rank of coal, the greater its carbon content and heating value. R&D: Research is the discovery of fundamental new knowledge. Development is the application of new knowledge to develop a potential new service or product. RD&D: Research, development, and demonstration. repowering: Repowering is achieved by investments made in a plant to substantially increase its generating capability, to change generating fuels, or to install a more efficient generating technology at the plant site. SCR: Selective catalytic reduction; postcombustion NOx control with the use of catalysts. seismic technology: Seismic technologies are geophysical techniques used to image oil reservoirs, the associated rock and fluids from the earth’s surface and/or from nearby boreholes. The application of seismic technology in oil exploration and development has increased ultimate recovery and reduced risk and costs by identifying barriers and pathways of fluids movement through the reservoir, thus allowing for more effective targeting of well placement and management of enhanced oil recovery projects. SFC: Synthetic Fuels Corporation. shale oil: A type of rock containing organic matter that produces large amounts of oil when heated to high temperatures. SOx: Oxides of sulfur. SO2: Sulfur dioxide. Steel IOF: The Industries of the Future partnership between DOE and the U.S. steel industry is oriented toward improving the productivity, energy efficiency, and environmental performance of the steel industry by aligning the R&D resources of industry and government. Stirling automotive engines: Engines with very high efficiency, operating on nearly any type of fuel, requiring little maintenance, smooth, and quiet. This engine is well suited to automobiles, but the auto industry has so much plant and equipment devoted to the manufacture, service, and sale of gasoline and diesel engines that incremental improvements in competing technologies do not justify the enormous cost and logistic difficulty of introducing an entirely new type of engine. Stirling engine: An external combustion engine that converts heat into usable mechanical energy (shaftwork) by the heating (expanding) and cooling (contracting) of a captive gas such as helium or hydrogen. Subbituminous coal: Coal with a heating value of 8,300 to 11,500 Btu/lb, a carbon content of 35 to 45 percent, and a moisture content of 20 to 30 percent. syngas: Synthetic natural gas made from coal. synthesis gas: Mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen and other liquid and gaseous products. Synthetic Fuels Corporation: Organization established by the Energy Security Act of 1980 to facilitate the development of domestic nonconventional energy resources. tax credits: Credits established by the federal and state government to assist the development of the alternative energy industry. turbine: A machine that has propeller-like blades that can be moved by flowing gas (such as steam or combustion gases) to spin a rotor in a generator to produce electricity. 21st Century Truck Program: Multiagency and industry partnership designed to cut fuel use and emissions by buses and trucks, while enhancing their safety, affordability and performance. It was created as a response to U.S. climate change policy. waste management: Waste products from the combustion of fossil fuels for power generation include by-product materials from scrubbers and fly ash. The Waste Management Utilization Program is oriented toward providing improved methods of waste characterization and handling, advances in resource recovery and reutilization techniques, and sound management and/or disposal of combustion and other fossil wastes in compliance with environmental regulations. well: A hole drilled or bored into the earth, usually cased with metal pipe, for the production of gas or oil. Also, a hole for the injection under pressure of water or gas into a subsurface rock formation. Western Gas Sands: The Western Gas Sands Program has enabled industry to commercially develop the geologically complex, high-cost tight gas resource in the Rocky Mountains. Today, annual tight gas production from Rocky Mountain gas basins is over 700 Bcf, up from 160 Bcf in 1978 and 220 Bcf in 1987, when the R&D program is judged to have begun having a significant impact.