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186 COAL WASTEIMPOUNDMENTS as an impoundment (M. Day, Arch Coal Company, personal communication, 20011. Slurry from the thickener is pumped directly to each cell. After a cell fills, the discharge point is moved to another cell. Water can be decanted from the surface, or the cells can be allowed to dewater by evaporation. The time required varies according to weather conditions, but the fine refuse is usually dry enough in two or three months to allow coarse refuse to be placed on top and compacted. Subsequent cells can be constructed on top of completed cells to a final height of a few hundred feet. For stability, benches must be constructed every 50 feet to reduce the overall slope angle. The advantage of this method over conventional cross-valley slurry impoundments is that each cell is small and self-contained and can be designed according to the strength properties of the coarse refuse. The main disadvantage in steep terrain is the limited availability of flat land to construct the cells. Another disadvantage is that slurry cell operations are not compatible with a high production rate at the coal preparation plant. The maximum plant capacity for this type of disposal option is about 500 tons per hour (E. Kitts, Summit Engineering, personal communication, 2001~. Even at this rate several cells must be permitted and in varying stages of operation at any one time. A variation of slurry cells is dewatered fine refuse cells. Fine refuse, dewatered mechanically, can be placed in bermed cells. However, the combined costs of dewatering and cell construction prevent this method from frequent use in the coal industry. Combined refuse disposal is another option. Combined refuse refers to fine refuse from the static thickener that has been mechanically dewatered and combined with coarse refuse for disposal on the surface. Depending on the percentage of coarse and fine refuse and the moisture content of each, the moisture content of combined refuse will range from 15 to 20 percent. This material must be mechanically transported, since it is too dry to be pumped. It is deposited in lifts approximately 2 feet thick, then graded with a bulldozer, and compacted to create a stable surface. Once the fill reaches the designed level, it is covered with 4 feet of soil Prepublication Version - Subject to Further Editorial Correction
Representative terms from entire chapter: