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References Academy for Health Services Research and Health Policy. 2000. Glossary of Terms Commonly Used in Health Care. Accessed January 24, 2001. Available at http://academyhealth.org/publications/ glossary.pdf. Acs, Gregory, and Linda J. Blumberg. 2001. How a Changing Workforce Affects Employer-Spon- sored Health Insurance. Health Affairs 20(1):178-183. Acs, Gregory, and John Sabelhaus. 1995. Trends in Out-Of-Pocket Spending on Health Care, 1980-92. Monthly Labor Review 118: 35-45. Acs, Gregory, Stephen H. Long, M. Susan Marquis, and Pamela Parley Short. 1996. Self-Insured Employer Health Plans: Prevalence, Profile, Provisions, and Premiums. Health Affairs 15(2):266- 278. Aday, Lu Ann, G.V. Fleming, and Ronald Andersen. 1984. Access to Medical Care in the U.S.: Who Has It, Who Doesn't. Chicago, IL: Pluribus Press. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Center for Cost and Financing Studies. 2001. Unpub- lished data from 1999 MEPS. Alteras, Tanya T. 2()()1. Understanding the Dynamics of "Crowd-Out": Defining Public/Private Coverage Substitution for Policy and Research. Washington, DC: Academy for Health Services Research and Health Policy, Changes in Health Care Financing and Organization Program. Accessed June 19, 2001. Available at http://www.hcLo.net/ Andersen, Ronald M. 1995. Revisiting the Behavioral Model and Access to Medical Care: Does It Matter? Journal of Health and Social Behavior 36:1-10. Andersen, Ronald M., and Lu Ann Aday. 1978. Access to Medical Care in the U.S.: Realized and Potential. Medical Care 16:533 - 546. Andersen, Ronald, and Odin W. Anderson. 1999. National Medical Expenditure Surveys. Genesis and Rationale. In: Alan C. Monheit, Renate Wilson, and Ross H. Arnett III, (eds.) Informing American Health Care Policy. The Dynamics of Medical Expenditure and Insurance Surveys, 1977- 1996. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Pp. 11-30. Andersen, Ronald M., and Pamela Davidson. 2001. Improving Access to Care in America: Individual and Contextual Indicators. In: Ronald Andersen, Thomas Rice, and Gerald Kominski (eds.) Changing the U.S. Health Care System: Key Issues in Health Services, Policy and Management, San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Pp. 3-30. 157

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158 COVERAGE MATTERS: INSURANCE AND HEALTH CARE Ayanian, John Z., Joel S. Weissman, Eric C. Schneider, Jack A. Ginsburg, and Alan M. Zaslavsky. 2000. Unmet Health Needs of Uninsured Adults in the United States. Journal of the American Medical Association 284(16) :2061-2069. Ayanian, John Z., Betsy A. Kohler, Toshi Abe, et al. 1993. The Relation Between Health Insurance Coverage and Clinical Outcomes Among Women with Breast Cancer. New EnglandJournal of Medicine 329(5):326 - 331. Baker, David W., Martin F. Shapiro, and Claudia L. Schur. 2000. Health Insurance and Access to Care for Symptomatic Conditions. Archives of Internal Medicine 160(9): 1269-1274. Baker, David W., Carl D. Stevens, and Robert H. Brook. 1994. Regular Source of Ambulatory Care and Medical Care Utilization by Patients Presenting to a Public Hospital Emergency Depart- ment. Journal of the American Medical Association 271 (24): 1909-1912. Banja, John D. 2000. The Improbable Future of Employment-Based Insurance. Hastings Center Report 30(3): 17-25. Bennefield, Robert. 1998a. Dynamics of Economic Well-Being: Health Insurance, 1993 to 1995. Who Loses Coverage and for How Long? Census Bureau Current Population Reports. Household Economic Studies, P70-64. Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau. . 1998b. Health Insurance Coverage: 1997. Census Bureau Current Population Reports. House- hold Economic Studies. P60-202:1-7. Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau. Berk, M.L., and A.C. Monheit. 2001. The Concentration of Health Care Expenditures, Revisited. Health Affairs 20(2):9-18. Berk, Marc L., Claudia L. Schur, Leo R. Chavez, and Martin Frankel. 2000. Health Care Use Among Undocumented Latino Immigrants. Health Affairs 19(4):51 - 64. Bernstein, Jared, Chauna Brocht, and Maggie Spade-Aguilar. 2000. How Much Is Enough? Washing- ton, DC: Economic Policy Institute. Bilheimer, Linda T., and David C. Colby. 2001. Expanding Coverage: Reflections on Recent Efforts. Health Affairs 20(1):83-95. Bindman, Andrew B., Kevid Grumbach, Dennis Osmand, et al. 1995. Preventable Hospitalizations and Access to Care.Journal of the American Medical Association 274(4):305-311. Blendon, Robert J., John T. Young, and Catherine M. DesRoches. 1999. The Uninsured, the Working Uninsured, and the Public. Health Affairs 18(6):203-211. Blue Cross Blue Shield Association. 2000. State Legislative Health Care and Insurance Issues: 2000 Survey of Plans. Washington, D.C.: Blue Cross-Blue Shield Association. Blumberg, Linda J. 1999. Who Pays For Employer-Sponsored Health Insurance? Health Affairs 18(6):58-61. Brennan, Niall. 2000. Health Insurance Coverage of the Near-Elderly. No. B21. Washington, DC: The Urban Institute. Broaddus, Matthew, and Leighton Ku. 2000. Nearly 95 Percent of Low-Income Uninsured Children Now Are Eligible for Medicaid or SCHIP. Washington, DC: Center on Budget and Policy Priorities. Accessed May 7, 2001. Available at http://www.cbpp.org. Brown, E. Richard, Victoria D. Ojeda, Roberta Wyn, and Rebecka Levan. 2000a. Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Access to Health Insurance and Health Care. Los Angeles, CA: UCLA Center for Health Policy Research. Brown, E. Richard, Roberta Wyn, and Stephanie Teleki. 2000b. Disparities in Health Insurance and Access to Carefor Residents Across U.S. Cities. Los Angeles, CA: UCLA Center for Health Policy Research. -. 2000c. Disparities in Health Insurance and Access to Care Of Residents Across U.S. Cities Supple- ment: Data From 85 Metropolitan Statistical Areas. Los Angeles, CA: UCLA Center for Health Policy Research. Brown, E. Richard, Ninez Ponce, and Thomas Rice. 2001. The State of Health Insurance in California: Recent Trends, Future Prospects. Los Angeles, CA: UCLA Center for Health Policy Research.

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REFERENCES 159 Brown, E. Richard, Roberta Wyn, Hongjian Yu, Abel Valenzuela, et al. 1999. Access to Health Insurance and Health Care for Children in Immigrant Families. In: Donald J Hernandez (ed.). Committee on the Health and Adjustment of Immigrant Children and Families, Children of Immigrants. Health, Adjustment, and Public Assistance. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Pp. 126-186. Brown, Margaret E., Andrew B. Bindman, and Nicole Lurie. 1998. Monitoring the Consequences of Uninsurance: A Review of the Methodologies. Medical Care Research and Review 55(2):177-210. Buchmueller, Thomas C. 1996-1997. Marital Status, Spousal Coverage, and the Gender Gap in Employer-Sponsored Health Insurance. Inquiry 33:308 - 316. Budetti, John, Duchon, Lisa, Schoen, Cathy, and Janet Shikles. 1999. Can't Afford to Get Sick: A Realityfor Millions of Working Americans. New York: Commonwealth Fund. Burstin, Helen R., Katherine Swartz, Anne C. O'Neill, et al. 1998. The Effect of Change of Health Insurance on Access to Care. Inquiry 35:389 - 397. Camarota, Steven A., end dames R. Edwards, Jr. 2000. Without Coverage. Immigration's Impact on the Size and Growth of the Population Lacking Health Insurance. Washington, DC: Cener for Immigra- tion Studies. Accessed May 7, 2001. Available at http://www.cis.org. Carrasquillo, Olveen, David U. Himmelstein, Sterile Woolhandler, and David H. Bor. 1998. Can Medicaid Managed Care Provide Continuity of Care to New Medicaid Enrollees? An Analysis of Tenure on Medicaid. AmericanJournal of Public Health 88(3):464-466. Carrasquillo, Olveen, Angeles I. Carrasquillo, and Steven Shea. 2000. Health Insurance Coverage of Immigrants Living in the United States: Differences by Citizenship Status and Country of Origin. AmericanJournal of Public Health 90(6):917-923. Carrasquillo, Olveen, David U. Himmelstein, Sterile Woolhandler, and David H. Bor. 1999a. Going Bare: Trends in Health Insurance Coverage, 1989 Through 1996. American Journal of Public Health 89(1):36 - 42. . l999b. A Reappraisal of Private Employers' Role in Providing Health Insurance. New EnglandJournal of Medicine 340(2):109 - 114. Chernew, Michael, Kevin Frick, and Catherine McLaughlin. 1997. The Demand for Health Insur- ance Coverage by Low-Income Workers: Can Reduced Premiums Achieve Full Coverage? Health Services Research 32(4):453-470. Chollet, Deborah J. 2000. Consumers, Insurers, and Market Behavior. Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law 25(1):27 - 44. Chollet, Deborah J., Adele M. Kirk, and Marc E. Chow. 2000. Mapping State Health Insurance Markets: Structure and Change in the States' Group and Individual Health Insurance Markets, 1995- 1997. Washington, DC: Academy for Health Services Research and Health Policy, State Coverage Initiative. Accessed July 2, 2001. Available at http://www.academyhealth.org/. Chollet, Deborah, and Adele Kirk. 1998. Understanding Individual Health Insurance Markets: Structure, Practices, and Products in Ten States. Menlo Park, CA: The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. Coburn, Andrew F., Elizabeth H. Kilbreth, Stephen H. Long, and M. Susan Marquis. 1998. Urban- Rural Differences in Employer-Based Health Insurance Coverage of Workers. Medical Care Research and Review 55 (4) :484-496. Cooper, Philip F., and Barbara Steinberg Schone. 1997. More Offers, Fewer Takers for Employment Based Health Insurance: 1987 and 1996. Health Affairs 16(6):142-149. Copeland, Craig. 1998. Characteristics of the Nonelderly with Selected Sources of Health Insurance and Lengths of Uninsured Spells. Issue Brief 198. Washington, DC: Employee Benefit Research Institute. Copeland, Craig, Paul Fronstin, Pamela Ostua, and Paul Yakoboski. 1999. Contingent Workers and Workers in Alternative Work Arrangements. Issue Brief No. 207. Washington, DC: Employee Benefit Research Institute. Culyer, Anthony J. and Joseph P. Newhouse (eds.). 2000. Handbook of Health Economics. New York: Elsevier.

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60 CO VERA GE MA TTERS: INSURANCE AND HEALTH CARE Cunningham, Peter J. 1999a. Choosing to Be Uninsured: Determinants and Consequences of the Decision to Decline Employer-Sponsored Health Insurance. Washington, DC: Center for Studying Health Sys- tem Change. l999b. Pressures on Safety Net Access: The Level of Managed Care Penetration and Uninsurance Rate in a Community. Health Services Research 34(1):255-270. Cunningham, Peter, and Paul B. Ginsburg. 2001. What Accounts for Differences in Uninsurance Rates Across Communities? Inquiry 38(10):6-21. Cunningham, Peter J., and Ha T. Tu. 1997. A Changing Picture of Uncompensated Care. Health Affairs 14(4):167-175. Cunningham, PeterJ., and Peter Kemper. 1998. Ability to Obtain Medical Care for the Uninsured. How Much Does It Vary Across Communities? Journal of the American Medical Association 280(10):921-927. Cunningham, PeterJ., and Michael H. Park. 2000. Recent Trends in Children's Health Insurance Cover- age: No Gains for Low-Income Children. Issue Brief No. 29. Findings from HSC. Washington, DC: Center for Studying Health System Change. Accessed May 7, 2001. Available at http:// www.hschange. org. Cunningham, PeterJ., and Heidi Whitmore. 1998. How Well Do Communities Perform on Access to Care for the Uninsured? Washington, DC: Center for Studying Health System Change. Cunningham, Peter, Elizabeth Schaefer, and Christopher Hogan. 1999a. Who Declines Employer- Sponsored Health Insurance and Is Uninsured? Issue Brief No. 22. Findings from HSC. Washington, DC: Center for Studying Health System. Cunningham, Peter J., Joy M. Grossman, Robert F. St. Peter, et al. l999c. Managed Care and Physicians' Provision of Charity Care. Journal of the American Medical Association 281(12):1087- 1092. Currie, Janet, and Brigitte C. Madrian. 1999. Health, Health Insurance, and the Labor Market. In: Orley Ashenfelter and David Card (eds.) Handbook of Labor Economics, Vol. 3. New York: North-Holland. Pp. 3309 - 3415. Custer, William S., and Pat Ketsche. 2000a. The Changing Sources of Health Insurance. Washington, DC: Health Insurance Association of America. . 2000b. Employment-Based Health Insurance Coverage. Washington, DC: Health Insurance As- . . ~ . soclanon ot Amenca. Cutler, David, end Jon Gruber. 1996. Does Public Insurance Crowd out Private Insurance? Quarterly Journal of Economics 111:391 - 430. Cutler, David M., end Jonathan Gruber. 1996. The Effect of Medicaid Expansions on Public Insur- ance, Private Insurance, and Redistribution. The American Economic Review 86(2):378-383. Cutler, David M., end Jonathan Gruber. 1997. Medicaid and Private Insurance: Evidence and Impli- cations. Health Affairs 16 (1): 194-200. Davidoff, Amy J., A.B. Garrett, Diane J. Makuc, and Matthew Schirmer. 2000. Medicaid-Eligible Children Who Don't Enroll: Health Status, Access to Care, and Implications for Medicaid Enrollment. Inquiry 37:203 - 218. Donelan, Karen, Catherine M. DesRoches, and Cathy Schoen. 2000. Inadequate Health Insurance: Costs and Consequences. Medscape GeneralMed 2(4): 1-11. Dubay, Lisa. 1999. Expansions in Public Health Insurance and Crowd-Out: What the Evidence Says. Washington, DC: The HenryJ. Kaiser Family Foundation, The Kaiser Project On Incremental Health Reform. Accessed July 2, 2001. Available at http://www.kEf.org/. Dubay, Lisa and Genevieve Kenney. 1996. The Effects of Medicaid Expansions on Insurance Cover- age of Children. Future of Children 6 (1): 152-161. . 1997. Did Medicaid Expansions for Pregnant Women Crowd Out Private Coverage? Health Affairs 16(1):185-193. . 2001. Health Care Access and Use Among Low-Income Children: Who Fares Best? Health Affairs 20(1):112-121.

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REFERENCES 161 Duncan, R. Paul, Karen Seccomebe, and Cheryl Amey. 1995. Changes in Health Insurance Coverage Within Rural and Urban Environments 1997 to 1997.Journal of Rural Health 11(3):169-176. EBRI (Employee Benefit Research Institute). 2000. Employment-Based Health Care Benefits and Self-Funded Employment-Based Plans: An Overview. Fact Sheet. Washington, DC: Employee Benefit Research Institute. 2001. EBRI Research Highlights: Health Data. Washington, DC: Employee Benefit Research Institute. Eden, Jill. 1998. Measuring Access to Care Through Population-Based Surveys: Where Are We Now? Health Services Research 33(3):685-707. Eisenberg, John M., and Elaine J. Power. 2000. Transforming Insurance Coverage Into Quality Health Care. Journal of the American Medical Association 284(16):2100-2107. Farber, Henry, and Helen Levy. 2000. Recent Trends in Employer-Sponsored Health Insurance Coverage: Are Bad Jobs Getting Worse?Journal of Health Economics 19:93-119. Foreman, J. 1992. Physicians Provide $6.8 Billion in Charity Care. Archives of Ophthalmology 110(9): 1211. Fronstin, Paul. 1998. Sources of Health Insurance and Characteristics of the Uninsured: Analysis of the March 1998 Current Population Survey. Issue Brief No. 204. Washington, DC: Employee Benefit Research Institute. . 1999. Employment-Based Health Insurance for Children: Why Did Coverage Increase in the Mid- 1990s? Health Affairs 18 (5): 131-136. -. 2000a. Counting the Uninsured: A Comparison of National Surveys. Issue Brief No. 225. Washington, DC: Employee Benefit Research Institute. . 2000b. The Economic Costs of the Uninsured: Implicationsfor Business and Government. Washing- ton, DC: Employee Benefit Research Institute. . 2000c. Job-Based Health Benefits Continue to Rise While Uninsured Rate Declines. EBRI Notes 21(11):1-8. -. 2000d. Sources of Health Insurance and Characteristics of the Uninsured: Analysis of the March 2000 Current Population Survey. Issue Brief No. 228. Washington, DC: Employee Benefit Research Institute. . 2001. Employment-Based Health Benefits: Trends and Outlook. Issue Brief No. 233. Wash- ington, DC: Employment Benefit Research Institute. Fronstin, Paul, and Ruth Helman. 2000. Small Employers and Health Benefits: Findings from the 2000 Small Employer Health Benefits Survey. Issue Brief No. 226, and Special Report SR35. Washington DC: Employee Benefit Research Institute. Fronstin, Paul, Lawrence G. Goldberg, and Philip K. Robins. 1997. Differences in Private Health Insurance Coverage for Working Male Hispanics. Inquiry 34:171 - 180. Fronstin, Paul, and Sarah C. Snider. 1996-1997. An Examination of the Decline in Employment- Based Health Insurance Between 1988-1993. Inquiry 33(4):317-325. Gabel, Jon. 1999. Job-Based Health Insurance, 1977-1998: The Accidental System Under Scrutiny. Health Affairs 18(6) :62-74. Gabel, Jon, Roger Formisano, Barbara Lohr, and Steven DiCarlo. 1991. Tracing the Cycle of Health Insurance. Health Affairs 11 (4) :48 - 61. Gabel, Jon, Kelly Hunt, and Jean Kim. 1998. The Financial Burden of Sef-Paid Health Insurance on the Poor and Near Poor. New York: The Commonwealth Fund. Gabel, Jon, Kimberly Hurst, Heidi Whitmore, and Catherine Hoffman. 1999. Class and Benefits at the Workplace. Health Affairs 18(3):144-150. Gabel, Jon, Larry Levitt, Jeremy Pickreign, Heidi Whitmore, et al. 2000. Job-Based Health Insurance in 2000: Premiums Rise Sharply While Coverage Grows. Health Affairs 19(5):144-151. Gabel, Jon R., Paul G. Ginsburg, Jeremy D. Pickreign, end dames D. Reschovsky. 2001. Trends In Out-Of-Pocket Spending By Insured American Workers, 1990-1997. Health Affairs 20(2):47- 57.

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62 COVERAGE MATTERS: INSURANCE AND HEALTH CARE Garrett, Bowen, end John Holahan. 2000. Health Insurance Coverage After Welfare. Health Affairs 19(1):175-184. Gaskin, Darrell J. 1999. Safety Net Hospitals: Essential Providers of Public Health and Specialty Services. New York: The Commonwealth Fund. Glied, Sherry, and Mark Stabile. 2001. Generation Vexed: Age-Cohort Differences in Employer- Sponsored Health Insurance Coverage. Health Affairs 20(1):184-91. Grumbach, Kevin, Dennis Keane, and Andrew Bindman. 1993. Primary Care and Public Emergency Department Overcrowding. American Journal of Public Health 83 (3) :372-378. Guendelman, Sylvia, Helen Halpin Schauffler, and Michelle Pearl. 2001. Unfriendly Shores: How Immigrant Children Fare in the U.S Health System. Health Affairs 20(1):257-266. Guyer, Jocelyn, and Cindy Mann. 1999. Employed But Not Insured. A State-by-State Analysis of the Number of Low-Income Working Parents Who Lack Health Insurance. Washington, DC: Center on Budget and Policy Priorities. Accessed May 20, 2001. Available at http://www.cbpp.org Guyer, Jocelyn. 2000. Health Care After Welfare: An Update of Findings from State-Level Leaver Studies. Washington, DC: Center on Budget and Policy Priorities. Accessed May 7, 2001. Available at http://www.cbpp.org. Guyer, Jocelyn, Matthew Broaddus, and Annie Dude. 2001. Millions of Mothers Lack Health Insurance Coverage. Washington, DC: Center on Budget and Policy Priorities. Accessed May 10, 2001. Available at http://www.cbpp.org Hadley, Jack, Earl P. Steinberg, and Judith Feder. 1991. Comparison of Uninsured and Privately Insured Hosptal Patients. Journal of the American Medical Association 265(3):374-379. HaLner-Eaton, Chris. 1993. Physician Utilization Disparities Between the Uninsured and Insured. Comparisons of the Chronically Ill, Acutely Ill, and Well Nonelderly Populations. Journal of the American Medical Association 269(6):787-792. Haley, Jennifer M., and Stephen Zuckerman. 2000. Health Insurance, Access, and Use: United States. Tabulations from the 1997 National Survey of America's Families. Washington, DC: The Urban Institute. Hall, Mark A. 2000. The Structure and Enforcement of Health Insurance Rating Reforms. Inquiry 37(4):376-388. Hanson, Karla L. 1998. Is Insurance for Children Enough? The Link Between Parents' and Children's Health Care Use Revisited. Inquiry 35(3):294-302. . 2001. Patterns of Insurance Coverage Within Families With Children. Health Affairs 20(1):240-246. Hartley, David, Lois Quam, and Nicole Lurie. 1994. Urban and Rural Differences in Health Insur- ance and Access to Care.Journal of Rural Health 10(2):98-108. HCFA (Health Care Financing Administration). 2000a. HIPAA Online. Accessed July 16, 2001. Available at http ://www.hcLa.gov/Medicaid/hipaa/online/default.asp. . 2000b. Medicare Enrollment Trends 1966-1999. Accessed May 4, 2001. Available at http:// www.hcLa.gov/stats/anrltend.htm. -. 2001. Medicaid Beneficiaries, Vendor, Medical Assistance and Administrative Assistance. Accessed March 26, 2001. Available at http://www.hcLa.gov/medicaid/msis/2082-l.htm. Heffler' Stephen, Katherine Levit, Sheila Smith, Cynthia Smith, et al. 2001. Health Spending Growth Up in 1999. Faster Growth Expected in the Future. Health Affairs 20(2):193-213. Himmelstein, David U., and Steffie Woolhandler. 1995. Care Denied: U.S. Residents Who Are Unable to Obtain Needed Medical Services. AmericanJournal of Public Health 85(3): 341-344. Hoffman, Catherine, and Mary Pohl. 2000. Health Insurance Coverage in America: 1999 Data Update. Washington, DC: The Kaiser Commission on Medicaid and the Uninsured. Hoffman, Catherine, and Alan Schlobohm. 2000. Uninsured in America: A Chart Book. Washington, DC: The HenryJ. Kaiser Family Foundation. Hoffman, Catherine, Dorothy P. Rice, and Hai-Yen Sung. 1996. Persons with Chronic Conditions, their Prevalence and Costs. Journal of the American Medical Association. 276(18): 1473-1479.

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REFERENCES 163 Holahan, John. 2001. Why Did the Number of Uninsured Fall in 1999? Washington, DC: The Kaiser Commission on Medicaid and the Uninsured. Holahan, John, Leighton Ku, and Mary Pohl. 2001. Is Immigration Responsible for the Growth in the Number of Uninsured? Issue Paper 2221. Washington, DC: The Kaiser Commission on Medicaid and the Uninsured. Holahan, John, and Niall Brennan. 2000. Who Are the Adult Uninsured? Series B. B-14. Washington, DC: The Urban Institute. Holahan, John, and Johnny Kim. 2000. Why Does the Number of Uninsured Americans Continue to Grow? Health Affairs 19 (4): 188-196. Holahan, John, Colin Winterbottom, and Shruti Rajan. 1995. A Shifting Picture of Health Insurance Coverage. Health Affairs 14 (4) :253-264. Hsia, Judith, Elizabeth Kemper, Shoshanna Sofaer, Deborah Bowen, et al. 2000. Is Insurance a More Important Determinant of Healthcare Access Than Perceived Health? Evidence from the Women's Health Initiative.Journal of Women's Health ~ Gender-Based Medicine 9(8):881-889. Huang, Fung-Yea. 1997. Health Insurance Coverage of the Children of Immigrants in the United States. Maternal Child HealthJournal 1(2):69-80. IOM (Institute of Medicine). 1990. Medicine: A Strategy for Quality Assurance. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. . 1993. Employment and Health Benefits. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. . 1996. Primary Care: America's Health in a New Era. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. -. 2000. America's Health Care Safety Net: Intact but Endangered. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. . 2001. Crossing the Quality Chasm: A Health System for the 21st Century. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Jensen, Gail A. 1992. The Dynamics of Health Insurance Among the Near Elderly. Medical Care 30(7):598-614. Kaiser Commission on Medicaid and the Uninsured. 2001. The Uninsured and Their Access to Health Care. Fact Sheet. Washington, DC: The Kaiser Commission on Medicaid and the Uninsured. Kaiser Family Foundation-Health Research and Educational Trust (HRET). 2000. Employer Health Benefits, 2000. Annual Survey. Washington, DC: The HenryJ. Kaiser Family Foundation. Kasper, Judith D. 1998. Asking About Access: Challenges for Surveys in a Changing Healthcare Environment. Health Services Research 33 (3) :715 -39. Kasper, Judith D., Terence A. Giovannini, and Catherine Hoffman. 2000. Gaining and Losing Health Insurance: Strengthening the Evidence for Effects of Access to Care and Health Outcomes. Medical Care Research and Review 57(3): 298-318. Kenney, Genevieve, end Jennifer Haley. 2001. Why Aren't More Uninsured Children Enrolled in Medic- aid or S CHIP? Series B. No.B-35. Washington, DC: The Urban Institute, Assessing the New Federalism, National Survey of America's Families. Accessed July 6, 2001. Available at http:// newLederalism. urban. or"/. Kenney, Genevieve, Stephen Zuckerman, Shruti Rajan, Niall Brennan, et al. 1999. The National Survey of America's Families: An Overview of the Health Policy Component. Inquiry 36:353- 362. Kenney, Genevieve, Jennifer Haley, and Lisa Dubay. 2001. How Familiar Are Low-Income Parents with Medicaid and S CHIP? Series B. No.B-34. Washington, DC: The Urban Institute, Assessing the New Federalism. Accessed July 6, 2001. Available at http://newLederalism.urban.org/. Klein, Rachel. 2000. Go Directly to Work, Do Not Collect Health Insurance: Low-Income Parents Lose Medicaid. Washington, DC: Families USA. Accessed May 20, 2001. Available at http:// www.familiesusa. org. Kolata, Gina. 2001. Medical Fees Are Often Higher for Patients Without Insurance. The New York Times. Accessed July 9, 2001. Available at http://www.nytimes.com.2001/04/02/National/ 02insu.html.

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