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176 COAL WASTE IMPOUNDMENTS Buchanan, D. J., R. Davis, P. J. Jackson, and P. M. Taylor. 1981. Fault location by channel waves seismology in United Kingdom coal seams. Geophysics 46:994-1002. Cambridge, M. 2001. A review of tailings dams failures. Water Power and Dam Construction, May:40-42. Cannon, W. C. 1981. Mine Safety and Health Administration Report of Investigation (Preparation Plant), Impoundment Accident (Failure of Refuse Pile). Preparation Plant (ID No. 15-11878), Eastover Mining Company, Brookside, Harlan County, Kentucky, December 18, 10 pp. Chekan, G. J. 1985. Design of Bulkheads for Controlling Water in Underground Mines, U.S. Bureau of Mines Information Circular 9020,36 pp. Chircop, J., ed. 1999. Facts about Coal. Washington, DC: National Mining Association, 80 pp. Clayton, R. W., and R. H. Stolt. 1981. A born-WKBJ inversion method for acoustic structure beneath Southern California. Geophysical Research Letters 11 :625-627. Cook, J. C. 1965. Seismic mapping of underground cavities using reflection amplitudes. Geophysics 304:527-538. Corwin, R. F. 1990. The self-potential method for environmental and engineering applications. Pp. 127-146 in Stan Ward, ea., Geotechnical and Environmental Geophysics. Tulsa, OK: Society for Exploration Geophysics. Couch, Gordon R. 1991. Advanced Coal Cleaning Technology, IEACR/44. London: IEA Coal Research. Couch, Gordon R. 1998. Adding Value to Coal Cleaning Wastes. London: IEA Coal Research. Courier-Journal (Louisville). 1948. Fire destroys Norwood Hall, U.K. building: Loss put at $200,000; valuable records burn. November 13 :P 1 C. D'Appolonia Consulting Engineers. 1975. Engineering and Design Manual. Coal Refuse Disposal Facilities. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Mining Enforcement and Safety Administration. Dana, P. H. 1999. The Geographer's Craft Project. Department of Geography, University of Colorado at Boulder. Available at: http://www.colorado.edulaeoarachv/ccraft/ notes/coordsys/coordsys_f.html. Accessed August 6, 2001. -,=--~-r--~ =~ Daniels, D. J. 1996. Surface-Penetrating Radar. London: Institute of Electrical Engineering, 320 pp. Daniels, J. J., and W. S. Keys. 1990. Geophysical well logging for evaluating hazardous waste sites. Pp. 163-186 in Geotechnical and Environmental Geophysics, Stan Ward, ed. Tulsa, OK: Society for Exploration Geophysics. Davies, M. P., and T. E. Martin. 2000. Upstream constructed tailings dams a review of the basics. Pp. 3-15 in Tailings and Mine Waste. Rotterdam: Balkan. Davies, M. R. C., A. G. Johnson, and K. P. Williams. 1998. Stabilised mixed colliery spoil in land reclamation. International Journal of Surface Mining, Reclamation, and Environment 12:1-4. Davies, William E., James F. Bailey, and Donavan B. Kelly. 1972. West Virginia's Buffalo Creek Flood: A Study of the Hydrology and Engineering Geology, Circular 667. Reston, VA: U.S. Geological Survey. Davis, J. L., and A. P. Annan. 1989. Ground-penetrating radar for high-resolution mapping of soil and rock stratigraphy. Geophysical Prospecting 37:531-552. Dobecki, T. L., and P. R. Romig. 1985. Geotechnical and groundwater geophysics. Geophysics 50:2621-2636. =

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186 COAL WASTEIMPOUNDMENTS as an impoundment (M. Day, Arch Coal Company, personal communication, 20011. Slurry from the thickener is pumped directly to each cell. After a cell fills, the discharge point is moved to another cell. Water can be decanted from the surface, or the cells can be allowed to dewater by evaporation. The time required varies according to weather conditions, but the fine refuse is usually dry enough in two or three months to allow coarse refuse to be placed on top and compacted. Subsequent cells can be constructed on top of completed cells to a final height of a few hundred feet. For stability, benches must be constructed every 50 feet to reduce the overall slope angle. The advantage of this method over conventional cross-valley slurry impoundments is that each cell is small and self-contained and can be designed according to the strength properties of the coarse refuse. The main disadvantage in steep terrain is the limited availability of flat land to construct the cells. Another disadvantage is that slurry cell operations are not compatible with a high production rate at the coal preparation plant. The maximum plant capacity for this type of disposal option is about 500 tons per hour (E. Kitts, Summit Engineering, personal communication, 2001~. Even at this rate several cells must be permitted and in varying stages of operation at any one time. A variation of slurry cells is dewatered fine refuse cells. Fine refuse, dewatered mechanically, can be placed in bermed cells. However, the combined costs of dewatering and cell construction prevent this method from frequent use in the coal industry. Combined refuse disposal is another option. Combined refuse refers to fine refuse from the static thickener that has been mechanically dewatered and combined with coarse refuse for disposal on the surface. Depending on the percentage of coarse and fine refuse and the moisture content of each, the moisture content of combined refuse will range from 15 to 20 percent. This material must be mechanically transported, since it is too dry to be pumped. It is deposited in lifts approximately 2 feet thick, then graded with a bulldozer, and compacted to create a stable surface. Once the fill reaches the designed level, it is covered with 4 feet of soil Prepublication Version - Subject to Further Editorial Correction