genomics, 145, 159

international perspectives, 163-164

pollen, 7, 96, 150, 156, 165

poplars, 69, 92, 145, 184, 222-223

reference scenarios, 87, 89, 91-92, 93-94, 96-98

rice, 70, 71

Backcrossing, 41-42, 43, 47, 98

Bermudagrass, 121-123

Biodiversity, general, 18, 210

see also Endangered and threatened species; Invasive species; Landscape effects

Convention on Biodiversity, 65, 248

edge effects, 22, 27

hazard identification, 76

National Resources Inventory, 200

outflows from agroecosystems, 24, 25, 26

trophic cascade, 25

Biological indicators, see Ecological indicators

Biosafety Protocol of the Convention on Biodiversity, 65, 248, 249

Biotechnology, Biologics, and Environmental Protection unit (BBEP), 1, 8, 12, 50, 60, 101, 187, 190

Biotechnology Risk Assessment and Risk Management Program, 13, 198

Biotechnology Risk Assessment Research Grant Program (BRARGP), 197, 255

Birds, 22, 201, 202

invasive species, 207

outflows from agroecosystems, 24, 26

Bt, see Bacillus thuringiensis

C

Canada, 26, 56-57

Canola, 79-80, 86, 165

Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety, 248, 249

Case studies, 121-166, 178

APHIS, 121-166, 177-178, 187, 189

EPA, 157, 159, 160-161, 165

Office of Science and Technology Policy, 178

Chemicals, 7, 144-145

see also Fertilizer; Herbicides; Pesticides mutagenesis induced by, 42

Climate, 24, 30, 34-35, 142, 203, 222, 223, 230, 231

see also Precipitation; Weather

bermudagrass, 120-123

drought, 37, 64, 121-123, 230, 231-232, 233-234

Coastal zones, nitrogen deposition, 24, 25-26

Comparative risk approach, see Reference scenarios/comparative risk approach

Confidential business information (CBI)

APHIS oversight, 11-12, 177

Office of Science and Technology Policy, 178

Conservation issues, see Biodiversity; Ecological indicators; Endangered and threatened species; Landscape effects

Conservation Reserve Program, 200

Convention on Biodiversity, 65, 248, 249

Conventional crops, general, 142, 256

insect resistance, 144

reference scenarios, 87-88, 91-92

virus-resistant squash, 127

Conventionally improved crops, 32, 37-43, 48, 49, 77, 78

APHIS regulation, 4, 20, 78, 80, 82, 251

insect resistance, 37, 38, 39, 41, 43, 144-145, 153

mutagenesis, 37, 40-43

regulatory issues, general, 5, 20, 29, 62, 63, 79, 82, 83-86, 142, 143

Coordinated Framework for the Regulation of Biotechnology, 1, 19, 20, 49-50, 101, 171, 246, 289

Corn, 30, 31, 33, 38-39, 123-126, 179, 224- 225, 301, 303

avidin, 9, 180-181

Bt, 7, 8, 38-39, 70-75, 125, 144-158, 188, 234-235

monarch butterflies, effects on, 71-75, 197, 216

reference scenarios, 87, 91-92, 93-94, 96-98

hybridization, 41-42, 149-153, 157

whole-plant hazards, 68-69

Cost and cost-benefit factors

see also Funding

chronic illness, 239

crop damage, 222



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