About the Authors

Fred L. Gould, Chair, is William Neal Reynolds professor of entomology at North Carolina State University. He has researched the ecological genetics of pest adaptation to chemical, biological, and cultural control tactics. His major emphasis in recent years has been on developing methodologies for delaying pest adaptation to transgenic crops that produce insecticidal proteins derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis. Dr. Gould participated in the National Research Council Workshop on Pesticide Resistance: Strategies and Tactics for Management (1986) and was a committee member for several NRC reports. He received his Ph.D. in ecology and evolution from the State University of New York at Stony Brook in 1977.

David A. Andow is professor of insect ecology at the University of Minnesota’s Department of Entomology. His research interests include the ecology of beneficial insects for use in biological control in sweet corn, vegetational diversity and conservation of natural enemies, biotechnology science policy, ecology of insect species invasions, host plant resistance in corn, and resistance management of transgenic plants. He is currently a member of the National Research Council’s Committee on Agricultural Biotechnology, Health, and the Environment and has also served on the National Science Foundation’s Graduate Panel on Biological Sciences. Dr. Andow also is editor-in-chief of Environmental Biosafety Research and editor of Ecological Applications. He received his B.S. in biology from Brown University in 1977 and his Ph.D. in ecology from Cornell University in 1982.



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Environmental Effects of Transgenic Plants: The Scope and Adequacy of Regulation About the Authors Fred L. Gould, Chair, is William Neal Reynolds professor of entomology at North Carolina State University. He has researched the ecological genetics of pest adaptation to chemical, biological, and cultural control tactics. His major emphasis in recent years has been on developing methodologies for delaying pest adaptation to transgenic crops that produce insecticidal proteins derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis. Dr. Gould participated in the National Research Council Workshop on Pesticide Resistance: Strategies and Tactics for Management (1986) and was a committee member for several NRC reports. He received his Ph.D. in ecology and evolution from the State University of New York at Stony Brook in 1977. David A. Andow is professor of insect ecology at the University of Minnesota’s Department of Entomology. His research interests include the ecology of beneficial insects for use in biological control in sweet corn, vegetational diversity and conservation of natural enemies, biotechnology science policy, ecology of insect species invasions, host plant resistance in corn, and resistance management of transgenic plants. He is currently a member of the National Research Council’s Committee on Agricultural Biotechnology, Health, and the Environment and has also served on the National Science Foundation’s Graduate Panel on Biological Sciences. Dr. Andow also is editor-in-chief of Environmental Biosafety Research and editor of Ecological Applications. He received his B.S. in biology from Brown University in 1977 and his Ph.D. in ecology from Cornell University in 1982.

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Environmental Effects of Transgenic Plants: The Scope and Adequacy of Regulation Bernd Blossey is an assistant professor and director of the Biological Control of Non-Indigenous Plant Species Program of the Department of Natural Resources at Cornell University. His work involves the theoretical and practical aspects of biological weed control, including insect-plant interactions, factors underlying successful invasion by nonindigenous plants, and the development of field- and lab-rearing techniques for mass production of biocontrol agents. His primary efforts have centered on the well-known invasive plant, purple loosestrife. He also has recently initiated new biocontrol programs targeting Phragmites austalis and Alliaria petiolata. Dr. Blossey received his Ph.D. in zoology/ecology from the University of Kiel. Ignacio Chapela is assistant professor in the College of Natural Resources, University of California, Berkeley. His current research includes the symbiosis between leaf-cutter ants and their cultivated fungi, the role of fungi in the balance between forest health and disease, and the role of fungi in sustainable management of the diverse and delicate environments of local communities in Southern Mexico. He recently served as faculty chair and vice-chair for the College of Natural Resources at UC Berkeley. He is founder and scientific director of the Mycological Facility in Oaxaca, Mexico. Dr. Chapela received his B.Sc. in biology from the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México in 1984 and his Ph.D. in fungal ecology from the University of Wales in 1987. Norman C. Ellstrand is professor of genetics in the Department of Botany and Plant Sciences at the University of California, Riverside. His research focuses on applied plant population genetics with current emphasis on the consequences of gene flow from domesticated plants to their wild relatives. Dr. Ellstrand has participated in a number of government and National Research Council meetings concerning genetically modified organisms including the NRC planning meeting on technology and intellectual property challenges associated with genetically modified seeds. He received his Ph.D. from the University of Texas, Austin, in 1978. Nicholas Jordan is an associate professor in the Department of Agronomy and Plant Genetics at the University of Minnesota. His current studies explore weed competitive cultivars, ecology and evolution of herbicide-resistant weeds, and integrated weed management approaches focusing on interactions between weeds and soil biota. He is noted for his efforts in developing new working relationships between scientists and farmers, crop consultants, and other agriculturalists to increase the human resources available to develop more durable, effective, and more environmentally sound weed management methods. Dr. Jordan received his B.A.

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Environmental Effects of Transgenic Plants: The Scope and Adequacy of Regulation in biology from Harvard College in 1979 and his Ph.D. in botany and genetics from Duke University in 1986. Kendall R. Lamkey is a research geneticist with the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Agricultural Research Service and a professor of agronomy in the Department of Agronomy at Iowa State University. His research focuses specifically on the origin, maintenance, and utilization of genetic variation for important agronomic and grain quality traits in maize. Currently, he is technical editor for the journal Crop Science and associate editor for the Journal of Heredity. Dr. Lamkey received his B.S. in agronomy in 1980 and his M.S. in plant breeding in 1982, both from the University of Illinois, and his Ph.D. in plant breeding from Iowa State University in 1985. Brian A. Larkins is the Porterfield professor of plant sciences, and professor of molecular and cellular biology in the plant sciences and molecular and cellular biology departments at the University of Arizona, Tucson. He has spent over 20 years researching the regulation of seed development and the synthesis of seed storage proteins. He has particularly focused on identifying the storage proteins that contribute the majority of essential amino acids and on developing genetic strategies to increase their content. In addition to being elected a member of the National Academy of Sciences in 1996, Dr. Larkins has received numerous awards, honors, and scholarships from several universities and the American Society of Plant Physiologists. He received his B.S. in biology in 1969 and his Ph.D. in botany in 1974 from the University of Nebraska. Deborah K. Letourneau is professor of environmental studies at the University of California, Santa Cruz. She studies tritrophic interactions in a variety of contexts and communities, including tropical rain forests in Costa Rica and Papua New Guinea, subsistence farmers’ fields in Africa, and tomato agroecosystems in California. Her most recent publications include issues examining the ecological and human health effects of genetically modified organisms and top-down and bottom-up forces in tropical forest communities. Prior to joining the University of California faculty in 1987, Dr. Letourneau was a member of the resource faculty and co-coordinator of the Organization for Tropical Studies at Duke University. She received her B.S. in zoology in 1976 and her M.S. in biology in 1978 from the University of Michigan and her Ph.D. in entomology from the University of California, Berkeley in 1983. Alan McHughen is professor and senior research scientist in the Crop Development Centre, College of Agriculture, University of Saskatchewan.

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Environmental Effects of Transgenic Plants: The Scope and Adequacy of Regulation He has helped develop Canada’s regulations covering the environmental release of plants with novel traits. He has first-hand experience developing internationally approved commercial crop varieties using both conventional breeding and genetic engineering techniques. He also is an educator and consumer advocate, helping nonscientists understand the environmental and health impacts of both modern and traditional methods of food production. Currently, McHughen is chair of the International Advisory Committee for the International Symposia on the Biosafety of Genetically Modified Organisms. He received his B.Sc. from Dalhousie University in 1976 and his D.Phil. from Oxford University in 1979. Ronald L. Phillips is regent’s professor and McKnight presidential chair in genomics at the University of Minnesota. Throughout this career Dr. Phillips has coupled the techniques of classical cytogenetics with research advances in tissue culture and molecular biology to enhance understanding of basic biology of cereal crops and to improve these species by innovative methods. His research program at the University of Minnesota was one of the early programs in modern plant biotechnology related to agriculture. He is a founding member and former director of the Plant Molecular Genetics Institute of the University of Minnesota. Dr. Phillips served as chief scientist of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (1996–1998) in charge of the National Research Initiative Competitive Grants Program. In 1991 he was elected a member of the National Academy of Sciences. He also served as both a member and chair of the National Research Council’s Scientific Council to the Plant Gene Expression Center from 1985 to 1993. Dr. Phillips currently serves as president of the Crop Science Society of America. He earned his B.S. and M.S. degrees from Purdue University and his Ph.D. from the University of Minnesota. Paul B. Thompson is the Joyce and Edward E. Brewer distinguished professor of philosophy and director of the Center for Food Animal Productivity and Well-Being at Purdue University. He has published extensively on the ethics, policies, perceptions, and impact of agriculture and biotechnology for both the agricultural communities and the American public. Dr. Thompson received his B.A. in philosophy from Emory University in 1974 and his M.A. (1979) and Ph.D. (1980) in philosophy from the State University of New York at Stony Brook.