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OCR for page 131
E Acronyms and Abbreviations AAA ASM/AMT AWD bbl Btu C CAB CAFE CARB CFRP CIDI CNG CO co2 CR CVA CVT DI DOE DOHC DOT EEA EIA EMF EPA EV FC FHWA 4WD FTP GAO GDP American Automobile Association automatic shift manual transmission all-wheel drive barrel British thermal unit carbon computer-aided engineering corporate average fuel economy (standards) California Air Resources Board carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer composites compression ignition, direct injection compressed natural gas carbon monoxide carbon dioxide compression ratio camless valve actuation continuously variable transmission direct injection Department of Energy double overhead cam Department of Transportation Energy and Environmental Analysis Energy Information Administration Energy Modeling Forum Environmental Protection Agency electric vehicle fuel cell Federal Highway Administration four-wheel drive federal test procedure General Accounting Office gross domestic product 131 GFRP GHG GM GVW HEV ICE IPCC ISG IVT lb LSFC MIT mmbd MMBtu mpg NAFTA NHTSA NO x NRC OHC OHV OPEC PEM PM PNGV ppm PU PZEV glass-fiber-reinforced polymer composites greenhouse gases General Motors Corporation gross vehicle weight hybrid electric vehicle internal combustion engine Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change integrated starter/generator intake valve throttling pound payload-specific fuel consumption Massachusetts Institute of Technology million barrels per day million British thermal units miles per gallon North American Free Trade Agreement National Highway Traffic Safety Administration nitrogen oxides National Research Council overhead cam overhead valve Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries proton exchange membrane particulate matter Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles parts per million pickup (truck) partial zero emission vehicle
OCR for page 131
132 EFFECTIVENESS AND IMPACT OF CORPORATE AVERAGE FUEL ECONOMY (CAFE) STANDARDS R&D research end development UAW United Auto Workers UPI uniform percentage increase SCR selective catalytic reduction SI spark-ignition VCR variable compression ratio SOHC single overhead cam VMT vehicle miles traveled SULEV super ultralow-emission vehicle VVLT variable valve lift and timing SUV sport utility vehicle VVT variable valve timing TWC three-way catalyst WSFC weight-specific fuel consumption 2WD two-wheel drive WIT well-to-tank WTW well-to-wheels