2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, DC 20418

NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.

This report and the study on which it is based were supported by Contract No. DE-AM01-99PO80016, Task Order DE-AT01-00EE10735.A000, from the U.S. Department of Energy. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the agency that provided support for the project.

International Standard Book Number: 0-309-07448-7

Library of Congress Control Number: 2001093513

Available in limited supply from:

Board on Energy and Environmental Systems

National Research Council

2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W.


Washington, DC 20418


Additional copies are available for sale from:

National Academy Press
2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Box 285 Washington, DC 20055 800–624–6242 or 202–334–3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area)

Copyright 2001 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Printed in the United States of America

The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001

Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement