accountability. If specific rules govern a field of research, such as the need for informed consent of research volunteers or the requirements for research subjects of both sexes or various ethnic groups, the review process considers whether the requirements have been met or, if not, whether sufficient justification is provided for deviating from them. In short, public funding engenders considerable opportunity for shaping the types of research that are approved. In general, privately funded investigators are subject to less oversight and review, although activities such as the pursuit of patents or marketing approvals from the Food and Drug Administration represent other mechanisms for oversight that are less relevant to basic research.



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