Index

A

Access restrictions, see Confidentiality and privacy; Eligibility; Program participation; Sanctions; Time limits

Administration for Children and Families (ACF)

well-being of children, 316–352

Administrative data and studies, 2, 6–7, 196–352

see also Caseload measures;

Program participation;

Taxation

access and confidentiality, see “confidentiality” infra

AFDC, 6, 200, 202, 203–204, 214, 225, 249, 276, 278, 283, 300, 355, 418–427

caseload heterogeneity, 473, 481–496

child well-being, 318, 324, 326, 329–338 (passim)

leavers, 8–9, 249, 388(n.1), 416, 417–472 (passim)

alcohol and drug abuse, 199, 249

birth certificates, 197, 202, 204, 221, 327

child abuse and neglect, 318, 323, 327, 331–337, 344, 345, 346

child well-being, 7, 251, 316–352, 504, 505

education, 316, 319, 328, 337–341, 344, 345

eligibility, 318, 321, 323, 324–325, 326, 329, 331

leaver studies, 324, 331

state government role, 318, 327–331

TANF, 316–317, 318, 324–325, 326, 327, 331–337 (passim), 343, 344, 346

children, data cleaning, 202–203

cleaning methods, 6, 197, 199–205, 211–212, 217, 304

confidentiality, 6–7, 220–274, 304, 305, 504

adolescents, educational records, 339–340

age factors, 228

Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation, 7, 238–239, 242

children, 7, 339–341, 345–346

cost factors, 222, 258, 263, 273–274

criminal records, 238–239, 255–256, 263

educational attainment, 228, 338–340

food stamps, 225, 226–227, 240, 249

funding, 236, 242, 246



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 507
Studies of Welfare Populations: Data Collection and Research Issues Index A Access restrictions, see Confidentiality and privacy; Eligibility; Program participation; Sanctions; Time limits Administration for Children and Families (ACF) well-being of children, 316–352 Administrative data and studies, 2, 6–7, 196–352 see also Caseload measures; Program participation; Taxation access and confidentiality, see “confidentiality” infra AFDC, 6, 200, 202, 203–204, 214, 225, 249, 276, 278, 283, 300, 355, 418–427 caseload heterogeneity, 473, 481–496 child well-being, 318, 324, 326, 329–338 (passim) leavers, 8–9, 249, 388(n.1), 416, 417–472 (passim) alcohol and drug abuse, 199, 249 birth certificates, 197, 202, 204, 221, 327 child abuse and neglect, 318, 323, 327, 331–337, 344, 345, 346 child well-being, 7, 251, 316–352, 504, 505 education, 316, 319, 328, 337–341, 344, 345 eligibility, 318, 321, 323, 324–325, 326, 329, 331 leaver studies, 324, 331 state government role, 318, 327–331 TANF, 316–317, 318, 324–325, 326, 327, 331–337 (passim), 343, 344, 346 children, data cleaning, 202–203 cleaning methods, 6, 197, 199–205, 211–212, 217, 304 confidentiality, 6–7, 220–274, 304, 305, 504 adolescents, educational records, 339–340 age factors, 228 Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation, 7, 238–239, 242 children, 7, 339–341, 345–346 cost factors, 222, 258, 263, 273–274 criminal records, 238–239, 255–256, 263 educational attainment, 228, 338–340 food stamps, 225, 226–227, 240, 249 funding, 236, 242, 246

OCR for page 507
Studies of Welfare Populations: Data Collection and Research Issues legislation, 6–7, 222, 223–224, 232, 233–241, 246, 247, 255–257, 266–267, 268, 271–274 criminal penalties for breeches, 238–239, 254–256, 263, 268, 274 linkage of data and, 216–217, 220, 222–223 organizational factors, 243–254, 258–259, 262–264, 265, 266, 267–268 Institutional Review Boards, 88, 92, 125, 236–237, 266–267 private contract researchers, 239, 241, 243–254 socially sensitive data, 221, 230–231 standards, 233–237, 243–258 state government role, 6–7, 222–223, 238–258, 267–268, 271–274 statistical analyses, 224–225, 255, 258–262, 267 tax records, 304, 305 technical assistance, 256–257, 267 cost factors, 199, 200, 201, 278 confidentiality, 222, 258, 263, 273–274 criminal records, 206, 238–239, 255–256, 263 death certificates, 327, 328 defined, 197, 224–225 eligibility, general, 220–274, 304, 305, 504 children, 318, 321, 323, 324–325, 326, 329, 331 linkage, 216–217, 220, 222–223 employment, 6, 7, 69, 228, 239, 275–279, 287–288, 289, 290–315, 400– 403, 406–408, 422–441 (passim), 505 Job Training Partnership Act, 246, 278, 291, 295–302, 310–312 leaver studies, 389, 394, 400–408, 412–413, 415, 416–443 (passim), 448, 453–463, 464, 468 survey data vs administrative data, 6, 275–279, 287–288, 289, 295–303, 311 unemployment insurance records, 7, 69, 132, 203, 225, 249, 276(n.3), 277, 278, 287, 290–312, 403, 406–408, 413, 417–422, 431–431, 442–445, 451, 462 families and households, general, 278, 317, 319, 320, 400, 473 food stamps, 283 child well-being, 318, 320, 324, 331, 343 cleaning and matching of data, 197, 203, 225, 226–227, 409 confidentiality, 225, 226–227, 240, 249 leaver studies, 401–402, 409, 432–435, 445, 446, 448–449, 450, 463 funding, 207, 236, 242, 246 gender factors, caseload heterogeneity, 473, 474, 478, 481, 482–499 data matching, 204, 212 linking, 25, 210, 212, 216, 229 geographic factors, cleaning of data, 202–203, 212 confidentiality, 228, 261 juvenile justice system, 342 linkage of data, 207, 212, 216 incentives, survey data vs, 277 income and earnings, 7, 275, 329 caseload heterogeneity, 474, 478–479, 486, 488, 489, 492–496 (passim) leaver studies, 389, 394, 409–411, 413, 416–417, 432–436, 439, 441–450, 454–464 (passim), 468, 469, 470, 472 survey data vs administrative data, 6, 275–279, 287–288, 289, 295–303, 311 unemployment insurance records, 7, 69, 132, 203, 225, 249, 276(n.3), 277, 278, 287, 290–312, 403, 406–408, 413, 417–422, 431, 442–445, 451, 462 in-person interviews and, 4, 89 leaver studies, 389, 390–393, 395–399, 400–408, 411–443 (passim), 448, 453–463, 464, 468 AFDC data, 8–9, 249, 388(n.1), 416, 417–472 (passim) child well-being, 324, 331 employment and income, 389, 394, 400–408, 412–413, 415, 416–443 (passim), 448, 453–463, 464, 468 food stamps, 401–402, 409, 432–435, 445, 446, 448–449, 450, 463

OCR for page 507
Studies of Welfare Populations: Data Collection and Research Issues linkage/matching of data, 6, 7, 41, 49, 60, 93, 132, 134, 141, 143, 153, 154, 167–168, 171, 173, 174, 175, 197, 198, 204–219, 220, 222–223, 224–227, 228–229, 235–238, 241, 244, 252, 261, 264, 268, 276, 287–288, 298, 504 child well-being, 336, 343, 344, 346 gender factors, 210, 212, 216, 229, 252 leaver studies, 402–403, 408, 409, 411, 412, 417–422 longitudinal studies, 207, 336 standards, 211–212, 235–237 statistical analyses, 205(n.2), 206, 209–211, 213–217 measurement error, 277, 292–295, 304–305 qualitative studies vs, 356, 357, 377, 378 race/ethnicity, caseload heterogeneity, 482, 486, 488, 489, 493 cleaning of data, 204, 212 confidentiality and privacy, 228–229 linking of data, 210, 212, 216, 228–229 sampling, 208, 261, 277, 278, 346 sharing of data, see “linkage…” supra Social Security numbers, 58, 60, 69, 74, 208, 209, 210, 211, 214–216, 228, 238, 239, 287–288, 298, 343, 402–403 standards, 211–212, 233–237, 243–258 state government role, 6–7, 56–58, 69, 138–139, 142–143, 218, 222–223, 225–226, 292 child well-being, 318, 327–331 confidentiality issues, 6–7, 222–223, 238–258, 267–268, 271–274 statistical analyses, 224–225 confidentiality, 224–225, 255, 258–262, 267 linkage, 205(n.2), 206, 209–211, 213–217 survey data vs administrative data, child well-being, 324, 338, 346 income and employment, 6, 275–279, 287–288, 289, 295–303, 311 leaver studies, 406–408 taxation, 277, 278, 285–286 survey respondents, error of measurement, 167–168, 171, 173, 174, 175, 182 survey response and, 27, 50, 57, 132, 133–134, 142–143, 287–288, 411 TANF, 6, 134, 200, 201, 203, 204, 205, 214, 224, 225, 249, 278, 283, 355, 400–403, 431, 432, 437, 445, 446 child well-being, 316–317, 318, 324–325, 326, 327, 331–337 (passim), 343, 344, 346 telephone surveys and, 57, 58, 60, 69, 70–71, 74 unemployment insurance records, 7, 69, 132, 203, 225, 249, 276(n.3), 277, 278, 287, 290–312, 403, 406–408, 413, 417–422, 431–431, 442–445, 451, 462 vital statistics, 75, 225, 323, 327–331 Adolescents education, privacy rights, 339–340 educational attainment, 228 health status, 322, 323, 327 incentives, surveys, 106–107, 121 income and employment, 300–301 in-person interviews, 90, 93 juvenile justice system, 7, 75, 328, 341–343, 344, 345 qualitative studies, 375 AFDC, see Aid to Families with Dependent Children African Americans, see Black persons Age factors see also terms beginning “Child” and “Children” caseload heterogeneity, 482 confidentiality and privacy, 228 elderly persons, 33, 111, 171, 368 leaver studies, 428, 447–448, 451, 456, 467 survey respondents, error of measurement, 167–168, 171, 176 survey response, general, 29, 33, 37, 43, 135–136, 137–138, 142, 167–168, 171, 176 Aggregation and disaggregation of data, 205, 220, 252, 259, 260, 286 see also Matching, administrative data child health status, 322, 329

OCR for page 507
Studies of Welfare Populations: Data Collection and Research Issues Aid to Families with Dependent Children, 1, 220, 316 see also Temporary Assistance for Needy Families administrative data, 6, 200, 202, 203–204, 214, 225, 249, 276, 278, 283, 300, 355, 418–427 caseload heterogeneity, 473, 481–496 child well-being, 318, 324, 326, 329–338 (passim) leavers, 8–9, 249, 388(n.1), 416, 417–472 (passim) income and employment data, 276, 278–283 (passim), 289, 300, 303, 306–310, 311, 418–427, 445–458, 462–463 program participation, 276, 280 leavers, 8–9, 249, 388(n.1), 416, 417–472 (passim), 481–496 (passim) qualitative studies, 375–376 survey data, 276, 278–283 (passim), 289, 300 survey respondents, error of measurement, 171–173 waivers, 317 Alcohol and drug abuse administrative data, general, 199, 249 Center for Substance Abuse Treatment, 134 child well-being, 316, 323, 327 qualitative studies, 368 survey respondents, error of measurement, 177, 184–185 survey sampling and, 93, 94 state income tax records, 57–58 Supplemental Security Income, 92, 134 American Association of Public Opinion Research, 86 Archives, see Data archives Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation (ASPE) access and confidentiality issues, 7, 238–239, 242 child health status, 329–330 leavers, 8, 9, 67, 238–239, 242, 388, 430–431 telephone surveys, 67 Attitudes child well-being and, 319, 320 interviewers, 95, 97, 99, 110–111 qualitative studies, 357, 378 Survey of Consumer Attitudes, 121 survey respondents, 30, 35, 36, 37, 39, 43, 96–97 error of measurement, 157, 159, 164–165, 177–178, 194–186 incentives and, 105–106, 110–111, 113–114, 116–119, 121 socially sensitive questions, 5, 37, 66, 106, 157, 159, 164–165, 177–178, 184–186 B Benefit penalties, see Sanctions Best practices, 3, 9 telephone surveys, 55, 56, 68, 72–75, 78, 79, 86 Best Practices Booklet, 86 Birth certificates, 197, 202, 204, 221, 327 Black persons, 21, 90, 91, 93, 115, 135, 136, 370, 371, 451, 454, 461, 486, 488, 493 Block grants, child health, 328–329 Bureau of the Census, 87, 88, 382 see also Current Population Survey; Survey of Income and Program Participation Census of Population, 275 data cleaning, 212 data confidentiality, 262–263 data linkage, 216 C Case management, 48, 249, 369 Caseload measures, 3, 220, 276, 306, 311, 327, 355, 371, 377, 415–499 child well-being, 324, 333–334, 335–336 educational attainment, 473, 474–475, 478–479, 486, 488, 489, 493, 496 heterogeneity of caseload, 473–499 gender factors, 9, 473, 474, 478, 481, 482–499 leaver studies, 387, 389, 415–473, 474, 477–478, 480 Census Bureau, see Bureau of the Census Census of Population, 275 Center for Substance Abuse Treatment, 134

OCR for page 507
Studies of Welfare Populations: Data Collection and Research Issues Child abuse and neglect, 199, 207–208, 226 see also Child protective services administrative data, 318, 323, 327, 331–337, 344, 345, 346 qualitative studies, 356 Child care services, 203, 204, 205, 206, 226, 249, 319, 367, 368, 377, 416 Child protective services, 226, 318, 332, 333–334, 335–336, 345 foster care, 26, 179, 182, 202–208 (passim), 317, 318, 329, 333 Child support, 69, 74, 171–178, 225, 240, 249 Child well-being administrative data, 7, 251, 316–352, 504, 505 caseload measures, 324, 333–334, 335–336 education, 316, 319, 328, 337–341, 344, 345 eligibility, 318, 321, 323, 324–325, 326, 329, 331 leaver studies, 324, 331 program participation, 324, 333, 337–338, 341, 342, 344–345 state government role, 318, 327–331 TANF, 316–317, 318, 324–325, 326, 327, 331–337 (passim), 343, 344, 346 alcohol and drug abuse, 316, 323, 327 attitudes, 319, 320 health insurance, 318, 320, 321, 323, 329 Medicaid, 318, 320, 321, 323, 324–326, 328, 329, 330, 331, 343 mortality rates, 317, 320, 322, 323, 327–328, 341 health status, general, 318, 320, 321–331, 344–345; see also Child abuse and neglect leaver studies, 8–9, 394–395, 396–397, 399–400, 416, 427, 428, 431 qualitative studies, 356, 366, 367 sanctions and, 336, 343, 399–400 waiver programs, 317 Children see also Aid to Families with Dependent Children; Juvenile justice system access to telephone by families with, 87 administrative data cleaning, 202–203 foster care, 26, 179, 182, 202–208 (passim), 317, 318, 329, 333 in-person surveys, 90 leavers studies, 8–9, 394–395, 396–397, 399–400, 416, 427, 428, 447–448, 451, 454, 467 Children’s Health Insurance Program (CHIP), 318–326 (passim), 329 Cognitive factors, surveys see also Language factors comprehension of items, 5, 161, 173, 178–180, 189 memory, 5, 159, 161, 162, 163–164, 168, 175, 176–177, 180–184, 404, 408 respondents, error of measurement, 157, 159, 160–164, 165, 167–168, 174–175, 176–177, 178–184, 187–189 response rates, 37, 41–42 Cohort comparison studies child health status, 330–331 income and employment, 279, 280, 406 leavers, 8–9, 397, 398–399, 401–405, 406, 407, 413, 415–416, 417–422 National Longitudinal Surveys, 275, 476; see also National Longitudinal Survey of Youth Community factors, see Local-level effects Computer-assisted personal interviewing, 88, 89, 90, 160, 177–178, 376–377 Computer-assisted telephone interview, 111 Computerized databases, see Databases Confidentiality and privacy administrative data, 6–7, 220–274, 304, 305, 504 adolescents, educational records, 339–340 Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation, 7, 238–239, 242 children, 7, 339–341, 345–346 cost factors, 222, 258, 263, 273–274 criminal records, 238–239, 255–256, 263 educational attainment, other, 228 food stamps, 225, 226–227, 240, 249 funding, 236, 242, 246 linkage, 216–217, 220, 222–223 legislation, 6–7, 222, 223–224, 232, 233–241, 246, 247, 255–257, 266–267, 268, 271–274 criminal penalties for breeches, 238–239, 254–256, 263, 268, 274

OCR for page 507
Studies of Welfare Populations: Data Collection and Research Issues organizational factors, 243–254, 258–259, 262–264, 265, 266, 267–268 Institutional Review Boards, 88, 92, 125, 236–237, 266–267 private contract researchers, 239, 241, 243–254 socially sensitive data, 221, 230–231 standards, 233–237, 243–258 state government role, 6–7, 222–223, 238–258, 267–268, 271–274 statistical analyses, 224–225, 255, 258–262, 267 tax records, 304, 305 technical assistance, 256–257, 267 best practices, 86 computer-assisted questionnaires, 177–178 definitional issues, 228–231 homeless persons, 92 informed consent and notification, 4, 57–58, 68, 96, 125, 199, 231–232, 237, 258, 266–267 in-person interviews, 86, 89, 92, 96 Internet, 265, 267 respondents’ attitudes about, 106 school records, 339–341 tax records, 304, 305 Consent, see Informed consent and notification Continuous welfare leavers, 183, 332, 396–397, 399, 421–422, 441 see also Time limits Cost and cost-effectiveness administrative data, cleaning, 200, 201 confidentiality, 222, 258, 263, 273–274 program participation studies, 199 vs survey data, 278 incentives, surveys, 117, 120–122, 124–125 in-person interviews, 89, 91, 97, 100, 101, 102–103 mail, 59 qualitative studies, 380–381 survey response, general, 37, 39, 41, 46, 49, 283 telephone surveys, 56, 59–61, 78–83 tracing and tracking, surveys, 30, 59–61, 79–81, 101 unemployment data, use of, 292 Council of Professional Associations on Federal Statistics, 115 CPS, see Current Population Survey Crime and criminal justice system see also Alcohol and drug abuse; Child abuse and neglect; Sanctions administrative data confidentiality breeches, 238–239, 254–256, 263, 268, 274 administrative data linkage, 206 caseload heterogeneity, 474 income and employment, 300–301 in-person interviews, 89, 93, 94 juvenile, 7, 75, 328, 341–343, 344, 345 qualitative studies, 368–369 survey respondent incentives, interviewer at risk, 124 survey respondent involvement in, 30, 36, 86, 162, 164 Cultural factors, 4 see also Language factors; Race/ethnicity; Social factors survey response, 36, 52 Current Population Survey (CPS) cognitive interviews, 281 error of measurement, 158, 168, 169, 175 income and employment data, 275, 277, 279–290 (passim), 294, 310 response rates, 21 Cyclic welfare users, 9, 89–91, 206, 396–397, 399, 422–426, 430, 431, 433, 434, 438–445, 451, 454, 456, 457–459, 462–464, 468, 471, 472, 478 caseload heterogeneity, 474, 480, 481–482, 485–499 (passim) D Data archives cleaning methods, 6, 197, 199–205, 212 confidentiality issues, 249–250, 268 matching of data, 6, 7, 41, 49, 60, 93, 132, 134, 141, 143, 153, 154, 167–168, 171, 173, 174, 175, 197, 205–218, 304 Data Matching and Privacy Protection Act, 234, 235–236 Databases, 30 see also Confidentiality and privacy child well-being, 328, 344–346 cleaning methods, 6, 197, 199–205, 211–212, 217, 225, 226–227, 304, 409

OCR for page 507
Studies of Welfare Populations: Data Collection and Research Issues confidentiality and access, 57, 60 credit, 69 juvenile justice system, 342 mailing addresses, 91 matching/linking of data, 6, 7, 41, 49, 60, 93, 132, 134, 141, 143, 153, 154, 167–168, 171, 173, 174, 175, 197, 205–218, 220, 222–223, 224–227, 228–229, 235–238, 241, 252, 261, 264, 268, 276, 287–288, 298, 504 child well-being, 336, 343, 344, 346 leaver studies, 402–403, 408, 409, 411, 412, 417–422 longitudinal studies, 207, 336 standards, 211–212, 235–237 statistical analyses, 205(n.2), 206, 209–211, 213–217 sharing of data, 227–228, 241 telephone surveys, 30, 57, 58, 59, 60, 69, 70–71 Death certificates, 327, 328 Demographic factors see also Age factors; Gender factors; Geographic factors; Marriage and marital status; Race/ethnicity; Socioeconomic status administrative data cleaning, 200, 304 error of measurement, 159 heterogeneity of caseload, 473–499 (passim) incentives for survey respondents, 105–106, 114, 115–116 income and employment, survey data, 282, 304, 305 leaver, definition, 419 qualitative studies, 359–361 survey nonresponse, 37, 41, 42, 133, 135–140, 142, 143, 145, 146 Department of Health and Human Services see also Administration for Children and Families; Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation child well-being, 322, 334 privacy and confidentiality of data, 233, 240 Department of Labor, 378–380 Diet, see Nutrition Disaggregation, see Aggregation and disaggregation of data Drug abuse, see Alcohol and drug abuse E Early Screening and Periodic Screening and Diagnostic Testing, 324 Earned Income Tax Credits (EITC), 275, 305–306, 446–447 Earnings, see Income and earnings, general Econometric modeling, 481 see also Caseload measures Economic incentives, see Incentives, surveys Education and training, 1 adolescents, record confidentiality, 339–340 child well-being, administrative data, 316, 319, 328, 337–341, 344, 345 qualitative studies, 356, 367 Head Start, 329 interviewers, 4, 5, 31–32, 40, 43–46, 47, 51, 159–160 in-person surveys, 92, 94–98, 99, 101, 102–103 telephone surveys, 63–64, 66, 67, 68 Job Training Partnership Act, 246, 278, 291, 295–302, 310–312 qualitative studies, researchers, 381–382 Educational attainment caseload heterogeneity, 473, 474–475, 478–479, 486, 488, 489, 493, 496 confidentiality and privacy, 228, 339–340 incentives, surveys, 113, 114–115, 116 leaver studies, 428, 447–448, 451, 454, 467 National Adult Literacy Survey, 121 survey nonresponse, 24–25, 142, 151 survey respondents, error of measurement, 167–168, 173 Educational testing data, 338–339 Elderly persons, 33 incentives, surveys, 111 qualitative studies, 368 survey respondents, error of measurement, 171

OCR for page 507
Studies of Welfare Populations: Data Collection and Research Issues Eligibility see also Leaver studies; Program participation; Sanctions; Time limits administrative data, 202, 226–227, 252, 278–279 administrative data, child well-being, 318, 321, 323, 324–325, 326, 329, 331 caseload heterogeneity, 479 income and employment data, 276 survey response and, 113, 145, 154 TANF, 113, 226–227 Employment, 5 see also Income and earnings, general; Leaver studies access to telephone, 87 administrative data, 7, 69, 228, 239, 275, 290–312, 400–403, 406–408, 422–441 (passim), 505 child well-being and, 316–317, 319, 321, 329, 332, 341, 343, 346 leaver studies, 389, 394, 400–408, 412–413, 415, 416–443 (passim), 448, 453–463, 464, 468 unemployment insurance records, 7, 69, 132, 203, 225, 249, 276(n.3), 277, 278, 287, 290–312, 403, 406–408, 413, 417–422, 431, 442–445, 451, 462 adolescents, 300–301 caseload heterogeneity, 473, 475–476, 478, 486, 488, 489, 492–496 child well-being and, administrative data, 316–317, 319, 321, 329, 332, 341, 343, 346 cohort comparison studies, 279, 280, 406 Current Population Survey (CPS), 275, 277, 279–290 (passim), 294, 310 gender factors, 21, 173, 176, 280, 281, 300–301, 473, 475–476, 478, 486, 488, 489, 492–496 health insurance, employer-provided, 321 interviewer recruitment/supervision, 95–96, 98–100, 101, 102–103 interviewer training, 4, 5, 31–32, 40, 43–46, 47, 51, 159–160 in-person surveys, 92, 94–98, 99, 101, 102–103 telephone surveys, 63–64, 66, 67, 68 Job Training Partnership Act, 246, 278, 291, 295–302, 310–312 qualitative studies, 357, 359–361, 366–367, 378, 382 survey data, 275, 277, 279–290, 295–303, 403–408, 505 survey nonresponse, 21, 22, 24–25, 30, 138, 142, 159, 151 survey respondents, error of measurement, 7, 164–171, 173–177, 277, 282–290, 292–295, 304–305 unemployment insurance records, 7, 69, 132, 203, 225, 249, 276(n.3), 277, 278, 287, 290–312, 403, 406–408, 413, 417–422, 431, 442–445, 451, 462 welfare-to-work, see Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act;Temporary Assistance for Needy Families;Time limits Ethical issues, see Confidentiality and privacy Ethnicity, see Race/ethnicity Ethnographic studies, 90, 199, 356, 357, 359–360, 365–369, 375, 382 Experimental methods income and employment, 278 juvenile justice system, 342–343 qualitative, 360 F Face-to-face interviews, see In-person interviews Families and households see also Current Population Survey; Demographic factors; Marriage and marital status; Qualitative studies; Sampling and sample size; Single mothers; Socioeconomic status; Temporary Assistance for Needy Families; terms beginning “Child…” access to telephone, 87 administrative data, general, 317, 319, 320, 400, 473 administrative vs survey data, 278 heterogeneity of caseload, 473, 478

OCR for page 507
Studies of Welfare Populations: Data Collection and Research Issues income and employment, survey data, general, 278, 280–282, 284, 303, 304–305, 306–309 leaver studies, 388, 394, 400, 404, 415 qualitative studies, 8, 359–361, 363, 366–367, 371, 372–373, 382 survey respondents, error of measurement, 171–173, 178 survey response, 30, 35, 37–43 Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act, 339–341 Federal Communications Commission, 87 Fees for survey respondents, see Incentives, surveys Females, see Gender factors Focus groups, 8, 43, 52, 357, 361–362 Food stamps, 1, 69, 224 administrative data, child well-being, 318, 320, 324, 331, 343 administrative data, general, 283 cleaning and matching of, 197, 203, 225, 226–227, 409 confidentiality, 225, 226–227, 240, 249 leaver studies, 401–402, 409, 432–435, 445, 446, 448–449, 450, 463 income and employment, survey data, 280, 283 nonresponse to surveys, 26 Foster care, 26, 179, 182, 202–208 (passim), 317, 318, 329, 333 Funding administrative data confidentiality and privacy and, 236, 242, 246 administrative data linkage, 207 block grants, child health, 328–329 leaver studies, 9, 67, 242, 288 G Gender factors, 355, 473 administrative data cleaning, 204, 212 administrative data linking, 210, 212, 216, 229, 252 caseload heterogeneity, 9, 473, 474, 478, 481, 482–499 doctor visits, 21 incentives, surveys, 109 income and employment, 21, 173, 176, 280, 281, 300–301, 473, 475–476, 478, 486, 488, 489, 492–496 in-person interviews, sample lists, 89, 90 qualitative studies, 363–364, 368, 373 survey respondents, error of measurement, 173, 176 survey response, 21, 37, 41, 109, 135–136, 137–138, 142, 143, 144, 146, 151 Geographical factors see also Rural areas; State-level issues; Urban areas administrative data cleaning, 202–203, 212 administrative data confidentiality and privacy, 228, 261 administrative data linkage, 207, 212, 216 income and employment data, 312 juvenile justice system, administrative data, 342 leaver studies, 388(n.1), 428, 467 survey respondent error of measurement, 167–168 survey response, 13, 29–31, 33, 57, 58–59, 87, 91, 133, 142, 143 H Head Start, 329 Health and Retirement Survey, 110 Health insurance see also Medicaid children, 318, 320, 321, 323, 329 leaver studies, 394 Health status and care, 368 see also Medicaid; Mental health and illness adolescents, 322, 323, 327 caseload heterogeneity, 474 child well-being, 318, 320, 321–331, 344–345 mortality rates, 317, 320, 322, 323, 327–328, 341 death certificates, 327, 328 leaver studies, 389, 394 vital statistics, 75, 225, 323, 327–331 Healthy People 2000, 322

OCR for page 507
Studies of Welfare Populations: Data Collection and Research Issues Hispanics, 56, 88, 91, 140, 370, 451, 454, 486, 488, 489, 493 Puerto Ricans, 90, 93, 370 Historical perspectives, 1, 275, 316, 371, 387, 473 caseload measures, 473–496 income and employment data, 275, 276, 286–287, 288 in-person interviews, 90 leaver studies, 387, 389, 472 Homeless persons, 92, 94 Households, see Families and households Housing subsidies, 142, 143 I Immigrants, 88, 90, 93, 366, 454, 457 see also Hispanics; Language factors Imputation, 3, 25–26, 28, 48, 52, 78, 131, 154, 262, 277, 285 Incentives, surveys, 3, 4–5, 51, 105–128, 131, 379 administrative data vs survey data, 277 adolescents, 106–107, 121 cost factors, 117, 120–122, 124–125 demographic factors, 105–106, 114, 115–116 differential, 106, 117–120 educational attainment, 113, 114–115, 116 gifts vs money, 5, 38, 107, 108 in-person interviews, 89, 90, 101, 108, 110–111, 117–118, 120–121 item nonresponse effects, 111–113 local community level effects, 116–117, 121 lotteries as, 109, 124 panel studies, 5, 109–110 prepaid, 3–4, 59, 82, 105, 107, 108, 109, 111, 112, 117, 118, 120–122, 123–124 response distribution effects, 113–115 standards, 124–125 telephone interviews, 4–5, 70–71, 72, 82–83, 106, 108, 110, 111 Income and earnings, general see also Aid to Families with Dependent Children; Earned Income Tax Credits; Supplemental Security Income; Taxation; Temporary Assistance for Needy Families; Unemployment insurance records administrative data, 7, 275, 329 caseload heterogeneity, 474, 478–479, 486, 488, 489, 492–496 (passim) leaver studies, 389, 394, 409–411, 413, 416–417, 432–436, 439, 441–450, 454–464 (passim), 468, 469, 470, 472 adolescents, 300–301 AFDC, 276, 278–283 (passim), 289, 300, 303, 306–310, 311, 418–427, 445–458, 462–463 child well-being, 329 cohort comparison studies, 279, 280, 406 Current Population Survey (CPS), 275, 277, 279–290 (passim), 294, 310 gender factors, 21, 173, 176, 280, 281, 300–301, 473, 475–476, 478, 486, 488, 489, 492–496 historical perspectives, 275, 276, 286–287, 288 leaver studies, 276, 389, 394, 400–413, 416, 417–422, 426 local community effects, 275–276, 279, 282 longitudinal studies, 275, 277, 279–280 national-level studies, general, 275, 277, 279–290, 310, 311 Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID), 275, 279, 280–281, 284, 288, 289–290, 363 survey data, general, 275 survey design/response, 5, 30, 38, 86–87, 138, 142, 143–144 Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP), 363 incentives for respondents, 109–110 income and employment data, 275, 277, 279, 280–281, 284–290, 310, 311 survey respondents, error of measurement, 164–165, 166–171, 178 In-depth interviews, 77, 88, 93, 357, 359–361, 370, 372 Informed consent and notification, 4, 57–58, 68, 96, 125, 199, 231–232, 237, 258, 266–267 In-person interviews adolescents, 90, 93 children, 90

OCR for page 507
Studies of Welfare Populations: Data Collection and Research Issues computer-assisted personal interviewing, 88, 89, 90, 160, 177–178, 376–377 confidentiality and privacy, 86, 89, 92, 96 cost factors, 89, 91, 97, 100, 101, 102–103 criminal histories, 89, 93, 94 focus groups, 8, 43, 52, 357, 361–362 gender factors, 89, 90 historical perspectives, 90 incentives, 89, 90, 101, 108, 110–111, 117–118, 120–121 interviewer training, 92, 94–98, 99, 101 leaver studies, 403–406 local community factors, 4, 91, 102 mail contacts and, 89, 91, 92, 102 organizational factors, 98–100, 101, 103 qualitative studies, 356, 357, 358–372, 375–377 ethnographic, 90, 199, 356, 357, 359–360, 365–369, 375, 382 focus groups, 8, 43, 52, 357, 361–362 respondents/interviewers, error of measurement, 157–189 (passim) response rates, 3, 4, 31–50, 69, 77, 78, 86–104, 502 tracing and tracking, 61, 74, 92–94, 96, 101, 102 sampling, 89–94, 100 state government role, 88, 93 teamwork, 100 tracking and tracing, 61, 74, 92–94, 96, 101, 102 urban areas, 87, 90, 93, 96, 97 Institutional factors, see Organizational factors Institutional Review Boards, 88, 92, 125, 236–237, 266–267 Insurance, see Health insurance; Unemployment insurance records Internal Revenue Service (IRS), 7, 285–286, 302, 303–309, 312 Internet child health status, 329, 330 data confidentiality, 265, 267 prison inmates, 93 Interviews, 3, 31–50, 69–73, 86–104 see also In-person interviews; Panel studies; Response rates; Telephone surveys; Tracing and tracking administrative data vs, 199 attitudes of interviewees, 30, 35, 36, 37, 39, 43, 96–97 error of measurement, 157, 159, 164–165, 177–178, 194–186 incentives and, 105–106, 110–111, 113–114, 116–119, 121 socially sensitive questions, 5, 37, 66, 106, 157, 159, 164–165, 177–178, 184–186 attitudes of interviewers, 95, 97, 99, 110–111 error of measurement, interviewers as source of, 159–160, 161 focus groups, 8, 43, 52, 357, 361–362 followup, 4, 33, 48, 74, 75, 81, 88, 116, 131; see also Tracing and tracking incentives, general, 107, 110–111, 112, 113–114, 120, 122 protocols, standardized, 93, 96, 186 recruitment/supervision of interviewers, 95–96, 98–100, 101, 102–103 refusal conversion, 4, 5, 25, 36, 42, 50, 63, 64, 65, 66–67, 68, 75, 99 incentives, monetary, 107, 115–116, 124 training of interviewers, 4, 5, 31–32, 40, 43–46, 47, 51, 159–160 in-person surveys, 92, 94–98, 99, 101, 102–103 telephone surveys, 63–64, 66, 67, 68 J Job Training Partnership Act, 246, 278, 291, 295–302, 310–312 Joint Center for Poverty Research, 225 Juvenile justice system, 7, 75, 328, 341–343, 344, 345 L Language factors, 4, 56–57, 88, 130, 141–142 administrative data confidentiality statutes, 257 error of measurement, 158–159, 160–161 focus groups, 361 National Adult Literacy Survey, 121 Law enforcement, see Crime and criminal justice system

OCR for page 507
Studies of Welfare Populations: Data Collection and Research Issues Leaver studies, 2, 8–9, 86, 356, 366–367, 382, 387–472 see also Cyclic welfare users; Sanctions; Short-term welfare users; Time limits administrative vs survey data, 276, 278 AFDC administrative data, 8–9, 249, 388(n.1), 416, 417–472 (passim) age factors, 428, 447–448, 451, 456, 467 Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation, 8, 9, 67, 238–239, 242, 388, 430–431 caseload measures, 387, 389, 415–473, 474, 477–478, 480 child well-being, administrative data, 324, 331 children, 8–9, 394–395, 396–397, 399–400, 416, 427, 428, 447–448, 451, 454, 467 cohort comparison studies, 8–9, 397, 398–399, 401–405, 406, 407, 413, 415–416, 417–422 data access and confidentiality issues, 6–7, 230–231, 241–258 definition of leavers, 395–400, 418–419, 460–462, 466–471, 472 educational attainment, 428, 447–448, 451, 454, 467 employment, administrative data, 389, 394, 400–408, 412–413, 415, 416–443 (passim), 448, 453–463, 464, 468 food stamps, administrative data, 401–402, 409, 432–435, 445, 446, 448–449, 450, 463 funding, 9, 67, 242, 288 geographic factors, 388(n.1), 428, 467 health status, 389, 394; see also “Medicaid” infra historical perspectives, 387, 389, 472 homeless persons, 92 incentives, 107 income and earnings, administrative data, 389, 394, 409–411, 413, 416–417, 432–436, 439, 441–450, 454–464 (passim), 468, 469, 470, 472 income and earnings data, 276, 389, 394, 400–413, 416, 417–422, 426 mail contacts, 404–405 matching of data, 402–403, 408, 409, 411, 412, 417–422 Medicaid, 394, 401–402, 409, 432, 435–438, 448, 449, 463 state government, 388, 395–407, 410, 413–431 state-level factors, other, 388, 389, 390–393, 395–407, 410, 417–422 statistical analysis, 450–464 Supplemental Security Income (SSI), 427, 431, 451, 454, 460–461, 462 survey nonresponse, 30, 406, 409–412, 413 survey respondents, error of measurement, 170 telephone surveys, 2, 3–4, 55, 57, 67–75, 78–79, 403–406 urban areas, 427–472 (passim) Leavers, see Continuous welfare leaver; Cyclic welfare users; Long-term welfare users; Short-term welfare users; Stayers Legal issues, see Confidentiality and privacy Legislation administrative data, confidentiality and access, 6–7, 222, 223–224, 232, 233–241, 246, 247, 255–257, 266–267, 268, 271–274 criminal penalties for breeches, 238–239, 254–256, 263, 268, 274 Data Matching and Privacy Protection Act, 234, 235–236 educational testing, standardized, 338–339 Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act, 339–341 Freedom of Information Act, 233 Job Training Partnership Act, 246, 278, 291, 295–302, 310–312 Paperwork Reduction Act, 124–125 Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA), 1, 2, 8, 55, 275, 316–321, 330, 387, 394, 415–416, 431; see also Temporary Assistance for Needy Families; Time limits; Waiver programs; Work requirements Privacy Act, 233, 234–235, 237, 239, 240 Linguistic factors, see Language factors Linkage, data, see Matching, administrative data

OCR for page 507
Studies of Welfare Populations: Data Collection and Research Issues Local-level effects see also Qualitative studies child well-being, 322, 329, 343 incentives, surveys, 116–117, 121 income and employment data, 275–276, 279, 282 in-person surveys, 4, 91, 102 survey nonresponse, 30 Longitudinal studies, 68, 103, 104–123 see also Bureau of the Census; Cohort comparison studies; Panel studies; Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) administrative data linkage, 207, 336 child well-being, 324, 334, 335, 336 data sets, 203 error of measurement, 160 income and employment, 275, 277, 279–280 matching of data, 207, 336 Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID), 275, 279, 280–281, 284, 288, 289–290, 363 qualitative, general, 357, 360, 362–365 telephone surveys, 55, 56 Long-term welfare users, 9, 163, 341, 371, 400, 419–447 (passim), 451–458 (passim), 462–464, 466, 471, 472, 475, 476, 477, 480–499 (passim) M Mail contacts, 131 address databases, 91 cost factors, 59 incentives, 4–5, 70–71, 72, 82, 102, 106–109, 110–111, 112, 120, 122, 123 in-person interviews and, 89, 91, 92, 102 leaver studies, 404–405 telephone surveys and, 58–59, 66–73 (passim), 82 Males, see Gender factors Marriage and marital status see also Single mothers child well-being, 331, 336, 345 leaver studies, 440 qualitative studies, 356 survey nonresponse, 30, 37, 142–143 survey respondents, error of measurement, 167–168 Matching, administrative data, 6, 7, 41, 49, 60, 93, 132, 134, 141, 143, 153, 154, 167–168, 171, 173, 174, 175, 197, 198, 204–219, 220, 222–223, 224–227, 228–229, 235–238, 241, 252, 261, 264, 268, 276, 287–288, 298, 504 child well-being, 336, 343, 344, 346 gender factors, 210, 212, 216, 229, 252 leaver studies, 402–403, 408, 409, 411, 412, 417–422 longitudinal studies, 207, 336 standards, 211–212, 235–237 statistical analyses, 205(n.2), 206, 209–211, 213–217 Maternal and Child Health Block Grant, 328–329 Maternal and Child Health Bureau, 322 Measurement error, 3, 5, 157–194 administrative data, 277, 292–295, 304–305 alcohol and drug abuse, 177, 184–185 autobiographical information, 160–171 cognitive factors, 157, 159, 160–164, 165, 167–168, 174–175, 176–177, 178–184, 187–189 Current Population Survey (CPS), 158, 168, 169, 175 definitional issues, 158 employment and income data, 7, 164–171, 173–177, 277, 282–290, 292–295, 304–305 gender factors, 173, 176 geographic factors, 167–168 language of question, 158–159, 160–161 survey data, 157–174, 277, 282–290 (passim), 406, 408, 409 AFDC, 171–173 age factors, 167–168, 171, 176 educational attainment, 167–168, 173 race/ethnicity, 164, 171, 173, 176 urban areas, 167–168 Medicaid, 26, 69, 197, 202, 203, 226–227, 249 child well-being, 318, 320, 321, 323, 324–326, 328, 329, 330, 331, 343 leaver studies, 394, 401–402, 409, 432, 435–438, 448, 449, 463 Memory, survey respondents, 3, 5, 159, 161, 162, 163–164, 168, 175, 176–177, 180–184, 404, 408

OCR for page 507
Studies of Welfare Populations: Data Collection and Research Issues Men, see Gender factors Mental health and illness see also Alcohol and drug abuse; Child abuse and neglect qualitative studies, 356 Minimum work requirements, see Work requirements Minorities, see Race/ethnicity Mortality rates, children, 317, 320, 322, 323, 327–328, 341 Moving to Opportunity experiment, 342–343 N National Adult Literacy Survey, 121 National Assessment of Educational Progress, 121 National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, 91 National Change of Address, 91 National Health Interview Survey, 21 National Institute on Aging, 262 National-level studies see also Current Population Survey; National Longitudinal Survey of Youth; Survey of Income and Program Participation data sets, 203 income and employment, 275, 277, 279–290, 311 National Adult Literacy Survey, 121 National Assessment of Educational Progress, 121 National Health Interview Survey, 21 National Survey of America’s Families, 50, 66–67 National Survey of College Graduates, 116 National Survey of Family Growth, 177 Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID), 275, 279, 280–281, 284, 288, 289–290, 363 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), 363 caseload heterogeneity, 482 education, 338 income and employment data, 279, 280, 284, 289, 417, 422–423 National Opinion Research Center (NORC), 4, 87, 88, 93, 96, 97, 98–99, 101, 103 National Survey of America’s Families (NSAF) interview techniques, 66–67 response rate, 50 National Survey of College Graduates, 116 National Survey of Family Growth, 177 Noncash benefits see also Education and training; Food stamps child care services, 203, 204, 205, 206, 226, 249, 319, 367, 368, 377, 416 housing subsidies, 142, 143 transportation assistance, 367 Nonresponse adjustment, 3, 5, 13–54, 62, 86, 129, 130–131, 132, 133, 134–154 see also Response rates imputation and weighting, 25–28, 131, 138–155 leaver studies, 30, 406, 409–412, 413 population-based, 147–152 state government, 132, 138–139, 140, 142–143, 411 Nutrition, 197 children, general, 322 food stamps School Lunch Program, 203 WIC, 203, 204, 214, 249, 318, 320, 324, 343 O Office of Management and Budget, 88, 92 incentives, surveys, 123, 124–125 Old-Age and Survivors Insurance and Disability Insurance, 171 Open-ended questions, 357, 358–359, 375, 376, 380, 381 Organizational factors administrative data, confidentiality issues, 243–254, 258–259, 262–264, 265, 266, 267–268 Institutional Review Boards, 88, 92, 125, 236–237, 266–267 child well-being, services fragmentation, 318 error of measurement, 160 in-person interviews, 98–100, 101, 103 qualitative studies, 381–382

OCR for page 507
Studies of Welfare Populations: Data Collection and Research Issues Outcome data, general, 416 Outcome measures, 276–277 see also Caseload measures; Child well-being; Employment; Income and earnings; Leaver studies; Nutrition; Well-being administrative data confidentiality, 251–252 administrative data linkage, general, 207 caseload heterogeneity, 473, 474 qualitative, 360, 365 TANF administrative data linkage, 205 P Panel studies see also National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY); Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID); Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) incentives, 5, 109–110 qualitative, 360, 363–365, 382 Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID), 275, 279, 280–281, 284, 288, 289–290, 363 Paper and pencil interviewing, 88, 89, 90, 160 Participation, see Program participation; Response rates Penalties, see Sanctions Personal interviews, see In-person interviews Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA), 1, 2, 8, 55, 275, 316–321, 330, 387, 394, 415–416, 431 see also Temporary Assistance for Needy Families; Time limits; Waiver programs; Work requirements Postal surveys, see Mail contacts Privacy, see Confidentiality and privacy Privacy Act, 233, 234–235, 237, 239, 240 Private sector confidentiality issues, researchers, 239, 241, 243–254 contractor monitoring, survey response rates, 55, 81, 94 Program participation, 198, 229, 276, 277, 356, 401–402 see also Caseload measures; Cyclic welfare users; Eligibility; Leaver studies; Short-term welfare users; Stayers; Survey of Income and Program Participation AFDC, 276, 280 leavers, 8–9, 249, 388(n.1), 416, 417–470 (passim) child well-being, administrative data, 324, 333, 337–338, 341, 342, 344–345 continuous welfare leavers, 183, 332, 396–397, 399, 421–422, 441 definitional issues, 479–480, 490, 492, 493, 498–499 income and employment data, 275, 276 leaver studies, 399, 401–402 long-term welfare users, 9, 163, 341, 371, 400, 419–447 (passim), 451–458 (passim), 462–464, 466, 471, 472, 475, 476, 477, 480–499 (passim) PSID, see Panel Study of Income Dynamics Puerto Ricans, 90, 93, 370 Q Qualitative studies, 8, 355–383 AFDC, 375–376 alcohol and drug abuse, 368 attitudes, 357, 378 child abuse and neglect, 356 child well-being, 356, 366, 367 cost, 380–381 employment, 357, 359–361, 366–367, 378, 382 ethnographic studies, 90, 199, 356, 357, 359–360, 365–369, 375, 382 focus groups, 8, 43, 52, 357, 361–362 gender factors, 363–364, 368, 373 single mothers, 366–367, 382 panel studies, 360, 363–365, 382 questionnaires, 337, 358–359, 375–377 race/ethnicity, 363–364, 370, 371, 373, 382 researcher training, 381–382 sampling, 359–361, 362, 369–375, 379–380, 382

OCR for page 507
Studies of Welfare Populations: Data Collection and Research Issues sanctions, 379 single mothers, 366–367, 382 socioeconomic status, 363–364, 375–376 survey data and, 356, 357, 358–359, 377, 378 TANF, 355, 356, 359, 369, 370, 371 urban areas, 359–360, 366, 368, 370–374, 382 Questionnaires computer-assisted personal interviewing, 88, 89, 90, 160, 177–178 computer-assisted telephone interview, 111 Current Population Survey (CPS), 281 error of measurement, 158–159, 160, 170–171, 177–180 language issues, 4, 56–57, 88, 158–159, 170–171, 178–180, 184, 187 leaver studies, 389 open-ended questions, 357, 358–359, 375, 376, 380, 381 qualitative items, 337, 358–359, 375–377 socially sensitive items, 5, 37, 66, 106, 157, 159, 164, 174–175, 177–178, 184–186 standards, interviewing protocols, 93, 96, 186 telephone interviews, 64–66, 68, 78 R Race/ethnicity see also Cultural factors; Language factors administrative data cleaning, 204, 212 administrative data linking, 210, 212, 216, 228–229 black persons, 21, 90, 91, 93, 115, 135, 136, 370, 371, 451, 454, 461, 486, 488, 493 caseload heterogeneity, 482, 486, 488, 489, 493 confidentiality and privacy, 228–229 employment, 21, 24–25, 171, 176, 482, 486, 488, 489, 493 focus groups, 362 Hispanics, 56, 88, 91, 140, 370, 451, 454, 486, 488, 489, 493 immigrants, 88, 90, 93, 366, 454, 457 incentives, surveys, 111, 115, 123 leaver studies, 428, 451, 454, 457, 467 Puerto Ricans, 90, 93, 370 qualitative studies, 363–364, 370, 371, 373, 382 survey respondents, error of measurement, 164, 171, 173, 176 survey response, 21, 24–25, 41, 87, 111, 115, 123, 135–136, 137–138, 140, 142, 143, 144, 146, 151 Recall, survey respondents, see Memory, survey respondents Referral and Monitoring Agencies, 134 Regression analysis, 3, 23–25, 152, 494–496 Reporting requirements administrative data vs survey data, 277 TANF, 275 Response rates, 2, 3, 13–156 see also Incentives, surveys; Nonresponse adjustment administrative data and, 27, 50, 57, 132, 133–134, 142–143, 287–288, 411 error of measurement, 167–168, 171, 173, 174, 175, 182 age factors, 29, 33, 37, 43, 135–136, 137–138, 142 cognitive factors, 37, 41–42 cost factors, 37, 39, 41, 46, 49, 283 cultural factors, 36, 52 demographic factors, 37, 41, 42, 133, 135–140, 142, 143, 145, 146 educational attainment, 24–25, 142, 151 employment information, 21, 22, 24–25, 30, 138, 142, 159, 151 followup strategies, 4, 33, 48, 74, 75, 81, 88, 116, 131 food stamp users, 26 gender factors, 21, 37, 41, 109, 135–136, 137–138, 142, 143, 144, 146, 151 geographic factors, 13, 29–31, 33, 57, 58–59, 87, 91, 133, 142, 143 income and employment data, 296, 297, 410–411 in-person interviews, 3, 4, 31–50, 69, 77, 78, 86–104, 502 tracing and tracking, 61, 74 item nonresponse effects, 111–113, 130 leaver studies, 30, 57, 67–75, 78–79, 86, 92, 107, 404–405, 406, 408–412 locating sample persons, 29–31

OCR for page 507
Studies of Welfare Populations: Data Collection and Research Issues marriage and marital status, 30, 37, 142–143 qualitative studies, 380 race/ethnicity, 21, 24–25, 41, 87, 111, 115, 123, 135–136, 137–138, 140, 142, 143, 144, 146, 151 refusal an refusal conversion, 4, 5, 25, 36, 42, 50, 63, 64, 65, 66–67, 68, 70–71, 75, 99, 408–409 rural areas, 3–4, 31, 32–33, 34, 37, 56–67, 70–75 (passim), 78–83, 87, 93, 141, 404–405, 502 social factors, 30, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 106 socioeconomic status, 37, 41, 50, 133, 142–143, 145 Supplemental Security Income (SSI), 26, 92, 94, 134–136 telephone interviews, 3–4, 31, 32–33, 34, 37, 56–67, 70–75 (passim), 78–83, 87, 93, 141, 404–405, 502 tracing and tracking, surveys, 30, 59–61, 68, 70–72, 73–75 urban areas, 21, 33, 36, 87, 142–143 welfare leavers, 3–4 Rural areas, nonresponse, surveys, 21, 33, 142 S Sampling and sample size, 2, 3, 50, 86, 408–412 see also Caseload measures; Response rates administrative data, child well-being, 346 administrative data confidentiality, 261 administrative data linking, 208 administrative data vs survey data, 277, 278 alcohol and drug abuse, 93, 94 state income tax records, 57–58 Supplemental Security Income, 92, 134 focus groups, 362 incentives, 115 income and employment data, 277–284 (passim), 290, 306 in-person interview surveys, 89–94, 100 leaver studies, 9, 396–397, 401–405, 406, 418 missing data, 3, 5, 129–156; see also Nonresponse adjustment qualitative studies, 359–361, 362, 369–375, 379–380, 382 sample mean, 14–18 telephone surveys, 55–85 Sanctions, 395, 396–397, 399, 472, 448, 451, 454, 457, 461 child well-being and, 336, 343, 399–400 data confidentiality breaches, 238–239, 254–256, 263, 268, 274 income and employment data, 275 qualitative studies, 379 School Lunch Program, 203 Sensitivity analysis, 52 Short-term welfare users, 8, 176, 306, 400, 411, 419–420, 424–445 (passim), 456–459 (passim), 462, 466–470, 471, 472 see also Cyclic welfare users caseload heterogeneity, 474, 480, 483–499 (passim) Single mothers, 1, 317, 320 child abuse, administrative data, 331, 336 income, administrative data, 306–309 income, survey data, 280, 281 leaver studies, 394, 400 qualitative studies, 366–367, 382 SIPP, see Survey of Income and Program Participation Social factors, 4 see also Attitudes; Cultural factors; Language factors; Local-level effects child well-being, 316 confidentiality, sensitive data, 221, 230–231 qualitative studies, 356 survey nonresponse, 30, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 106 survey respondents, error of measurement, 157, 159, 160, 164, 174–175, 184–186 surveys, sensitive questions, 5, 37, 66, 106, 157, 159, 164, 174–175, 177–178, 184–186 Social Security Administration, 276, 288, 323 Social Security numbers, 58, 60, 69, 74, 208, 209, 210, 211, 214–216, 228, 238, 239, 287–288, 298, 343, 402–403

OCR for page 507
Studies of Welfare Populations: Data Collection and Research Issues Socioeconomic status see also Educational attainment; Employment; Income and earnings, general error of measurement, 159, 164–171 qualitative panel studies, 363–364, 375–376 survey nonresponse, 37, 41, 50, 133, 142–143, 145 Soundex, 216–217 Spanish-speaking persons, see Hispanics Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC), 203, 204, 214, 249, 318, 320, 324, 343 SSI, see Supplemental Security Income State data administrative data, 6–7, 56–58, 69, 138–139, 142–143, 218, 222–223, 225–226, 292 child well-being, 318, 327–331 confidentiality issues, 6–7, 222–223, 238–258, 267–268, 271–274 tax records, 57–58, 239, 293, 303–309, 311, 312 block grants, child health, 328–329 child health care, 321, 322 criminal justice system data, 93 juvenile justice system, 7, 75, 328, 341–343, 344, 345 leaver studies, 388, 395–407, 410, 413–431 nonresponse adjustments, 132, 138–139, 140, 142–143, 411 qualitative studies, 382 telephone surveys, 56–58, 69 unemployment insurance records, 7, 69, 132, 203, 225, 249, 276(n.3), 277, 278, 287, 290–312, 403, 406–408, 413, 417–422, 431, 442–445, 451, 462 waivers, 317 State-level issues, other, 2 caseload heterogeneity, 474, 481–482 income and employment data, 275–276, 279, 282, 284, 290–309, 417–422 leaver studies, 388, 389, 390–393, 395–407, 410, 417–422 Stayers, 9, 86, 424–429, 433–446 (passim), 450–458 (passim), 463–464, 466, 468, 471, 472 caseload heterogeneity, 474, 480–499 (passim) Substance abuse, see Alcohol and drug abuse Supplemental Security Income child health status, 323 leaver studies, 427, 431, 451, 454, 460–461, 462 response to surveys, 26, 92, 94, 134–136 Survey data, 1, 3–5, 13–194, 356 see also Cognitive factors, surveys; Incentives, surveys; In-depth interviews; In-person interviews; Interviews; Mail contacts; National-level studies; Questionnaires; Response rates; Sampling and sample size; Telephone surveys; specific surveys administrative data vs, child well-being, 324, 338, 346 error of measurement, 167–168, 171, 173, 174, 175, 182 income and employment, 6, 275–279, 287–288, 289, 295–303, 311 leaver studies, 406–408 taxation, 277, 278, 285–286 AFDC, 276, 278–283 (passim), 289, 300 age factors, 29, 33, 37, 43, 135–136, 137–138, 142, 167–168, 171, 176 best practices, surveys, 3, 9, 55, 56, 68, 72–75, 78, 79, 86 child well-being, 324 employment and income, 6, 275, 276–290, 295–303, 403–408, 409–411 leaver studies, 2, 390–393, 403–412 measurement error, 157–194, 277, 282–290 (passim), 406, 408, 409 AFDC, 171–173 age factors, 167–168, 171, 176 educational attainment, 167–168, 173 missing data, 3, 129–158 paying respondents for participation, 105–128 qualitative studies and, 356, 357, 358–359, 377, 378 socially sensitive items, 5, 37, 66, 106, 157, 159, 164, 174–175, 177–178, 184–186 TANF, 6, 26–27, 134, 170, 278, 280, 282–283, 403, 409, 412 telephone surveys, response rates, 55–85 Survey of Consumer Attitudes, 121

OCR for page 507
Studies of Welfare Populations: Data Collection and Research Issues Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP), 363 incentives for respondents, 109–110 income and employment data, 275, 277, 279, 280–281, 284–290, 310, 311 T TANF, see Temporary Assistance for Needy Families Taxation administrative data vs survey data, 277, 278, 285–286 Earned Income Tax Credits (EITC), 275, 305–306, 446–447 Internal Revenue Service (IRS), 7, 285–286, 302, 303–309, 312 state income tax data, 57–58, 239, 293, 303–309, 311, 312 Technical assistance, administrative data confidentiality, 256–257, 267 Telephone surveys, 31, 32–33, 34, 37, 49, 55–85, 90, 98–100, 101, 103 access to telephones by householders, 87, 98–100, 133 answering machines, 4, 32, 48, 62–63 best practices, 55, 56, 68, 72–75, 78, 79, 86 computer-assisted telephone interview, 111 cost factors, 56, 59–61, 78–83 databases, 30, 57, 58, 59, 60, 69, 70–71 incentives, 4–5, 70–71, 72, 82–83, 106, 108, 110, 111 interviewer training, 63–64, 66, 67, 68 leaver studies, 2, 3–4, 55, 57, 67–75, 78–79, 403–406 longitudinal, 55, 56 mail contacts and, 58–59, 66–73 (passim), 82 questionnaires, 64–66, 68, 78 random digit dialing (RDD) methods, 55–56, 63, 65, 76–78, 82–83, 106, 111 refusal conversion, 4, 5, 25, 36, 42, 50, 63, 64, 65, 66–67, 68, 70–71, 75, 99 response rates, 3–4, 31, 32–33, 34, 37, 56–67, 70–75 (passim), 78–83, 87, 93, 141, 404–405, 502 sampling, 55–85 state government, 56–58, 69 tracing and tracking, 59–61, 68, 70–72, 73–75, 79–81, 98–99 Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF), 1, 220, 275, 387 administrative data, 6, 134, 200, 201, 203, 204, 205, 214, 224, 225, 249, 278, 283, 355, 400–403, 431, 432, 437, 445, 446 administrative data, child well-being, 316–317, 318, 324–325, 326, 327, 331–337 (passim), 343, 344, 346 caseload heterogeneity, 482 child well-being, qualitative data, 356 income and employment data, 275, 276, 278, 280, 282–283, 290, 310, 311–312 leaver studies, 8, 26–27, 72, 170, 205, 249, 356, 359, 388–403 (passim), 409, 412, 431, 432, 437, 445, 446 noncoverage, surveys, 134 program participation, 276, 280 qualitative studies, 355, 356, 359, 369, 370, 371 survey data, general, 278, 280, 282–283, 403, 409, 412 survey nonresponse, 6, 26–27, 134 survey respondents, error of measurement, 170 waivers, 317 Three-City Study, 372–373 Time limits, 1, 6, 395, 472 child well-being, 343 income and employment data, 275 Time-use surveys, 32, 175 Tracing and tracking, 30 cost factors, 30, 59–61, 79–81, 101 followup, 4, 33, 48, 74, 75, 81, 88, 116, 131 in-person surveys, 61, 74, 92–94, 96, 101, 102 telephone surveys, 59–61, 68, 70–72, 73–75, 79–81, 98–99 Training, see Education and training Transportation assistance, 367

OCR for page 507
Studies of Welfare Populations: Data Collection and Research Issues U Unemployment insurance records, 7, 69, 132, 203, 225, 249, 276(n.3), 277, 278, 287, 290–312, 403, 406–408, 413, 417–422, 431, 442–445, 451, 462 Urban areas in-person surveys, 87, 90, 93, 96, 97 leaver studies, 427–472 (passim) nonresponse, surveys, 21, 33, 36, 87, 142–143 qualitative studies, 359–360, 366, 368, 370–374, 382 survey respondent error of measurement, 167–168 Three-City Study, 372–373 tracing and tracking, 75 Urban Change project, 371–372, 375–376 Urban Institute, see National Survey of America’s Families V Vital statistics, 75, 225, 323, 327–331 W Waiver programs, 317 Weighting, 25–28, 131, 138–155, 252, 290 Well-being, general, 389, 394–395, 406 see also Child well-being; Health status and care; Income and earnings, general; Leaver studies administrative data, 197 defined, 389, 394 telephone surveys, 78 Welfare leavers, see Leaver studies Welfare stayers, see Stayers WIC, see Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children Women, see Gender factors Work requirements, 1, 472 child health status and, 321 World Wide Web, see Internet