historical perspectives, 8, 19, 72-74, 83, 101, 120, 167, 173, 174, 190

legislative mandates,

Federal Noxious Weed Act, 108

Federal Plant Pest Act, 1, 4, 49, 50, 81-87, 101-102, 234, 253-254

Federal Plant Quarantine Act, 1, 4, 49, 50, 87, 101-102, 234, 253-254

Plant Protection Act (proposed), 15- 16, 101, 236, 253-254

monarch butterfly protection, Bt, 72-74

non-target species, 177-178, 179, 180-182, 296

petitions for deregulation status, 129-130, 140-141, 154-156, 157, 161, 163, 188, 189

notification requirements, 2, 9, 10, 13, 51, 87, 104, 105, 107-110, 112, 121-123, 167-181 (passim), 190, 296

field testing, 108, 109-110, 122-123

pharmaceuticals, 9, 108, 180

pollen, 132-133, 181

standards, 109, 122

time factors, 9, 51, 108, 169, 173, 174

permitting, 9-10, 13, 110-111, 112, 123-126, 168, 169, 170, 172, 173, 175, 178, 179, 183, 190

field testing, 131, 132, 133-135, 150-151, 183-184

pharmaceuticals, 9-10, 110, 123-126

pollen, 124-125, 188

spatial factors, 124-125, 131, 179, 188-189

time factors, 11, 132

petitions for nonregulation status, 8, 9, 10, 13, 50, 73, 102, 104, 111-118, 168, 169, 170, 175-176, 183-190, 233, 235, 252, 296

case studies, 126-166, 167

extension of determination of, 104, 118-120

field testing, 131, 132, 133-135, 150-151, 183-184

hybridization, 131, 132, 133-135, 150-151, 183-184

non-target species, 129-130, 140-141, 154-156, 157, 161, 163, 188, 189

pharmaceuticals,

notification process, 9, 108, 180

permitting, 9-10, 110, 123-126

postcommercialization testing and monitoring, 12-14, 192-219

theoretical issues, 193-196

public input, 9-10, 12, 104, 105, 118, 127, 135, 165-166, 168-175, 182, 188, 191, 212

reference scenarios, 90, 91, 122-123

risk analysis, general, 6, 60, 81-87, 172, 252-254

spatial factors, 8-9, 13, 103-104, 150, 176, 179, 184, 191

permitting process, 124-125, 131, 179, 188-189

staffing, 12, 182, 187, 191, 205-207

standards, 109, 122, 187

time factors,

notification and field testing, 9, 51, 108, 169, 173, 174

permitting, 111, 132

regulation, other, 102, 118-120, 135, 169

viruses, 104, 106, 109, 113-114, 116-117, 118, 126-135, 152, 159-160, 187

weediness, 11, 104, 105, 113, 122, 130-133, 139-140, 142, 147-150, 160, 165, 178-179

weeds, general, 104, 105, 113, 122, 156-157

wild relatives, 129-135 (passim), 149-153, 157, 160, 163

Animal feed, 136, 181, 307

Antibiotic resistance, 44, 89, 119, 125, 145-146

Antibiotics, other, 144, 145, 228

Avidin, 9, 180-181

B

Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), 7, 38, 39, 70-75, 184, 196, 233-234, 301

corn, 7, 8, 38-39, 70-75, 125, 144-158, 167, 179, 188, 221, 234-235

EPA role, 73-74, 157, 235

monarch butterflies, effects on, 71-75, 197, 216

reference scenarios, 87, 91-92, 93-94, 96-98

cotton, 9, 131, 158-166, 184, 221, 234

EPA role, 9, 159, 160-161, 165, 184

EPA, general, 233-234



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